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Greater Bundahishn

Translation by Behramgore Tehmuras Anklesaria.

This digital edition 2002 by Joseph H. Peterson. Last updated: Feb 21, 2022. License CC-BY 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Comments in {} added by JHP, mainly to facilitate searches. Punctuation and spelling has also been normalized to conform with other texts in this series.



[0. As regards the misdeeds of Ahriman and the devs.

1. One says in the Scripture, “We can ascribe to the winter the harm which the Evil Spirit has produced unto the creation of Ohrmazd. His astral body is that of the frog, the vicious crab. He neither thinks of, nor speaks, nor works the weal of the creatures of Ohrmazd. His work of unforgiveness and destruction is this that he will destroy the creatures whom Ohrmazd increases. And his eye lashes will not refrain from inflicting calamity unto the creatures."

2. As one says, “From the time when I created the creatures, I who am Ohrmazd have not sat at ease in order to protect my own creatures, nor too has he, the Evil Spirit, for the sake of producing harm unto the creatures." 3. And with sorcerous smiting he instigates mankind to friendship for himself and unfriendliness to Ohrmazd, so that they may forsake the Revelation of Ohrmazd, and pursue that of Ahriman. He instills this into the minds of men that this is not the Revelation of Ohrmazd, and they ought not to be steadfast to it. 4. He who will give something to the man who has laid down this aphorism as a tenet, will propitiate the Evil Spirit, that is, he shall have delighted him.

5. The work of Akoman is this, to produce vile thoughts and unpeacefulness into the creatures.

6. The work of the dev Indra is this that he freezes the minds of the creatures from practicing righteousness just like much frozen snow. He instills this into the minds of men that they ought not to have the sacred shirt and thread girdle {sudre and kusti}.

7. The work of the dev Saurva, that is the leader of the devs, is this: evil authority, oppression, unlawfulness, and the production of want.

8. The work of the dev Naonhaithya is this that he produces discontent among the creatures.

9. As one says, “He who will give something to those men whose creed is this that they ought not to have the sacred shirt and thread girdle {sudre and kusti}, shall have propitiated Indra, [237] Saurva and Naonhaithya."

10. The dev Taurvi is she who mingles poison into the vegetable creations. 11. As one says, “Taurvi the smiter, and Zairi the venom maker."

12. All these six one calls arch-devs; the rest are their cooperators and confrêres.

13. One says this too, “'He who] will give [something] to the man who [says, “We ought to put on one boot,"] [has laid down] walking with one boot as [law, he therefore] shall have propitiated the druj Taurvi."'

14. The dev Taromaiti [is she who] produces scornfulness.

15. The dev Mithaokhta is the druj of scepticism.

16. The dev Araska is the druj of revengefulness and of the evil eye.

17. They are the combatants of the dev Aeshma. 18. As one says, “The seven powers which Aeshma produced wherewith it would destroy the creatures". 19. And the magnates and heroes shall in their own times destroy six out of those seven powers, and one will remain. And there where falsehood arrives, jealousy will be the guest. [And there where jealousy is the guest,] anger will fix its establishment. There where anger has its establishment, it will destroy many creatures, and will effect much ravage. 20. And of all the ills unto the creatures of Ohrmazd, anger produced the most; those magnates and heroes became the most [insignificant], owing to the misdeeds of anger. 21. As one says, “Anger of the cruel penalty;" [for of all the penalties] it produces the most.

22. The dev Vizaresh is that which contends with the souls of departed men, during those three nights, when they are on earth, brings fear and smiting on to them, and sits at the gate of the wicked existence.

23. And the dev Uta is that which delivers a message invisibly, when men sit to answer the call of nature, or when they eat food, saying, “Do you chatter [and do off” -- that is, do you eat chattering, and] do you answer the call of nature [239] [chattering], and do you make water chattering, so [that] you may not attain [to the] best existence.

[24. The dev Akatash is the druj of perverseness, which makes the creatures averse from righteous objects.

25. As one says, “He who gives something to that person who perverts men from righteous objects, shall have propitiated the dev Akatash. He who gives something to that person whose opinion is this that one ought not to abide by the rule, shall have propitiated the dev Aeshma. He who gives something to that person whose opinion is such, who says that one ought not to have the weapon for killing the snake, shall have propitiated Ahriman with all the devs." 26. One says this of him who does not kill the noxious creatures when he sees them. 27. The weapon for killing the snake is a stick, and a piece of leather is fitted at its end. It is manifest that everyone of the good religion must certainly have one, that they may strike and kill noxious creatures and sinners therewith, and be the more righteous.

28. The dev decrepitude is that which prepares the evil fall, which they call old age.

29. Cheshma is that which causes earthquake and makes whirlwind too, and proceeds to the opposition of the cloud.

30. The dev Varun is that which practises unnatural lust. 31. As one says, “The Varun without the path."

32. The dev Bushasp is that which practises slothfulness, and Sij is the druj which causes destruction, and the dev Niyaz is that which causes want.

33. The dev greed {Az} is that which swallows things; when, owing to privation, nothing is obtained, it devours from its person. It is a deception which will not pile up, and will not be sated, when the entire wealth of the world is given to it. 34. As one says, “The eye of the covetous is an abode which has no boundaries."

35. Parsimony {Pinih} is that dev which makes a hoard; it neither enjoys nor gives it to any.

36. This too one says, “The strength of the dev greed {Az} is owing to that person who is not content with [241] his own wife, and abducts even those of others."

37. The dev Nas is that which causes the pollution and contamination which they call ‘nasa.'

38. The deceiver {Freptar} dev is that which distracts mankind.

39. The slanderer {Spazg} dev is that which brings and carries the talk of a thing which is nonexistent by similitude. It speaks and shows in such wise that men smite and destroy themselves by themselves.

40. The dev Anast is that which utters falsehood.

41. The dev Aghash is that druj of the malignant eye {evil eye} which kills man with the eye.

42. The dev But is that which they worship in India; its light is lodged in such idols as Butasp worshipped. {Buddha, Buddhism?}

43. Astwihad is the evil wind which snatches life. 44. As one says, “It shall destroy when Bushasp will rub its hand on man, when ‘tap' will cast its shadow on him, when Aghash will see him with the eye; they name it death."

45. The dev of the malignant vision is that which will spoil the object which men see, and do not say, “In the name of God."

46. Many devs and drujs are cooperators with each one of these, the declaration of whose details is long. One mentions even nameless devs in large number: those devs having the strength of pestilence and disease, producers of pain and grief, possessing their own weapons, of the seed of darkness, and bringers of stench, defilement, and vileness, who are many, large in number, and of immense details, a portion of them all is mingled in the bodies of men, and their tokens are clear to men.

47. The dev Apaush and the dev Spenjaghra are those that are at war with the producers of rain.

48. The law of the Evil Spirit is wickedness, his religion is sorcery, his weapon is deceit, and his work is concealment of nature. His wish is this, “Do not ask me, do not know me; for if you question and know me, you will not follow me." 49. This too one says, "The yell of the Evil [243] Spirit resembles thunder, the cry too of a six year old crane, the cry too of an ass, and the cry too of a righteous man who vociferates when one smites him against his wish.

50. The dev Kunda is that which is the steed of sorcerers.

51. Various new devs are those who spring on to the creatures, ever and anon, out of the sins which they commit.

52. Even these planets which move in large number in the celestial sphere are at war. Their chieftains are these seven planets, the head and the tail of the Dragon, and the tailed Mushparik, which are ten. They have corrupted with all this vileness these ten material creations, which are the sky, water, earth, plant, beneficent animal, metal, wind, light, aether {=atash, i.e. fire}, and man. And through them the light approaches the waters, the plants, and other creations, and through the waters and the plants to the animate beings. As calamity, pain, disease, death, and other harms and corruptions ever come to these ten creations, which are material, through those ten deceiving forces, these that I have enumerated with the help of the strategic Ahrimanean essences, that are cold, dry, hungry, dark, and stinking, manifest in the zenith.

53. As regards the wicked existence one says, “It is darkness that one can grasp with the hand, and stench which one can cut with the knife." And if they inflict punishment on a thousand men within a span, they imagine that they are alone. That one punishment of loneliness is very bad for them. 54. Its connection is with the seven planets, of which there is one with intense cold such as Saturn, and there is one with intense heat such as Mars. 55. Their food is stinking, and plenty of offal of the frog, and other harmful objects.


0. As regards the body of mankind being an illustration of the material world.

1. One says in the Scripture, “The body of mankind [245] is an illustration of the material world." 2. For the world is made out of a drop of water. As one says, “This entire creation was at first a drop of water." Men too are coming into being out of a drop of water.

