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Greater Bundahishn

Translation by Behramgore Tehmuras Anklesaria.

This digital edition 2002 by Joseph H. Peterson. Comments in {} added by JHP, mainly to facilitate searches. Punctuation and spelling has also been normalized to conform with other texts in this series.


0. As regards the whereabouts of the lakes.

1. One says in the Scripture, “These several springs of waters which are called lakes have come into appearance, similar to the eyes of men they are the eye lets of waters; such as Lake Chechast, Lake Sobar, Lake Khvairizem, Lake Frazdan, Lake Zaromand, Lake Asvast, Lake Husrub, Lake Sataves, Lake Urvis.

2. I will mention their details:

3. Lake Chechast in Atarpatakan is of warm water, opposed to life, that is, there is nothing animate within it. Its source is connected with the Ocean Frakhvkart.

4. Lake Sobar is in the land of Awar-shatr on the summit of Mount Tus. As they call it "the shore of profit" and the benefic eye, goodness, increase and liberality are produced from it.

5. As regards Lake Khvairizem one says, “Wealth, riches, good fortune, beseemingness, and good delightfulness of Ashishwangh are produced from it."

6. Lake Frazdan is in Sigistan. 7. They say, “It will accept anything a free-born holy man may throw into [117] it. It will throw it out again if one be not holy." 8. Its original spring is connected with Frakhvkart.

9. Lake Zaromand is in Hamadan.

10. As regards Lake Asvast, it is manifest that it has undefiled water which is always flowing into the seas. 11. It is so shining and glorious as one would say, “Did the sun's light come or did [I] see Lake Asvast?" 12. The water is requisite in order to restore the dead at the renovation of the universe.

13. Lake Husrub is at a distance of four frasangs from Lake Chechast.

14. Lake Sataves is that of which I have written, between the ocean Frakhvkart and the Putik.

15. They say, “In Kamindan there is an abyss from which [smoke] always comes out; it does not accept whatsoever they throw into it except an animate object. When one throws an animate object into it, it drags it down." 16. Men say, “There is a spring of duzakhv {hell} in it.”

17. Lake Urvis is on the lofty Hukar.


0. As regards the whereabouts of animals of five kinds.

1. One says in the Scripture, “When the sole-created ‘Gav' passed away, fifty-five species of corn and twelve species of medicinal herbs grew up from there where her pith dropped."

2. As one says, “Out of the pith did grain sesame grow,” -- even the pea itself is a pith on account of its pithy nature; -- “out of the horns grew vetch; out of the nose the leek; out of the blood the gourd of the grape," -- from which they prepare wine; therefore is wine [very powerful] for increasing the blood; -- “out of the lungs the rue herbs; out of the middle of the liver [the tendrils of] wild marjoram," in order to keep away the stench of [Akoman and to oppose [119] the 'bes' poison; -- "and] each one of the rest so grew up."

3. As [one says] in the Avesta, ["One species of corn that was produced at the original creation, being produced in the astral body of the horse, became three divisions there, and then it was brought on to the river Arang." There is someone who has called it rice, there is some one who has called it wheat consuming water.]

4. Having carried the seed of the 'Gav' up to the Moon station, they purified it there and created forth, out of it, the beneficent animals of many species; first, two gavs, one male and one female, and then a pair of every species appeared on Eranvej within the Earth over eight hathras which are equal to three frasangs.

5. As one says, “On account of the valuableness of the 'Gav,' [I] produced her twice, at one time as 'Gav' and an other time along with the beneficent animals of many species.”

6. For thirty days and nights they remained without food. They first drank water and then ate vegetable.

7. He then created forth the beneficent animals [in] three divisions.

8. As one says, “First, the goat and the sheep, then the camel and the boar, and then the horse and the ass."

9. For He first produced those fit for grazing, those that are kept in the meadow. Secondly He produced those passing over the mountain, that are moving widely, and those flying on wings; they are not tamable by the hand. Thirdly He produced those dwelling in the water and those dwelling in the burrows.

10. As, [in these three divisions, there are five genera: the first genus is that of the cloven hoofs, of those that are fit for grazing, of which the camel is the largest and the goat dressed for haggis is the smallest when newborn. The second genus is the ass-hoofed, of which the fleet horse is the largest and the [Georgian] ass the smallest. The third genus is that of the five-fingered paws, of which the dog is the largest and the squirrel the smallest. The fourth genus is that of those flying on wings, of which the three-fingered 'saena' is the largest and [121] the pheasant the smallest. The fifth genus is that of those dwelling in water, of which the Kar fish is of the greatest [rank] and the smallest is 'namatu.'