3. Just as the width of the world is equal to its length, man's too is likewise. 4. And every person has his own length and width, whose skin is like the sky, flesh like the earth, bony skeleton like the mountain, veins like rivers, blood within the body like the water in the sea, stomach like the ocean, hair like the plants, there where the hair have grown thick like the forest, essences of the body like the metals, innate wisdom like humanity, wisdom heard with the ears like the animal kingdom, heat like aether {fire}, implements of hands and feet like the seven planets and the twelve constellations, belly which assimilates food like the cloud and the fire Vazisht, inhalation and exhalation of the breath like the wind, liver like the ocean Frakhvkart, the original home of summer, spleen like the direction of the north whence is the advent of winter, heart a wave of the undefiled Aredvisur, -- for illness does not reach the heart at all unless when death comes to it, -- crown of the head and brain like the unapproachable lights, head like the abode of harmony, two eyes like the moon and the sun, teeth like the stars, of the two ears, which are like two windows of the abode of harmony, it is manifest that it is thereon that a voice is always coming with delightful singing, wherefrom the soul receives music and joy, of the two nostrils, which are like the two bellows of the abode of harmony, one says that therethrough fragrant scents of various kinds always blow within, wherefrom the soul receives good perfume and delight, mouth the gate which leads to the abode of harmony, wherethrough various kinds of tastes always enter, wherefrom the soul receives fatness and fullness, fundament like the wicked existence underneath the earth, -- the fundament is the lowermost base of the body, -- soul like Ohrmazd, and intelligence, intellect, feeling, thinking, knowing, and explication like the six Beneficent Immortals {Amesha Spentas} that are in the presence of Ohrmazd, and other powers of growth [247] in the body like the other spiritual Yazads.

5. Just as the seat of Ohrmazd is in the unapproachable lights, his access is to the abode of harmony, and his energy has reached everywhere, the seat of the soul too is in the pith of the head, its home is in the heart, and its energy has reached the entire body.

6. Just as the wind comes to the world from various directions, the wind and respiration come to man too, through one single nostril, from midday till midnight, and they come through the other side from midnight till midday.

7. Just as the sun is brighter than the moon, men too see better with one of the eyes.

8. Just as when the water of the ocean Frakhvkart goes over to the lofty Hukar, and becomes purified, a portion pours back into the ocean, and a portion also reaches the whole earth by evaporation, so too as the abode of man's blood within the body is in the liver, it comes over every morning from the liver to the pith of the head, and circulates in the brain, a portion pours back into the liver, and a portion is allowed in the veins, wherefrom the whole body has strength, and the wetness of the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth arises from the froth which is in the head.

9. Just as the breast of the world is facing the south, its right hand is the west, all the luminaries come from the east, its full cloud comes from the west, which is the original home of the clouds, the liver of man too, as the original home of the blood, is towards the right hand.

10. Just as in the world man performs sins and good deeds, and when he dies they reckon his sins and good deeds, whoever is pure goes to the abode of harmony, and they cast whoever is wicked into the wicked existence, in the same manner, of the food which even men eat, whatever is pure goes to the pith of the head, becomes clean blood, and reaches the liver, and the entire body has vigour therefrom, whatever is much mingled goes from the belly to the intestines, and which they cast out through the bowels, which is the semblance of the wicked existence.

[249] 11. Just as when the druj becomes violent, the production of rain leaves immense cold into the water, and congeals it, and it does not rain, or the drops congealing it rains snow, and injury and harm befall the creatures, when man also eats more food than what he can digest owing to its remaining unassimilated, it causes coagulation of the drops, and the unassimilated matter comes out, and injury and harm of the body arise therefrom.

12. Just as Ohrmazd is at the height and Ahriman in the abyss, and therefore being of equal vigour they are at strife with each other in the world, man also has two winds within the body: one, the wind of life, which is of the soul, whose seat is in the pith of the head, whose essence is warm and moist, and motion towards the navel; the other, the wind of sin, whose essence is cold and dry, whose seat is in the anus, and motion towards the gall bladder.

13. Just as when the devs obstruct the passages of the wind in the world, earthquake occurs, when the wind of sin remains in the veins of man, becomes violent, and does not give passage to the wind of life, that spot too catches disease and causes the body to shiver and tremble. 14. There are other growths of sin in the body also, just like other dev-ik growths that are in the world.

15. Just as the light of the Revelation of Mazda worship is adored in the world like the girdle {kusti} of three folds within four knots, inlaid with stars and spiritually molded within the celestial sphere, so that it does not mingle darkness, contamination, and other defilement with the Supreme worker, men too have, by similitude, the girdle on the waist, of three folds within four knots, such as good thought, good word, and good deed manifest within the four essences of humanity, whereby there is purity in the mingled state.

16. Just as men perform sins and good deeds in the world, and when men are dead they adjudge their souls, they consign the one deserving the best existence to the best existence, and the one deserving the wicked existence to the wicked existence, of the food too, which men eat in the world, [251] whatever is less liable to putrefaction transforms into pure blood, and goes into the veins of the body, and whatever is more liable to putrefaction is secreted into the intestines and is evacuated from the bowels.

17. Terrestrial and celestial objects are likewise grouped in four lots of seven. 18. As one says, “The seven invisible and inconceivable that are Ohrmazd and the six primary beneficent immortals {Amesha Spentas}, the seven visible and inconceivable that are such as the sun, the moon, the stars, the cloud, the air, the fire Vazisht, and the aethereal beings {fires} which go over the roads and smite the druj, the seven invisible and conceivable that are such as the unapproachable lights, the seat of the beneficent immortals, the abode of harmony, the best existence, the undefilable celestial sphere, the defilable celestial sphere, and the sky, and the seven visible and conceivable that are such as earth, water, plant, beneficent animal, metal, contemplation, and explication. Men too have seven invisible and inconceivable parts that are two ears, two eyes, two nostrils, and the mouth, seven visible and inconceivable that are the liver, the lungs, the gall bladder, the round heart, the intestines, the spleen, and the kidneys; seven invisible and conceivable that are ...... and exist materially......"

19. Desolate places are more than prosperous abodes for this purpose that when destruction comes to them from the spiritual Yazads, darkness, cold, and other dev-ik agents hie to desolate places with dismay, and turn away from offering injury to the creatures. For if the whole world had been a habitation they would not have desisted from injury to the creatures, even if they had been severely beaten and defeated, for they could not have gone out.

20. The illustrations are of summer and winter, of darkness and light. For darkness flees from there where is light to the place where there is no light. And when summer enters from the southern quarter, winter hies back to the northern quarter, and when winter enters, summer returns to the south, its original home. And when summer is very vigorous, [253] winter is very feeble, and when winter is very severe, summer is very feeble. Of man too it is likewise: when the liver is very strong, the spleen is very weak, and when the spleen is very strong, the liver is very weak.

21. The desire and bent of the devs are there where the regions Wourubareshti and Wourujareshti are, and from thence they come in and go out.

22. This too is manifest, that every part of man belongs to a spirit. Life, every light along with life, intelligence, conscience, and others of this class belong to Ohrmazd, flesh belongs to Vohuman, veins and fat to Ardwahisht, the bony frame to Shahrewar, the pith to Spandarmad, the blood to Hordad, and the hair to Amurdad.]


0. As regards [the spiritual chieftainship of the region]s.

1. One says in the Scripture, “Those six spiritual chieftainships," -- [so that ] each one [of the regions] has a spiritual chief. --

2. As the chief of Arezahi is Ashavanhu Bivandanha, the chief of Sawahi is he Jaro-danhu Pairishtira, the chief of Fradadhafshu is Spiti Uspasnu, [the chief of Widadhafshu is Erezraspa Uspasnu,] the chief of Wourubareshti is Hvaspa, and the chief of Wourujareshti is Chathwaraspa.

3. Zartosht is the spiritual chief of [this] region of Xwaniratha, and also of all the righteous existence. [Verily, all the religious chieftainship is due to Zartosht,] that is, they all accepted the Revelation from Zartosht.

4. And in the region of Xwaniratha there are many places, the roads to which are closed by spiritual strength, in this evil time and severe fighting of the adversary; they are called the connected parts of Xwaniratha.

5. Similar to those, there are other regions, such as Kangdez, the land of Sikistan, the plain of the Tajis {Arabia}, the [255] plain of Peshyansi, the river Naevatak, Eranwej, the enclosure which Jam {Jamshed} prepared, and Kashmir, within [each one] of which an immortal spiritual chief holds sway. 6. As one says, “Peshotan son of Vishtasp, whom they also call ‘Of four abodes’ is in the resplendent Kangdez. Aghraeratha son of Pashang is in the land of Sikistan, and they call him Gopatsha. Fradhakhshti son of Khunbya is in the plain of Peshyansi; he is called ‘son of Khunbya’ for this reason, because they had brought him up in a jar, owing to the fear of Aeshma. [Ashem-yahmai-ushta is in a place which they call the river Naevatak.] The Tree opposed to harm is in Eranwej; Urvatatnar son of Zartosht is in the Enclosure which Jam {Jamshed} prepared.”