11. These five genera are divided into two hundred and eighty-two species.

12. First, five species of goat: the large goat, the small goat, the mountain goat, the ram, and the goat.

13. Second, five species of sheep: that with tail, that without tail, the 'dog-sheep,' the horned sheep, the ‘Koresha' sheep, whose horn is large, resembling the horse, has three humps, and they use it as steed.

14. As one says: “[Our grandfather] Manushchihr had a 'Koresha' as steed."

15. Third, two species of camel, the mountain one and that fit for grazing. For one is fit to keep on the mountain, and the other on the plain, which are one humped and two humped.

16. Fourth, fifteen species of ox: the white, clay-coloured, red, yellow, black and piebald, the mountain ox, the buffalo, the giraffe, the bull fish, the porpoise, the 'san,’ the 'Frash' ox reared for slaughter, the sea cow, and other species of ox.

17. Fifth, eight species of horse: the Taji {Arabian}, the Parsi, the mule, the ass, the onager, the hippopotamus, and other species of horse.

18. Sixth, ten species of dog: the 'pasush-horv' [which is the shepherd's] the ‘vish-horv' which is the house protector's, the 'vohunazg' [which is the herdsman's,] the 'taruna,' the beaver of the water which they call the castor, the fox, [the ichneumon which they call] the weasel, the porcupine which they call 'thorny back,' the otter, and the squirrel; two species [of] which have the instinct to live in burrows, such as the fox and the ichneumon, and two have the instinct to live in the forest, such as the otter which has spines on its back, and the porcupine.

19. Seventh, five species of hedgehog, that is, the hare: two species swift in running, [one] species ..., one is a dweller in the burrow, and one is a dweller in the forest. [123] 20. Eighth, eight species of weasel: the marten, the sable, the [garden] squirrel, the creeper, the ermine, the white ermine, and other species of weasel.

21. Ninth, eight species of musk animals: one is that which is known for the musk, one the musk animal having a bag, even that which is with two legs: the Jerboa, the Besh-mushak which eats the besh-poisonous herb, the black mongoose which, [as] it is the opponent of the venomous serpent, is numerous on the sea [-side], and other species of musk animals.

22. Tenth, one hundred and ten species of birds: its thirteen species: such as the 'Saena' bird, the Karshipt, the eagle, the vulture which they call the black eagle, the crow, [the owl,] the cock [which they call the parodarsh {cf. Vd18.15}, and] the crane.

23. And eleventh, the bat; of these there are two which have milk in their breasts and suckle their young ones: the Saena bird and the bat, which fly at night. 24. As one says, “The bat is classed in three species, in the genera of the dog, the bird, and the muskrat;" for they fly like the bird, they [both] have teeth like the dog; and are dwelling in the holes like the muskrat.

25. He distributed these one hundred and ten species of birds into eight classes; He so dispersed them as when a man scatters seeds, and drops the seeds in his fingers onto the ground, large, middling, and small.

26. Twelfth, He produced ten species of fish: first, the fish Araz, the Arzuka, the Marzuka, and others having Avestan names.

27. Then, within each species, species within species are evolved till the completion of two hundred and eighty-two species.

28. As regards the dog, one says, “He was produced from the Star station, that is, from that side of the constellation Seven Bears {Haptoring}, at the distance of a yujyast from men, for the protection of the beneficent animals, as an intermixture of beneficent animals and men. He is called 'sak' for this, because he is one third of man. He produced [125] him agile, having his own boots and his own dres, sleepless, diligent, wakeful, having fourteen teeth, having sharp teeth, and leader of the flock; for that flock of sheep remains very boldly with which the dog is. [He protects] against the greater fear [when the tiger arrives, and against the smaller fear when the jackal arrives.]

29. He Ohrmazd spoke, when He produced the falcon bird, that is, the sparrow hawk, “I have produced thee, O Varigak bird! I have greater affliction than delight from thee; for thou dost the will of the Evil Spirit more than that of mine. Like the wicked man who is not sated with wealth thou too art not satiated with the slaughter of birds. But, if I had not produced thee, O bird Varigak! he, the Evil Spirit, would have produced the winged wolf who, in thy astral body, would not have allowed the creatures to live."

30. He produced the beneficent animals in all these species for this purpose that when the Evil Spirit would destroy one, another might remain, [and owing: to its not being possible to destroy, he might make less endeavour to destroy.