7. Of these too such as Narsahi son of Vivanghan, Tus son of Notar, Giv son of Gutarz, Bairazd the wrestler, Ashavazdanhu son of Pourudhakhshti, one says that they are immortal; they will all come on to the help of Soshant during the performance of the renovation of the universe {Frashegird}.

8. As regards Sam they say, “He was immortal. At the time when he scorned the Revelation of Mazda worship, a Turk who was named Nain slew him with an arrow when he was asleep. There, in the plain of Peshyansi, the vicious lethargy was brought over him. He is lying in the midst of heat, and snow has settled above him. A myriad farohars of the righteous are his guards for this purpose that when Azi Dahak {Zohak} shall become unfettered he may arise and smite him."

9. One says [of] Dahak {Zohak} whom they also call Bevarasp, “When Faridoon captured him, it was not possible to kill him. He then imprisoned him [in] Mount Damavand. When he shall become unfettered, Sam will arise, will smite [the mace], and kill him."

10. Kangdez is in the direction of the east, above the ocean Frakhvkart at many frasangs towards that direction.

11. "The plain of Peshyansi is in Kavulastan. As one says, 'The summit that is most visible in Kavulastan, that is, [the plain of] Peshyansi, and thither; there is no heat on the higher elevation."

[257] 12. Eranvej is on the side of Atarpatakan.

13. The land of Sikistan is on the road [from] Turkastan to Chinastan, [far] in the direction of the north.

14. [The Enclosure which] Jam {Jamshed} prepared is, as a place of renown, in the middle of Pars. They thus say, "Jam kart is underneath Mount Jamakan.”

15. Kashmir is in Hindustan.


Lac. 27 [0. As regards the bridge of the path of selection {Chinwad}, and the souls of the departed

1. One says in the Scripture, "A peak, which is of the height of a hundred men, in the middle of the world, which they call the peak of the Daiti, is the fulcrum of the balance of the Yazad Rashn. One scale is on the base of Mount Alburz in the northern direction; one scale is on the summit of Mount Alburz in the southern direction, and the middle rests upon that peak of the Daiti. 2. In that middle place, is a floor sharp like the sword, the height, length, and width of which are nine spears. 3. And thither remain the spiritual Yazads who spiritually purify the souls of the righteous. There is a spiritual dog at the top of that bridge, and the wicked existence is underneath that bridge."

4. When men pass away, the soul sits for three nights near unto the body, there where its head was, and sees much annoyance during those nights from the dev Vizaresh and its coworkers, and turns the back entirely towards the fire which is kindled there. 5. Therefore those three nights up to day, they keep the fire kindling, there where its head was. And if the fire is not there, it turns its back towards the Warharan fire or towards the ever kindling fires. 6. During those three nights, when tearing and disintegration come to the body, it appears as uncomfortable to it as to a man when they demolish his house. 7. Those three days, the soul, which is [259] near the headrest of the body, sits with the hope, "Maybe if this blood runs, and the wind enters the body, it may be possible for me to return to life!"

8. And then on the third night during the dawn, if it be the soul of the righteous, it says this, "Happy is he, through whose happiness is the happiness of anyone whatsoever," that is, I am happy owing to my happiness, every person is happy. "May Ohrmazd give me sovereignty at will!" 9. And if it is the soul of the wicked it says this, "That body, life, and astral body, with whom I have moved with movement, now where shall I go from hence?" 10. And if it is the soul of the righteous, immediately, on that utterance, a breeze comes forward that is good, the most beseeming, the most odorous, and the most triumphant of all the winds that be in the world, which cheers the soul. 11. And if it is the soul of the wicked, a breeze comes forward that is the most stinking, the most putrid, and the most unsuccessful of all the winds that be in the world, through which discomfort and fear come to the soul.

12. Then they carry all the souls of him who is righteous as also of him who is wicked. 13. If it be the soul of the righteous, the astral form of a fat cow full of milk approaches it in the road, owing to which fullness and fatness come to the soul. 14. And next, the astral form of a virgin approaches it, of good astral shape, clad in white garments, of fifteen years, who is fair on all the sides, by whom the soul is gladdened. 15. And next approaches the astral form of a garden, full of crop, full of water, full of fruit, and full of plenty, which is the heavenly land, wherefrom delight and a feeling of plenty come to the soul. It sees those tokens on earth, before the judgment. There are those whom the soul asks one by one when it will approach them, it shall ask, "Who art thou, who so seemest to me that all happiness and comfort are owing to thee?" 16. Thus they speak in reply one by one, “I am O righteous! thy character {den}, the work that thou achievedst. As thou didst that good, I have been here owing to thee."

[261] 17. If it be the soul of the wicked, the astral form of a dry, feeble, and frightful cow affronts it, owing to which dryness and leanness come to the soul. 18. Next, the astral form of a terrific maiden of vile astral shape affronts it, who has covered herself with scornfulness, terrific on all the sides, owing to which fear and dread come to the soul.

19. Next, approaches the astral form of a garden without water, without trees, and without comfort, owing to which evil thoughts come to the soul, which is the land of the wicked existence. It sees these tokens on earth before the judgment. There are those whom it asks, one by one, "Who art thou, than whom one more harmful I have not seen on earth?" 20. Unto it they say in reply, one by one, "O wicked! I am thy character, that is thy own doing. As thou didst that which was evil, I have been here owing to thee.” 21. This is manifest that every person's own conduct confronts him.

22. And then they conduct the soul up to the base of Mount Alburz, that is also the base of the fulcrum. It walks over it up to the summit of the peak where the sharp floor is. 23. Then if it be the soul of the righteous, that sharp floor remains wide; and the victorious fire Farnbag smites darkness. In the astral form of fire, it causes that soul to cross over through that floor. The spiritual Yazads purify it and it causes it to cross spiritually over the other side of the fulcrum up to the top of Alburz. The good wind takes its hand, and carries it to its own seat, and entrusts the soul thither just as it was when it received it. 24. When they purify the material body, too, on earth, it is in the manner of the spiritual purification. 25. If it be the soul of the wicked, when it comes on to the fulcrum over the peak, that sharp floor remains in the same manner, and does not give passage. It has to walk involuntarily over this floor, with three paces that it lays on, that are the wicked thoughts, wicked utterances, and wicked deeds that it has practised, and borne low from the top of the bridge it falls headlong into the wicked existence {Duzakh, i.e. hell}, and sees every harm.

26. One says this too, "’When that breeze confronts [263] the soul of him who has been righteous with munificence, it sees the astral form of the virgin in that breeze, and it asks her that question, that virgin carries it by showing the road to a ladder whereon there are three steps, and it goes to the abode of harmony by that ladder, with three steps, which are good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, the first step being up to the star station, the second up to the moon station, and the third up to the sun station where the shining abode of harmony is. 27. If one has been wicked with stinginess, when that breeze affronts his soul, and the astral form of the maiden approaches in that breeze, and it asks her that question, that conduct is metamorphosed like unto a sharp floor, the whole of which sharp floor speaks to that soul, “O wicked! if thou wilt, if thou wilt not, thou shalt have to walk over this with paces.” 28. Thereupon the soul will say, "I would feel better if thou wouldst sever me with a very sharp knife than that I go over this with paces.” 29. It shall speak in the same manner a second time; and the soul will speak in reply, "I would feel better if thou wouldst shoot me with an arrow than that I go over this with paces.” 30. It shall speak in the same manner a third time; the soul will speak to it in reply, “I would feel better if thou wouldst take my life from the body than that I go over this with paces.” 31. Then that conduct will become just like a terrific wild beast not tamable by the hand, and stand near the soul. And the soul will be so afraid that it will go over it with paces, and it will fall into the wicked existence {hell}, borne down by three paces."'

32. They will assign him to purgatory {hamistagan} whose sins and works of merit are both equal.

33. As regards purgatory one says, "It is a place just like the earth.”

34. They will assign places to all persons according to the degree of their works of merit, and they will sit.


0. As regards the celebrated districts of Iranshahr {Iranian Empire}, and the mansions of the Kayans

1.One says in the Scripture, "If I had not created the spirit of the land and country, all men would have flocked to Eranvej, owing to the joy of that place.”

2. For the first of places and districts the best created was Eranvej. 3. This adversity from the Evil Spirit, winter produced by the devs, the serpent having wings, and also that without wings, came on to it the most. 4. There are ten months of winter, and two months of summer. 5. As one says, “Summer and winter are uniform everywhere, but winter is very severe there in the middle of the 'vehizaki' month ‘Day’.” 6. The second best created is the plain, the abode of the Syrians, that is, the Syrians dwell thereon, which is Bakdat produced by the heavenly Allotters. 7. Its worst adversity chanced to be the locust; the locust always devours green herbs, and death comes to animals and oxen.

8. The third best created was the valiant Merv, that is, it performs works and organizations of great fame. 9. The adversity of the movements of the army came to it the most; for there the troops, thieves, oppressors, heretics, liars, and afflicters of the righteous always practise unnatural lust the most.

10. The fourth best created was Balkh, good to behold; the men of that place hold the banner with activity. 11. The adversity of the burrows came to it the most; they dig out houses and burrows and demolish them.

12. The fifth best created was Nisay, between Merv and Balkh. 13. This adversity, skepticism as to the existence of God, came to it the most.

14. The sixth best created was Harey. 15. This adversity, weeping and lamentation, came to it the most. One person speaks and the others catch the chorus with the words "how long" and "wherefore." 16. As one says, "The street-deserting Harey." For they abandon the house and go away [267] when a person expires in it; just as we observe nine nights or a month's length, with abstinence, they desert the house and go away for nine nights or a month's length. 17. The seventh best created was Kavul of bad shadows, which is Kavulastan. Note, the umbrage of the trees there is bad for the body. 18. The adversity, the 'pariks' {paris, i.e. fairies} desire, came to it the most. They too are practising the dev worship which Sam used to perform. There is one who calls it the sin of walking without the sacred thread.

19. The eighth best created was Masan full of pasture, that is, it has corn in abundance. 20. The adversity of vile aloofness came to it the most; for the Masaniyans are living aloof, and there is no community of men worse than they living in union as one community.

21. The ninth best created was Khenen, the abode of the Georgians, that is, they dwell in it. Consider 'khani' to be the river, and the rest to be the plain. 22. The adversity of the worst unatonable deed came to it, that is, the unnatural lust of men, which they practise the most thither; there is one who calls it unnatural sexuality.

23. The tenth best created was Arman. 24. The adversity of interment of dead matter came to it the most, that is, they practise it much thither.

25. The eleventh best created was the radiant and glorious Hetomand -- Sigistan. -- 26. The adversity of sorcery was that which came to it the most. 27. Its token is manifest from this that of all men who come from that place, every person does make a token; and owing to these sorcerers' spells, snow, hail, spiders, and locusts drop.

28. The twelfth best created was Rak of the three races, that is Atarpatakan. For this reason one calls it "of the three races", because the athravans {priests}, the warriors, and the husbandmen of the place are good. 29. Its adversity was the worst skepticism as regards the existence of God; they themselves are skeptic and make other persons, too skeptic.

30. The thirteenth best created was the beneficent Vahar, -- which is Mezan. -- 31. The adversity of cooking [269] dead matter {nasa} and eating dead matter came to it the most. They always cook and eat the fox and the weasel.

32. The fourteenth best created was the four cornered Var, -- that is Damavand. 33. Its having four corners is this that it is of four sides, of which one says that water comes into the country from the four ends of the district. 34. The adversity of the abnormal menstruation is the most in it, -- that is, it is very severe and very bad thither; and men of non-Iranian districts dwell therein. --

35. The fifteenth best created was the Seven Hindustans. -- Hindustan is one, but there are seven rulers in it. -- 36. The adversity of abnormal heat and severe menstruation came to it the most.

37. The sixteenth best created was Ota Arang, -- Oda was the wicked progeny of the Tajis {Arabs}. 38. This adversity came to it the most that they do not regard the chief as the chief, and winter is also severe there. The Tajis {Arabs} dwell in it.

39. That which is fair -- to see, sagacious for works and organisations, and beseeming; -- those who are in it, inquire in it mostly of works and organisations, which one calls Pars.

40. These districts which are in Iranshahr are very noteworthy.


0 As regards the mansions which the Kayans erected with glory {khwarrah}, which they call marvels and wonders.

1. One is that which Jam {Jamshed} erected on the Alburz.

2. One is that which Faridoon erected on Mount Pataskhvar, on the Var of four corners, the Damavand.

3. One is that which Kay Us {Kay Kaus} erected on the Alburz.

4. One is that which Dahaz {Zohak} erected in Babylon, which they call Kvirinta Duzita.

5. One is that which Siyavush, son of Kay Us {Kay Kaus} erected, [271] which they call Kangdez.

6. One is that which the sorcerer, Frasiyav of Tur, built underneath the earth with sorcery.

7. One is that which Jam {Jamshed} erected in Pars, which one calls the Jamkart.

8. One is that which Dahak {Zohak} erected in Shambaran, and one in Hindustan.

9. These are those which were erected with marvelous structure, whereas others founded many towns, cities, and mansions, the details of which are long.

10. Of Jamkart one says, "A marvelous and illumined mansion is constructed underneath the earth in concealment, which neither summer nor winter can destroy. In it are all the bounties that are on earth.”

11. Of the mansions of Kay Us {Kay Kaus} one says, "One was of gold wherein he settled, two were of glass in which were his stables, and two were of steel in which was his flock. Therefrom issued all tastes, and waters of the springs giving immortality, which smite old age, -- that is, when a decrepit man enters by this gate, he comes out as a youth of fifteen years from the other gate, and also dispel death.” {fountain of youth}

12. Of Kangdez one says, “It was a moving frame with hands and with feet, of eternal spring over the heads of the devs. Kay Khosraw established it on land. Its beams are seven of gold, of silver of steel, of bronze, of iron of glass and of crystal. Within it are seven hundred frasangs of roads. There are fifteen gates to it, which one can go from gate to gate on a chariot horse, in the days of spring, in fifteen days.

13. Of the mansion of Frasiyav one says, “It is built underneath the earth with sorcery. By the light of the mansion, the night was shining like the day. Four rivers flowed under it, one of water, one of wine, one of milk, and one of beaten sour milk. The sun's place and the moon's place in motion are arrayed in it. The height of the mansion was of one thousand men of average height.

14. Jam’s {Jamshed’s} mansion in Alburz was of precious stones, [273] 15. Dahak's {Zohak’s} mansion in Babylon was just like a crane.


0. As regards the calamities which befell Iranshahr {The Iranian Empire}, in each millennium.

1. When the Evil Spirit came in, at the beginning of the first millennium in the mingled state, Gav and Gayomard existed. As Mashye and Mashyane practised that ingratitude, they had no issue, therefore for fifty years. In this millennium, for seventy years Hooshang and Takhmorap {Tahmurasp} both killed the devs. At the millennium's end, the devs sawed Jam {Jamshed}.

2. The second millennium commenced; Azi Dahak {Zohak} began his wicked reign, and ruled for a thousand years. When the millennium ended, Faridoon seized and imprisoned him.

3. The third millennium commenced. When Faridoon allotted the dominions, they, Salm and Tuj, killed Airij, and destroyed his children and grandchildren. 4. In this millennium, Manuschihr was born and sought the revenge of Airij. 5. Then Frasiyav came, vanquished Manuschihr with the Iranians at Mount Patashkhvar, destroyed them with disease, want, and much pestilence, and killed Manuschihr's sons Frya and Notar, till Iranshahr was taken from Frasiyav by another generation. 6. And when Manuschihr had passed away, Frasiyav came again, perpetrated much disintegration and desolation in Iranshahr, and withheld the rains from Iranshahr, till Uzava son of Tumaspa came, vanquished Frasiyav, and produced the rain which they called “the new rain." 7 And after Uzava, Frasiyav again did immense harm to Iranshahr, till Kavat sat on the throne of sovereignty. 8. In this millennium, in the reign of Kay Us {Kay Kaus}, the devs became virulent, they came to kill Oshnar, and distracted the thoughts of Kay Us {Kay Kaus}, till he proceeded to the war against the sky, and having fallen headlong, the glory {khwarrah} departed from him. They then ravaged the world with horses and men, and imprisoned them [275] along with the public men of the kingdom, with deceit, in the land of Shambaran. 9. One of the Tajis {Arabs}, who was named Zainigaw, who had venom in his eyes, came to the sovereignty of Iranshahr, and killed whomsoever he beheld with the evil eye. The Iranians desired Frasiyav with eagerness, and Dashtun killed him, Zainigaw, and ruled over Iranshahr, carried off many men from Iranshahr, settled them in Turkastan, and desolated and disintegrated Iranshahr, until Rotastahm started from Sigistan, captured the people of Shambaran, and released Kay Us {Kay Kaus} and other Iranians from captivity, made battle with Frasiyav on the Horey rutbar which they call Ispahan {Esfahan}, gave him defeat from thence, and made many other battles with him, until he prospered Iranshahr anew, having vanquished and cast him in Turkastan. 10. Again Frasiyav drew his army and Kay Siyavakhsh {Syawakhsh} came to battle. Because of Sutawih, wife of Kay Us {Kay Kaus}, Siyavakhsh {Syawakhsh} did not return to Iranshahr. For this reason, as Frasiyav had received him under his protection, he did not come to Kay Us {Kaus}, but he went to Turkastan himself and took a daughter of Frasiyav to wife, and Kay Khosraw was born of her. And they killed Siyavakhsh {Syawakhsh} there. 11. In this millennium Kay Khosraw killed Frasiyav, he himself went to Kangdez and gave the sovereignty to Lohrasp. And when King Vishtasp had ruled for thirty years the millennium ended.