31. This too one says, “He first created forth the beneficent animals in the month of summer, that is, the month of Frawardin, day of Ohrmazd, in the beginning of summer, and they became with young in the Frawardin month, next year.”

32. Amongst them, the camel and the horse were those who first thought of desiring offspring, and it was the pig who last thought of it.

33. Within nine years, these beneficent animals came to the seven regions of the Earth, within three years to the six regions, and within six years to Xwaniratha.

34. As one says, “First the Kar fish, that is, the Araz, descended to Sawahi through the waters of the Arang, the beneficent animals proceeded to Wourubareshti and Wourujareshti, the Saena bird to the ocean Frakhtkart, and the powerful horse to Fradataps and Vidataps."

35. They went there six months before the flying [127] birds. Within a year's duration there arrived the mountaineers, besides the Saena bird. Within two years, there came the aquatic and those living in burrows, besides the Kar fish. Within three years, there came the grazing animals, besides the horse.

36. There was amongst the oxen that one, such as the ox Sriso, whom they call 'Hadhaya;' amongst the asses the ass with three strides; amongst the birds, too, the Chamrush; and amongst the fishes the 'Vas-i panchasatvaran.'

37. l will narrate their deeds in their own chapter.]


0. As regards the whereabouts of mankind.

1. One says in the Scripture: ["I created forth ten species of mankind": first, the shining and white-eyed, that is Gayomard, up to ten species: as the ninth from Gayomard was again one Gayomard, the tenth was the monkey, which one says is the lowest of mankind.

2. When illness came to Gayomard, he fell on the left hand side. 3. There came into manifestation lead out of his head, tin out of his blood, silver out of his marrow, iron out of his feet, copper out of his bones, glass out of fat, steel out of his arms, and gold out of life's departure, which owing to its valuableness men now give along with life.

4. From the left side, deathfulness entered into the body of Gayomard; and thereupon deathfulness came to all the creatures up to the renovation of the universe {Frashegird}.

5. When] Gayomard emitted the seed whilst passing away, they filtered the seed by means of the light of the Sun; Neryosang guarded two parts of it, and Spandarmad accepted one part; and [it remained within the earth] for forty years.

6. [On the completion of forty years,] Mashye and Mashyane grew up from the earth in the astral body of a 'rivas' plant having one stem of fifteen leaves, [129] in such wise that their hands rested behind over their shoulders, and they were joined to each other, of the same height, and of the same product.

7. Betwixt them both light came up; and they were of such uniform height that it [was] not evident which was the male and which the female, and [with] which [of them] was the light [given by] Ohrmazd, [that is, the light onto which the seed of the mortal being was affixed.]

8. As one says, “Which was produced first: the light or the material body?' Thereupon Ohrmazd replied, 'Light was produced first and then the material body';" He has given within the body that which He has produced; that is, He destined one's own allotted work and affixed the body onto the allotted work. 9. Its explanation is this: the soul is produced first, then the body; [the soul conducts the allotted work within the body.

10. Then] both of them changed from the astral body of a plant in to the astral body of a man, and that light, which is the soul, entered spiritually into them, that is, verily, they had grown up in the semblance of a tree, whose fruit was the ten races of mankind.

11. He Ohrmazd spoke to Mashye and Mashyane, “You are the seed of man, you are the parents of the world, you have been given by Me the best perfect devotion; perform work and lawfulness with perfect devotion; think good thoughts, speak good words, do good deeds, and do not worship the devs."

12. They both first thought this, when they thought of each other, “He or she is the seed of man." 13. They first did this deed when they proceeded, they made water. 14. They first uttered these words, “Ohrmazd gave the Water, the Earth, the Tree, the Beneficent animal, the Stars, the Moon, the Sun, and all good whose manifestation is from the immutable law," [one says] cause and effect.

15. Then the Adversary attacked their thoughts and vitiated their minds. They exclaimed, “The Evil Spirit gave the Water, the Earth, the Tree, and other things," [131] as aforesaid. 16. This is [the first] false utterance, [which they are constrained] to utter by the compulsion of the devs; the Evil Spirit appropriated from them this first satisfaction that owing to that false utterance they both became wicked, and their souls will be in the wicked existence until the final material life.