12. Then the fourth millennium commenced. In that millennium Zartosht received and brought the Revelation {Den}, from Ohrmazd. King Vishtasp accepted and propagated it, and waged a severe war with Arjasp, and many Iranians and non-Iranians fought.

13. In this millennium when the sovereignty came to Vohuman son of Spenddat, and there was scarcity, the Iranians fought amongst themselves, and there remained no man of the ruling dynasty who could rule. They seated Vohuman's daughter Humae on the throne of sovereignty. {Queen}

14. Then, during the reign of Darius son of Darius, the emperor Alexander came to Iranshahr, hying from Arum, killed king Darius, destroyed all the families of rulers, [277] magi, and public men of Iranshahr, extinguished an immense number of sacred fires, seized the commentary {zand} of the Revelation of Mazda-worship, and sent it to Arum, burned the Avesta, and divided Iranshahr among ninety petty rulers. {Alexander the Great conquered Darius in 330 BCE.}

15. Then, in this millennium, appeared Artakhstar son of Papak. {The Arsacids founded the Parthian Empire and ruled from 247 BCE-224CE. Ardashir, son of Babag, founded the Sasanian dynasty in Iran, which lasted from 226 CE to 652 CE.} He killed those petty rulers, organised the empire, promoted the Revelation of Mazda worship, and established many religious usages which went down to his dynasty. 16. During the reign of Shapur son of Ohrmazd, the Tajis {Arabs} came. They seized the Horey rutbar, and they kept on attacking Ahwaz for many years, till Shapur attained to the royalty, vanquished those Tajis, took the country from them, killed many Taji princes, and drove them in large numbers. 17. During the reign of Peroz son of Yazdegird, there was no rain for six years, and severe distress and hardship befell the people. 18. Again, Khushnavaz, the ruler of the Ephtalites came, and killed Peroz. Kavat and his sister handed a fire altar to the Ephtalites as security. 19. During the reign of Kavat appeared Mazdak son of Bamdat, and established the Mazdakian creed, and deceived and distracted Kavat, and enjoined that men ought to have wife, children, and wealth in common and in co-partnership, and to relinquish from use the Revelation of Mazda worship; until Khosraw son of Kavat of immortal soul attained to majority, killed Mazdak, reorganised the Revelation of Mazda-worship, and vanquished those chiefs who used to make inroads on Iranshahr, and closed their passage, and made Iranshahr fearless. 20. And when the sovereignty came to Yazdegird, he ruled for twenty years; then the Tajis {Arabs} hied to Iranshahr in large numbers. Yazdegird could not stand in the battle with them. He went to Khorasan and Turkastan, and asked horses and men for help, and they killed him thither. 21. Yazdegird's son went to Hindustan, and brought a valiant army. He passed away before coming to Khorasan. That valiant army was disintegrated, and Iranshahr remained with the Tajis {Arabs}. They promulgated their own code of irreligion {ak-den (i.e. Islam)}, and eradicated many usages of faith of the [279] ancients, enfeebled the Revelation of Mazda-worship, and instituted the practice of washing the dead, burying the dead, and eating dead matter. 22. And from the beginning of creation to this day, no calamity greater than this has befallen; for owing to their misdeeds, on account of supplication, desolation, distressing deeds, vile law, and bad creed, pestilence, want, and other evils have made their abode in Iran.

23. One says in the Scripture, "Their wicked rule will be at an end. 24. A community will come with red ensigns and red banners, and will seize Pars and the districts of Iranshahr up to Babylon, and they will weaken the Tajis {Arabs}.

25. "And then from the direction of the east, one bad man will come. He will vanquish those of Mount Patashkhvar; he will establish his wicked rule for several years. During his leadership, men in Pars will perish by the roads which are on the sea shores of Kazerun, until he will not exist.

26. “After that, the Turkish army will hie into Iranshahr in large number and with many banners will desolate this prosperous and sweet-smelling Iranshahr, will disintegrate many thriving families, will perpetrate much harm and distress to the men of Iranshahr, and will eradicate, disintegrate, and seize many mansions, until God will have mercy.

27. “And when the Arumans will arrive and conduct the government for a year, at that time, one will come from the frontiers of Kavulastan, with whom there will be glory, also of the royal family, whom they will name Kay Vaharam; and all men will return with him, and he will rule even over Hindustan, Arum, and Turkastan, over all the frontiers. He will remove all impious beliefs, and having restored the Revelation of Zartosht, no person will dare to come in the public with any other belief.

28. "And in the same period, Peshotan son of Vishtasp will come from the direction of Kangdez, with a hundred and fifty holy men. He will eradicate the idol temple which was their secret place, will establish the Warharan fire in its cradle, and will properly proclaim and restore the Revelation."

29. Then, the fifth millennium of Ushedar will commence. [281] Ushedar son of Zartosht, the demonstrator by Revelation, and the true messenger, will come from Ohrmazd. He too will bring the Revelation {Den} just as Zartosht had brought, and promulgate it. And privation and drought will diminish, and liberality, peacefulness, and unrevengefulness will increase in the whole world. He will give greenness to the trees for three years. And the river Vataeni will flow with a horse's strength. And the springs and the sea of Kayansah will flow again. For ten days and nights the sun will stand at the zenith of the sky, and all of the wolf species will perish.

30. Then when the millennium of Ushedar will end, Malkus of pestilential nature, of the race of Tur-i Bradrok-resh, who was the cause of the death of Zartosht, will appear and will produce with sorcery and the pari’s {fairy’s} desire, the terrific rain which they call 'malkusan,' for three years, during the cold winter, and in the warm summer, with immense snow and hail which are destroyers of the creation, in such a way that all men will perish by the road of the sacred fire. And then there will be the reorganisation of men and animals from the Enclosure made by Jam {Jamshed}. For this purpose it is built in concealment.

31. This too will happen that, at the time, the curative power which is assigned to one thousand species of herbs, which are in opposition to one thousand kinds of diseases, will come over to two species of herbs and one kind of land, and none will die of disease, but through old age or unless they kill.

32. And then the sixth millennium will commence, which is called the millennium of Ushedarmah. And in that millennium Ushedarmah, son of Zartosht, will come from Ohrmazd for prophecy. He too will bring the Revelation {Den} just as Zartosht had brought, and promulgate it in the world. For twenty days and nights the sun will stand at the zenith of the sky. He will give greenness to the trees for six years. The druj of the race of the dragon will perish, that is, he will destroy the serpents with the noxious creatures.

33. Then, near unto the end of Ushedarmah's millennium, [283] Dahak {Zohak} will be free from fetters. Bevarasp will injure many creatures and creation with the dev-ic desire. 34, And at that time Soshyant son of Zartosht will appear. And for thirty days and nights the sun will stand at the zenith of the sky. 35. Of earthly beings, they will first raise the dead body of Karsasp son of Sam, who will smite Bevarasp with the mace, and kill and withhold him from the creatures. The millennium of Soshyant will commence; as the millennium of him, the body builder {i.e. reanimator, resurrector} is for fifty-seven years.

36. As regards these three sons of Zartosht, such as Ushedar, Ushedarmah, and Soshyant, one says, “Before Zartosht wedded, they had consigned the glory {khwarrah} of Zartosht for preservation, in the sea Kayansah to the glory of the waters, that is to the Yazad Anahit." 37. They say, "Even now they are seeing three lamps glowing at night in the bottom of the sea. And each one of them will arrive when it is their own cycle." 38. It will so happen that a virgin will go to the water of Kayansah in order to wash her head; the glory {khwarrah} will mingle within her body, and she will be pregnant. They will one-by-one be born thus in their own cycle.]


0. As regards resurrection and final material life.

1. One says in the Scripture, "Whereas, when Mashye and Mashyane grew up from the earth, they first drank water, then ate vegetable, then drank milk, and then ate meat. Men too when their time of death shall have come, will desist first from eating meat, then from drinking milk, and then even from eating bread, [and] will be drinking water [only] till death ."

2. Thus too in the millennium of Ushedarmah, the strength of appetite win so diminish that men will be sated for three nights and days by eating one single meal. 3. And then after [that] they will desist [from] meat food, and will [285] eat vegetables and drink the milk of animals; and then, they will abstain even from [that] milk diet, [and then] they will abstain even from vegetable food, and will be drinking water. And ten years before Soshyant will come, they will remain without food, and will not die, and then Soshyant will raise the dead.