17. For thirty days they were in search of food and put on garments of grass. 18. After thirty days they came up to a white-haired goat in the desert, and they sucked the milk from the udder with their mouths. 19. When they had drunk the milk, Mashye [spoke] to Mashyane, “My tranquility was owing to this that I had not drunk the live milk; I have greater tranquility [than that] now that I have drunk it, there is satiety to my body.” 20. Even owing to that second false utterance strength came up to the devs. Their taste of food was taken away, so much that out of a hundred parts one part remained. 21. Then, after [other] thirty days, they came to a young sheep having white jaws, whom they slaughtered; they kindled fire from the wood of the lote and the box trees, by the guidance of the spiritual Yazads, as both these woods are much productive of fire; they kindled the fire [even] by their mouths; they first burned as fuel the pronged oxyacanth, the mastic and the fibres of the palm tree. They made a roast of the sheep. They dropped three handfuls of the meat into the fire and said, “This is the share of the Fire," and they tossed a portion of the rest to the sky, and said, “This is the share of the Yazads." 22. The bird vulture, having glided by, carried it away from them, as first the dogs ate the meat.

23. They first put on skin garments; then they wove [cotton cloth] in the desert, and having prepared garments of the woven cloth, they put them on.

24. They dug a well in the earth. They melted iron. They beat [the iron] with stone. They prepared a sharp edge from it, and having cut wood therewith, prepared the wooden utensils. [133]

25. The devs became very violent, owing to the gracelessness which they practised. 26. They bore sinful malice amongst themselves, advanced against and smote each other, and tore each other's hair and face.

27. Then the devs shouted out of darkness, “You are human, worship the devs, so that your malice may subside." 28. Mashyane sprang forward, and having milked a cow's milk, sprinkled it towards the northern quarter. 29. Owing to that [dev worship], the devs became very powerful; they made them both so dry backed that they had no desire for intercourse for fifty years, and even when they would have intercourse, they had no begetting of children; and on the completion of fifty years, [they] forthwith thought of the desire for progeny, first Mashye, and then Mashyane; for he, Mashye spoke to Mashyane, "When I see thy stomach, my organ of generation is much excited;" then Mashyane spoke, “Brother Mashye! when I see thy organ of generation excited my stomach trembles.” 30. Then they fulfilled their desire together and during the satisfaction of desire which they accomplished, they reflected thus, “Even our duty for these fifty years [ought] to have been this." 31. From them was born in nine months a pair of female and male; owing to the sweetness of the children, the mother devoured one, and the father one. Then Ohrmazd [removed] the sweetness of the children [from the thoughts of the begetters, and left to them as much as requisite for the bringing up of the children]. 32. From them there were six twins of male and female, all brothers and sisters [made ] wives; they were [all the first six pairs with Mashye and Mashyane]. 33. There was issue from each one of them in the fiftieth year, and they themselves died in the hundredth year. 34. One of those six pairs was the man named Siyamak and woman Vashak. From them was born a pair, who were the man Fravak and woman Fravaken by name. 35. From them fifteen pairs were born, every pair of whom became a race, and from them there was the full progress of the world. 36. Out of which fifteen races of theirs, nine races, having [135] emigrated to the other six regions on the back of the 'Gav Srisok', through the ocean Frakhvkart, made their settlement there, and six races remained in Xwaniratha; and of those six races, one pair was the man Taz and the woman Tazak by name; [they] remained [in] the 'Dast-i Taziyan.’ [And they call the 'Dast-i Taziyan' thus after his name;] and one pair was the man Hooshang and woman Guzak by name, and the Iranians arose from them; and from one pair the Mazendarans arose. 37. In this enumeration are those that are in the Iranian countries, those that are in the non Iranian countries, those that are in the country of Tur, those that are in the country of Salm that is Arum, those that are in the country of Sen that is Chinistan, those that are in the country of Dahi, those that are in the country of Sind, and even those that are in the other six regions, all from the lineage of Fravak son of Siyamak son of Mashye. 38. As the ten races of mankind [that were mentioned in the beginning], and fifteen races which sprang from Fravak, in all twenty-five races, arose from the seed of Gayomard; such as that of those living on land, that of those living in water, the 'var'-eared, the 'var'-eyed, the one legged, those, too, who have wings like the bat, those of the jungle having tail who have hair on the body [like animals whom they call the bear, the monkey, the sea elephant whose height is seven times as much as the medium heights, the ‘vatisti' whose height is one seventh of the medium heights, the Arumans, the Turks, the Chinese, the Dahis, the Arabs, the Sindis, the Hindus, the Iranians, and those, too, who, they say, are in those six regions; and from each of these races many races arose later. 39. Again, there was intermixture because of the Adversary; such as the 'Zangi' who sprang from the race of water and the race of land, the 'gel-awi' who lives both in water and on land, and others who are of these kinds.