4. As one says, "Zartosht asked of Ohrmazd, ‘Whence shall they re-form the body which the wind has blown away, and the water has dragged down, and how shall resurrection occur?’ 5. Ohrmazd replied, ‘As I produced the terrestial sky without pillars, of spiritual standing, with the ends far apart, and shining, of the substance of shining steel, even as I produced the earth, which bears [all] material life, it has no material propping [-up]; as I made the sun, moon, and stars to revolve in the firmament with shining astral bodies; as I produced corn so that they may scatter it in the ground and it may return with increase, growing again; even as I produced colour of various kinds in plants; even as I produced fire without combustion in plants and other things; even as I produced and nourished the child in the womb of the mother and assigned severally [the hair,] skin, nails, blood, feet, eyes, ears, and other limbs; even as I gave feet to the water so that it may flow; [even as I] produced [the spiritual] cloud which bears the material water and rains wherever it chooses; and even as I produced the air which blows at will, below and above, with the strength of the wind, as is visible to the eye; -- one cannot seize it with the hands; -- I produced each one of these when their production was more difficult for me to achieve than raising the dead. For in the raising of the dead I have the help of such as these which I had not when [I] made them. What has been can be again. Behold, if I made that which was not, how can I not re-form that which was? For at that time I will demand the bony frame from the spirit of the earth, the blood from the water, the hair from the plants, and the life from the wind, as they had received at the beginning of creation.’ "

6. First the frame of Gayomard will rise, then [they [287] will raise] those of Mashye and Mashyane, and then these of other persons. 7. [And] in fifty-seven years Soshyant will raise all the dead. And whichever men are righteous and which ever are wicked, all men will wake up. All persons will re awaken from there where their life had departed [or they had first fallen on earth. 8. And] then, when they have restored the physical and astral bodies of all material lives, they will give them their protoplasm; and [they will give] one half of the light accompanying the sun unto Gayomard, and one half to other men. 9. [Then men] will recognise [men], that is, a soul will recognise [a soul, a body] another body, that this is my father, this is my mother, this is my brother, this is my wife, and this is any whatsoever of my very near relatives.

10. Then the assembly of Isadvastar will meet, that is, all men of this earth will stand. 11. In that assembly, every person will see his own good deeds and evil deeds. The righteous will be as conspicuous amongst the wicked as a white sheep amongst the black. 12. In that assembly, whatever righteous man was friend of a wicked one in the world, [that] wicked man will complain of that righteous one, "Why didst thou not inform me in material life of the virtuous deeds that thou thyself performedst?" If that righteous man had not informed him [in this manner] he shall have to undergo ignominy in that assembly.

13. They will then separate the righteous from the wicked; and [they will carry] the righteous to the abode of harmony, and cast the wicked back to the wicked existence {hell} and for three days and nights [those of the wicked existence] in material body and [material life] will undergo punishment in the wicked existence. And the righteous, in material body, will see delight in the abode of harmony those three days. 14. As one says, “On that day when the righteous parts from the wicked, tears will come down up to the legs of every person, when they will separate the son from the company of the father, a brother from his brother, and a friend from his friend." 15. And all persons will pass through [289] their own deeds. The righteous shall weep for the wicked, and the wicked [shall weep] for himself. It may be, there is a father who is righteous and the son wicked, or it may be, there is one brother who is righteous and another wicked, those such as Dahak {Zohak}, Frasiyav, [Vamun, and] even other sinners of this sort deserving death, who, owing to their own deeds that they have done, undergo [such kind of] punishment which no man has undergone, which they call the punishment ‘of the three nights.’

16. During the performance of that renovation of the universe {Frashegird}, those holy men of whom it is written that they are living, fifteen men and fifteen damsels will come to the help of Soshyant. 17. And as [the dragon] Gochihr within the celestial sphere shall fall from the base of the moon on to the earth, the earth shall have such distress as that of a sheep when a wolf tears off its wool. 18. Then fire and Airyaman Yazad will melt the metal which is within the hills and mountains, and it will remain on this earth like a river. 19. Anad then they will cause all men to pass into that melted metal, and will make them pure. And to him who is righteous it will so seem as if he is walking in warm milk; and to him who is wicked it will seem in such manner that he is walking in the world in melted metal. 20. Then with the greatest affection shall all men meet together, father and son and brother, and all friends. Man will ask man, "Where wert thou these many years? What was the condition of thy soul? Wert thou righteous or wicked?" 21. When first the soul shall see the body, it will enquire of it. On the [reply] being uttered, men will unanimously be of one acclaim, and will administer loud praise to Ohrmazd and the beneficent immortals {Amesha Spentas}.

22. Ohrmazd will at that time be the perfecter of the creatures, that is, He need not do any superior work, during the while that they restored the dead. 23. And Soshyant with his associates will perform the rite for the restoration of the dead; and they will slay the ‘Hadhayas gav' for that rite; out of the fat of that ‘gav’ and the [291] white hom they will prepare the immortal beverage, and give it to all men; and all men will become immortal up to eternity and eternal progress. 24. This too one says, "They will restore with the age of forty years those who had attained to manly proportions. And they will reproduce with the age of fifteen years those who were minors and had not attained to age. And they will give everyone his wife and children, and they will make demonstrations of regard towards their wives, just as now in material life, but there will be no begetting of children."

25. Then Soshyant by order of the Creator will give reward and recompense to all men in conformity with their deeds. There may be that one too who is [so] righteous that he will say, "Do you carry me to the abode of harmony of Ohrmazd," and, as befits himself, he lifts up his astral body, and he is advancing, in its company, up to eternity and eternal progress.

26. This too one says, "He who has performed no worship, has ordered no 'geti-kharit’ and has given no garments as righteous gift [to the worthy], will be naked there; if he shall perform the worship of Ohrmazd, the spiritual gathas will verily serve the purpose of clothing to him."

27. Then Ohrmazd will seize the Evil Spirit, Vohuman will seize Akoman, Ardwahisht Indra, Shahrewar Sauru, Spandarmad Taromat that is Naonhaithya, Hordat and Amurdad will seize Taurvi and Zairi, truthful utterance will seize the untruthful utterance, and [the holy] Srosh will seize Aeshma {Eshm} [of the cruel spear]. 28. And then two drujs will remain, Ahriman and Az. 29. Ohrmazd will come to the world, himself as Zot, and [the holy] Srosh as Raspi, and He will have the sacred girdle {kusti} in his hands. 30. And the Evil Spirit and Az will hie back to the gloom and the darkness, across the passage of the terrestrial sky through which he had entered, with defeated stratagems and undone, by means of the gathic spell {nirang}. 31. And the dragon Gochihr will be burnt by that melted metal, [and the metal will flow into the wicked existence, and] the stench and contamination within [293] [the earth, where] the wicked existence was, will be consumed by that metal, and it will become pure. The hollow where through the Evil Spirit had entered is closed with that metal. 32. They will bring that wicked existence of the earth back to the expanse of the world, and there will be renovation {frashegird} in the universe, the world will become immortal at will, up to eternity and eternal progress.

33. This too one says, "This earth will become a plain, without height and without bottom; and there will be no hill nor summit, nor dale, nor highland, nor lowland."


0. As regards the race and genealogy of the Kayanians.

1. Hooshang son of Fravak son of Siyamak son of Mashye son of Gayomart.

2. Tahmurasp [son of Vivangah son of Ayanhat son of Hooshang.

3. Jam {Jamshed}, Tahmurasp,] Spityur, and Narsahi whom they also call Rashnu-Chini, were all brothers.

4. From Jam {Jamshed} and Jami, who was his sister, was born a pair of man and woman, and they became wife and husband together; and the sire was named Aspyan, and the spouse Zareshum, and the lineage proceeded.

5. Spityur was he who, with Dahak {Zohak}, sawed Jam {Jamshed}.

6. Narsahi also lived together. They call him the distracted Narsahi. One says that such glory is allotted to him that he shall pass every day in the markets, and shall make all food purified and clean.

7. Dahak {Zohak} son of Khrutasp son of Zainigaw son of Avirafshyang son of Taj son of Fravak son of Siyamak; from the mother's side: Dahak son of Uta daughter of Bayak of Tambayak of Owoikhm of Pairiurvo of Urvaesm of Gadwithw of Drujaskap of Gana-minuy.

8. Faridoon son of Aspyan-i Pur-gav son of Aspyan-i [295] Sok-gav son of Aspyan-i Bor-gaw son of Aspyan-i Siya-gav son of Aspyan-i Spet-gav son of Aspyan-i Gepr-gav son of Aspyan-i Rama-gav son of Aspyan-i Vapro-gav son of Aspyan son of Jam {Jamshed} son of Vivangah.