0. As regards the whereabouts of womankind.

1. He Ohrmazd spoke when He created the woman, “Even My creation art thou, thou whose antagonist is the race of vicious persons; By Me hast thou been given an orifice nearest the anus with which thou so feelest sexual pleasure as the taste of delicious eatables by means of the mouth. Thou helpest My seed; for man is born of thee therefrom; thou surpassest Me too, who am Ohrmazd. But if I had secured a garment wherefrom I could make man, I would never have created thee, whose antagonist is the race of vicious persons. But I searched in the Water, the Earth, the Tree and the Beneficent animal, on the summits of the mountains and even in the deep ravines; I did not find any garment wherefrom the holy man would be made, except woman whose antagonist is the race of vicious persons."


1. This, too,] one says, “Jam, when [his] light had departed from him, took a she-dev to wife, and gave his sister Jami to a dev to wife, owing to the fear [of] the devs; the ape, the bear, [the resident of the forest,] the tailed being, and other noxious races arose from them; [his lineage did not progress therefrom."

2. As regards the negro one says, "Azi Dahak {Zohak}, during his reign, let loose a dev on a young woman, and let loose a young man on a parik. They performed coition with [the sight] of the apparition; the negro came into being through that [novel] kind of coition.” 3. When Freton came, they went away from Eranshahr, and formed a settlement on the seacoast. Now, [on] the coming of the Arabs, they have again mingled in Eranshahr.



0. As regards the nature of births [from every species.]

1. One says in the Scripture, “Woman readily conceives up to ten nights after she cleans herself from the menses, if men go near unto her;" [so, too, do the mare, the she ass, and the female onager conceive in seven nights, the bitch and the sow in five nights, the ewe and the she-goat in one night, and so too does the ram, so too do those living in the burrows and in the water in one night. 2. And the menstruation of woman, and the menstruation of animals is a state of prolificness; for the animals pass blood when they become prolific. 3. Woman does always conceive when she is free from menstruation, but she readily conceives during those ten nights] when she has cleaned herself from the menses, when the time of conception has come. 4. Whenever the seed of the man is the more powerful a son [comes into being], and when that of the woman is the more powerful a daughter, and when both the seeds have equal potency, twins and triplets are the issue thereof.

5. If the male seed is emitted first, [it becomes fat,] strengthens the female, and she becomes stout. If the female seed is emitted first, it becomes blood, and the female is enfeebled thereby. 6. The female seed is cold and humid, is a flowing from the loins, and the colour is red and yellow; and the male seed is hot and dry, is flowing from the pith of the head, and the colour is white and clayish. 7. The female seed is always emitted first, and goes [up] in the fallopian tubes, and the male seed settles above it, and fills the fallopian tubes; whatever is freed therefrom reverts to the blood, and enters into the veins of the female. At the time of giving birth, [it returns to the breasts] as milk, [wherewith] the female nourishes [the offspring after birth], as milk is always formed from the male seed. 8. [Then, the male seed and] the female's blood [bind a knot resembling milk and bruised wheat, and mix in the fallopian tubes in the orifice.

[141] 9. The seed of the ass remains in the seed state for forty days, that of man, of the horse species, of ox, and of others of this kind for thirty days, that of small animals for fifteen days, that of the dog for ten days, that of the fox for seven days, that of the weasel for five days, and that of the rat for six days. And then it remains in the mixed state for three days. Then the semen becomes blood. It grows within, just like a lump, and the eyes, the ears, the nose, and the mouth grow therefrom. 10. And the hands, the feet, and other limbs, and the entire skeleton and hair are from the father's seed, the blood and the flesh from the mother's. 11. Then the organic parts of the camel become manifest to the mother in six months, those of man, of the horse species, and of the ox in five months, those of the weasel in one month, and those of the rat in fifteen days. And their development, too, is owing to whatever food the mother eats. 12. Then, the camel is born in twelve months, the man, the horse species and the ox in ten months, the small animals in five months, the dog in five months, the fox and the pig in three months, the weasel in two months, and the rat in one month.

13. As regards birds such as the eagle, the black eagle, the Saena bird and others bigger than the flying birds, one says that they are forty days in the seed state, thirty days in the mixed state, fifteen days in the egg formation, and. ten days up to the growth of the feathers; the others are seven nights in the seed state, seven nights in the mixed state, seven nights in the egg formation till maturing, and seven nights up to the growth of the feathers.