9. As, exclusive of Aspyan-i Pur-gav, they were ten generations, each one lived a hundred years, which becomes one thousand years. those thousand years were the evil reign of Dahak {Zohak}.

10. Of Aspyan-i Pur-gav was Faridoon born, who sought the vengeance of Jam {Jamshed}. Also other children were Barmayun and Katayun. Faridoon was fuller of glory than they.

11. Of Faridoon three sons were born, Salm, Tuj, and Airij; and of Airij two sons and a daughter were born. 12. The twin sons were Vanitar and Anastob by name, and the daughter's name was Guza. 13. Salm and Tuj killed Airij, his children, and grandchildren all; and Faridoon kept [that] daughter in concealment. Of that daughter a daughter was born. They had information of it; they killed the mother, and Faridoon concealed [all] those daughters up to ten generations when Manush-i khvarshet-pa-vini was born of his mother. [For as soon as he was born] the light of the sun fell upon his nose. 14. From Manush and his sister was Manush-khvarnar, and from Manushkhvarnar [and his sister] was Manushchihr born, who killed Salm and Tuj, and sought the vengeance of Airij. 15. Of Manushchihr were Frya, Notar, and Durasrob born. 16. Just as Manuschihr son of Manushkhvarnar son of Manuskhvarnak, whose mother was Guza daughter of Aira daughter of Thrita daughter of Bita daughter of Frazusha daughter of Zusha daughter of Fraguza daughter of Guza daughter of Airij son of Faridoon.

17. Frasiyav son of Pashang son of Zaeshim son of Tura son of Spaenyasp son of Duroshasp son of Tuj son of Faridoon, as also Karsavazd whom they call Ketan, and Agrerat, all three were brothers.

[18. And Pashang and Visa were both brothers. 19. And of Visa were Piran, Homan, Shan, and other brothers born. 20. Of Frasiyav were Frigiz-i Chur, Shan, Sheta, and [297] other children born. 21. Vispanfrya, to whom Kay Khosraw was born, was daughter of Frasiyav, and had the same mother with Frigiz-i Chur. 22. Of Frigiz-i Chur were Suri, Asuri, and other children; of them were born Anast-airikht and San-airikht, and of San-airikht Frashavart, Lavaha., and others, whose details are long.

23. And of Agrerat Gopat-sha was born. 24. And when Frasiyav had captured Manushchihr with the Iranians in Mount Pataskhvar, and let loose pestilence and want over them, Agrerat begged a boon of God, and he obtained that bliss that he saved those Iranian soldiers and veterans from that hardship. 25. Frasiyav, for that apparent cause, slew Agrerat, and Agrerat in recompense of it begot a son such as Gopat-sha.

26. Uzob son of Tuhmasp son of Kanak son of Barz son of Shat son of Arawsh son of Hvasp son of Vaetang son of Ragh son of Nodhaea son of Mashvak son of Notar son of Manushchihr. 27. Of Uzob three sons and a daughter were born. 28. Kavat was a baby in a basket, they had deserted him in a river. Uzob saw him frozen in the basket, and took him and brought him up, and named him “the Foundling."

29. And of Kavat was Kay Apiveh born. 30. Of Kay Apiveh were Kay Arsh, Kay Byarsh, Kay Pisinang, and Kay Kavus born. 31. Of Kay Kavus was Siyavakhsh born; and of Siyavakhsh was Kay Khosraw born.

32. Karsasp and Urvakhsh were both brothers.

33. Athrat son of Sam son of Tura son of Spaenyasp son of Duroshasp son of Tuj son of Faridoon.

34. Lohrasp son of Uzav son of Manush son of Kay Pisin son of Kay Apiveh son of Kay Kavat. 35. And of Kay Lohrasp were Vishtasp, Zarir, and other brothers born. And of Vishtasp were Spend-dat and Peshotan born. And of Spend-dat were Vohuman, Atar-tarish, Mitr-tarish, and others born.

36. Artakhshtar-i Papakan, whose mother was Papak's daughter, son of Sasan son of Vehafrit son of Zarir son of Sasan son of Arteshtar, who is called Vohuman son of [299] Spenddat.

37. Kay Apiveh's mother: Frana daughter of Notarga son of Frashta-ka son of Urvat-Ga son of Frasht son of Rak son of Darasrob son of Manushchihr.

38. This too one says, "The glory of Faridoon had settled on the root of a reed, in the ocean Frakhvkart. Notarga having with sorcery transformed a cow into a goat, led her there. Having reaped the reeds there for a year, he gave them to the cow till the glory {khwarrah} went over to the Cow. Having brought back the cow, he milked her milk and gave it to the three sons, such as Vamun, Shun, and Changranha, which he had. The glory {khwarrah} went not to the sons but to Frana. 39. Notarga wished to kill Frana; Frana went from under the father's sway by means of the glory, and made a vow, saying: "I will give my first child to Ushbam." 40. Then Ushbam saved her from her father, and the first child she bore was Kay Apiveh whom she gave to Ushbam, and she went in a mingled state again with Ushbam, as Ushbam's companion.

41. The mother of Uzob daughter of Vamun the sorcerer was of the same descent with Frigiz, and their mother also.

42. Of Sam six children were born in pairs, male and female. They were one Damu, one Khusru, and one Marinda by name; and man and woman had together one name. 43. One of them was Dastan by name. He was kept more forward than they. He was the prince of the Sakas, and he gave to him the southern quarter. He gave the governorship of Awarshatr to Awaro. 44. One calls 'Awarshatr' that which is the country of Awaro. 45. These princely men praised Srosh and Ardwahisht in union. Therefore the possession of cavalry, the possession of equipments of strong archery, purity, publicity, delight, music, and celebrity were the more for them.

46. He gave to Damu the governorship of Asurastan. 47. Kingship, the organisation of the law of Kingship, the navigation of the sea, and the endurance of severe troubles were allotted to them. 48. He gave to Sparo the governorship [301] of Ispahan. 49. He gave to Khusru the governorship of Raye. 50. He assigned to Marinda the kingship of Patashkhvargar, the erasing of forests, and the dwelling in mountains, going on mission, making night attacks, good living, happy living, and continual victory over enemies.

51. Of Dastan were Rotastahm and Uzvara born.]

52. Porushasp son of Petirasp son of Urvadasp son of Haechatasp son of Chakhshnush son of Petirasp son of Haraetarshn son of Haraetar son of Spitama son of Vaedisht son of Ayazim son of Rajan son of Durasrob son of Manushchihr.

53. As Petirasp [had] two sons, one Porushasp, and one Araspi, of Porushhasp were Zartosht, Nodarga, and Handainish born, and of Araspi was Metyomah born.

54. When Zartosht brought the Revelation {Den}, he first consecrated and propounded it in Eranvej, and Metyomah received the Revelation from him.

55. All the Mobeds {Magu-patan i.e. master Magi} of Pars are traceable to this race of Manushchihr.

66. I shall give details: Of Zartosht were born three sons and three daughters: one Isadvastar, one Urvatatnar, and one Khvarshetchihr. As Isadvastar was athravan and the Mobed of Mobeds, and passed away in the hundredth year of Revelation; Urvatatnar was the husbandman, and the chief of those in the enclosure built by Jam {Jamshed} which is underneath the earth; Khvarsetchihr was the warrior and commander of the army of Peshotan son of Vishtasp, and dwells in Kangdez. And the three daughters were one Fren, one Srit, and one Poruchast by name. 67. Urvatatnar and Khvarsetchihr were born of a wife of minor status and the others of a wife of independent status. 58. And of Isadvastar was born a son who was Ururvija by name, whom they call “the delight of the brothers." And for this reason, as he was born of a wife of minor status, they appointed him as adopted son of Isadvastar.

59. Then the three sons of Zartosht, such as Ushedar, Ushedarmah, and Soshyant were from Hvovi. 60. As one says, “Zartosht had gone three times near unto [his wife] [303] Hvovi; each time the seed had dropped on the earth. Neryosang Yazad received entire the light and vigour of those seeds, and entrusted them to Anahit Yazad for preservation, which will mingle with the mothers in [their] due season. And nine thousand, nine hundred, ninety and nine myriads of farohars of the righteous {ashavans} are appointed for their protection, so that the devs may not despoil them."

61. Zartosht's mother was Dugdova [Dogdo] by name; the father of Zartosht's mother was Frahimrvanan by name.


[0. The family of the Mobeds.

1. Bava son of Vaebokht son of Atar-banda son of Mah-dat son of Metyomah son of Frah-vakhsh-vindat son of Metyomah son of Kat son of Metyomah son of Araspi son of Petirasp. 2. As Bava was Mobed of Mobeds unto Shahpuhr son of Ohrmazd, and Kat was the prime minister unto Daray {Darius}.

3. Adarbad son of Mahraspend {Mahraspandan} son of Dat-artay son of Dat-erakht son of Hudin son of Atar-dat son of Manush-chihr son of Vohuman-chihr son of Fryan son of Bayak son of Freton son of Frashostar son of Pourushasp son of Nivasp son of Nivar son of Vakhsh son of Vahidhrov son of Frasht son of Gak son of Vakhsh son of Fryan son of Rajan son of Durasrob Son of Manushchihr.

4. Mitr-varaz son of Narsahi son of Awazut-gav son of Shir-goshnasp son of Parshtva son of Urvat-ga son of Takhm son of Zarir son of Durasrob, of the celebrated house of Zagh son of Mashvak son of Notar son of Manushchihr.

5. Mitr-akavit son of Martan-veh son of Afrenbag son of Vindat; the Vindat who is manifestly son of Vae-bokht son of Bava son of Vae-bokht.

6. The mother from whom I am born is the daughter of Fray-mah son of Chahar-bokht son of Mah-ayiyar son of Mah-banda son of Mah-bokht son of Pusandakht son of [305] Martan-veh son of Afrenbag son of Vindat; the Vindat who is manifestly son of Vae-bokht son of Bava son of Vaebokht.

7. All other Mobeds who in the 'Khvatayik Nama' are said to be from the same family, are of this race of Manushchihr. Those Mobeds too who now exist, are all, they say, from the same family.

8. And I Frenabag, whom they call Datakih son of Ashavahesht son of Gosn-jam son of Vaharam-shat son of Zartosht, Zartosht son of Adarbad son of Mahraspand, Zadspram son of Goshn-jam, Adarbad son of Ayemit, Ashavahesht son of Fray-srosh, and other Mobeds were from the same family.

9. This too one says, “For fifty days in one winter the Mazdyasnian Revelation came over to the other six regions."]


0. As regards the [Taji] year reckoning of time, of twelve thousand years.

1. One says in the Scripture, "For three thousand years, there was the spiritual state, that is, the creatures were unthinking, unmoving, and intangible; [the lords of the millennia were Aries, Taurus, and Gemini.]

2. For three thousand years Gayomard with the 'gav' was in the material state with antagonism; and the lords of the millennia were Cancer, Leo, and Virgo, so that it became six thousand years.

3. When the rule of the millennium came to Libra, the adversary entered, and Gayomard lived thirty years in the adverse state. 4. Then Mashye and Mashyane grew up for forty years, and it was for fifty years that they did not live as wife and husband. For ninety-three years [and six months] they lived together as wife and husband, till the time when [307] Hooshang attained [to full age.]

5. Hooshang ruled forty years, Tahmurasp thirty years, Jam {Jamshed} ruled six hundred and sixteen years and six months, till the glory {khwarrah} departed [from him,] and after that he was in flight for [a] hundred years, [in all, it is seven hundred and sixteen years and six months.

6. And] then the rule of the millennium came to Scorpio, and Dahak {Zohak} [reigned] a thousand years.

7. Then the rule of the millennium came to Sagittarius; Faridoon [reigned] five hundred years; in these five hundred years of Faridoon, Airij reigned twelve years; Manushchihr reigned a hundred and twenty years; during this reign of Manushchihr, when he was in Mount Patashkhvar, Frasiyav reigned twelve years, Uzob son of Tuhmasp reigned five years, and Kay Kobad fifteen years; [the rule of Sam was during those of Uzob, Kobad, and Manushchihr.] Kay Kaus reigned seventy-five years till his going to the sky, and seventy-five years after that, altogether a hundred and fifty years. Kay Khosraw reigned sixty years; Kay Lohrasp a hundred and twenty years; Kay Vishtasp reigned thirty years till the coming of the Revelation; [approximately one thousand years.

8. Then the rule of the millennium came to Capricornus, and Zartosht of Spitama came for prophecy from the creator Ohrmazd to King Vishtasp. 9. King Vishtasp reigned ninety years after receiving the Revelation {Den},] altogether a hundred and twenty years. Vohuman son of Spend-dat reigned a hundred and twelve years; Humay daughter of Vohuman thirty years; Daray {Darius} son of Chihr-azat, that is Vohuman, twelve years; Daray son of Daray, fourteen years; Alexander the Aruman, fourteen years; the Ashkanians, who bear the name for righteous rule, reigned two hundred and eighty-four years thereafter. Ardashir son of Babag, and the Sasanians reigned four hundred and sixty years in this reckoning; [till the brood of the Tajis {Arabs} gained the position up to the Parsik year four hundred and forty-seven.

10. At present it is the Parsik year five hundred and twenty-seven.]




1. Completed with propitiation, gladness, and joy, on the day of Ashtad and the month of Tir, in the year 975, twenty years after his Majesty the Emperor Yazdegird. 2. I, servant of the Faith, Freton Marzpan Freton Vaharom Rostom Bundar Shamart Din-yar, wrote and deposited it for the sake of the ownership and eternal triumph of Rotastahm Faro-khvzat Yezhtyar Vizan.


1. Completed with propitiation, gladness, and joy, on the day of Den and the month of Hordad, in the year 946, twenty years after his Majesty the Emperor Yazdegird. 2. I, servant of the Faith, Marzpan Freton Vaharom Rotastam Bundar Shamartan Dinyar, wrote from the copy of Erdeshir Vaharamshat Rostem Vaharamsha. He had transcribed from the copy of the Aerpat- {Ervad-} born Spenddat Mazdin-khvast of Zadspram, of immortal soul, may whose holy souls be in the abode of harmony {Garothman}! May it be so! 3. I wrote and deposited it for ...... 4. May he use it up to a hundred and fifty years with devotion, goodness, and faithfulness! 5. May he entrust it after a hundred and fifty years to faithful children having innate wisdom! 6. May he live on earth according to the desires of his material life. May he be in spiritual life according to his soul's desires! 7. May whoever will read it, study it, just when he made or will make a copy therefrom consider me worthy of prayer for forgiveness, after my passing away, me who am desirous of the readers who would thereby become very steadfast to religion and of good intellect! 8. I who wrote have written it for the possession of those of mine, for my children. 9. May they use it up to a hundred and fifty years, as I stated above. 10. (Av.) “There is one path which is of piety {Asha}, all other paths are no [311] paths." {Yasna 72.11} The path of righteousness {Asha} is only one, all the others are no paths. 11. Aerpat Erdeshir Vaharamsha Rostahm Vaharomsa completed his copy in the province of Kerman which they call Patashkhvargar in the religious texts. He transcribed it in the Nask "Jamasp admonished Vishtasp.”


1. Completed with propitiation, gladness, and joy, on the day of Tir, and in the month of Adar, and the Parsik year 936, twenty years after his Majesty the Emperor Yazdegird son of Satriyar. 2. I, Mitr-awan Anosha-ruban Rostam wrote well with carefulness this book of immense explanations. I wrote it for the sake of possession of my cousin and deposited it. 3. May he use it up to a hundred and fifty years, with devotion, goodness, and faithfulness! 4. And may he entrust it after a hundred and fifty years to faithful children and children having innate wisdom! 5. May he live on earth according to the desires of his material life. May he be in spiritual life according to his soul's desires! 6. May he who will read and study, and will make a copy therefrom, remember me and Khvareh-peroz Spandar Khvareh-peroz for whom I made this copy for goodness of name and purity of soul. 7. Then may his material life be of good celebrity on earth and may his soul be pure in the spiritual life. 8. (Av.) "There is one path which is of piety {Asha}, all other paths are no paths." The path of righteousness {Asha} is only one, all the others are no paths.

As the world will not remain constant to any,
It is better that his goodness remains in memory.
The world is a permanent memory and we are to go,
Nothing remains unto man save humanity.
Commit not sin, O Shahrayar! so long as thou canst,
A sin owing to which the soul may feel ashamed.
Choose harmlessness and benevolence,
As this is the teaching and usage of religion {Den}.
[313] Secondly, keep your soul wakeful,
Turn not around evil deeds, so long as thou canst.
Many kings are remembered in the world,
Jam {Jamshed}, and Faridoon, and Asfandiyar
There is in the path an oppressor like the wind,
The oppressed, like the earth, remains eternal.
          -Mihirawan Anoshiravan Rostam.




I, servant of the Faith, Dastur Rostahm-i Goshtasp Erteshir, saw this book which Gopatsha Rostahm Bundar has written; I liked it, I set it right, so that whoever may read it may pray for the immortality of his soul! May it be so!


I, servant of the Faith, Dastur Jemshet Dastobar Jamasp Dastur Hakim, saw this book which Gopatsa Rostahm Bundar has written; I read it, I liked it, on the day of Amurdad of the month Ardwahisht, in the year 1113, after the Emperor Yazdegird.


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