14. And this too: the young one of the bird is developed from the yolk which is analogous to the milk; its white is like the flesh of animals. For the egg has as nutrition the yolk and the white. So long as it is in the white, it is living therewith, like the babes who live on milk when they are born. When it has partaken, the white just like milk, it becomes a young one, then it comes out. There is a species which picks its own grain like the fowl, and there is one which, owing to having no wings, is fed by the mother.

[143] 15 The hen, which one calls the bird 'parodarsh' and also “foresighted," rears the egg every day. And there is a time when it lays the egg clandestinely, and there is a time when it does so openly in the midst of men; among the birds the hen alone is of this kind.

16. The starling of the mountain, whom they also call the small 'hera' of the mountain, goes to the summer habitation in summer, and to the winter habitation in winter; it brings forth young ones thrice in a year; the first time, its young one lives in winter, once it lives in cold and warmth, and once in summer. Its young one devours the worms.]


1. These four things, too, one says, are male [and four] are female: the sky, the metal, the wind, and the fire are male, and are never otherwise. The water, the earth, the plant, and the fish are female, and are never otherwise. The remaining creation may verily be male and female.

2. Just as, about the fish, one says that, at the time of the desire for offspring, [they go down] in the running water, and [they descend] into the water in pairs of two, up to the length of a hathra, which is one fourth of [a] frasang, and [in the same manner] they come back [one hathra on the surface of the water], and during that coming and going they rub forth their bodies together. Their sweat and plasma drop betwixt them, [so that] they both become pregnant. [3. In the ocean Frakhvkart, the sea Kamruti, and other sea waters, whereto there is no tide nor ebb nor movement of the water, they fall in, when possible, and propel the water, and in that movement of the water, they behave in the same manner. It seems to them just like the running water. 4. These fish make the desire for offspring in shallow water, and bring forth in deep water. [145] 5. One says of 'Vasi panchasartvaram': of her young ones five hundred mature, of the Kar fish two hundred thousand, -- this is the number which they rear, -- of Arzuka, nine thousand, of Marzuka eight thousand, of Varzuga, seven thousand, of ‘Taka veryo' six thousand, of 'Sapicha atwa' five thousand, of each one of the 'Pashmawa' four thousand, and of 'Sumachit' five thousand young ones mature within a year, 6. These are the names of fish in the Avesta.

7. As the fish, also, have eggs, each pair is in the water, and there is a pair in the egg; it matures the eggs, just like animal by incubation, each one according to its own capacity. When thus reared the fish lays the eggs through that orifice in the stomach on to which the entrance of the egg is connected; she rears the egg in the water and it matures, and the small fish issues therefrom, and becomes as big as that which is its own proportion. 8. When the fish moves into the deep water and lays egg, she does eat the egg. She scatters those which she has no access to and rears them.

9. Even thus do the water, the earth, and the plant mature their produce from their own essence, that is, they have no male.

10. The fish conceive in the month of Shahrewar, that is the religious month of Tir, that is Maidyoshahem; they give birth in the month of Frawardin, that is the religious month of Spandarmad, that is Hamaspathmaidyem.

11. The peacock is the only one of the male birds which rears and lays eggs; for there is even a time when he lays the egg in the sight of men.]


0. As regards the whereabouts of the plants.

1. One says in the Scripture, "Before the advent of the Adversary, there was no thorn nor bark over the plant; then [147] during the aggression, it became full of bark and thorny. For the Adversary mingled with everything [but mingled the most with the plant."] 2. Owing to that reason, there is even a plant which is the most affected such as the 'besh bratun', that is poisonous, and men [and animals] who eat [therefrom] die.

3. Along with the fifty-five species of grain and twelve species of medicinal plants, which have come into being from the sole created 'Gav', ten thousand species [of plants] out of that [one] principal plant, and one hundred and thirty thousand species within [species] of plants have grown [in the earth].

4. The tree of many seeds has grown in the ocean Frakhvkart from all these seeds, whereon are the seeds of all these plants, along with those which have come into being from the sole created 'Gav'; and every year, the 'sen' bird parches that tree, and mingles those seeds in the water, and Sirius seizes them with the rain water and rains them on to all the regions. 5. And the white, healing, undefiled Hom has grown next to that tree, in the stream of Ardvisur; whoever shall eat it will become immortal; they call it the Gokaren tree; as one says, “The death-dispelling Hom"; they prepare immortality therefrom at the renovation of the universe; it is the chief of plants.

6. The plants, verily, are of these several kinds: the wood, the tree, the fruit tree, the grain plant, the flower plant, the evergreen shrub, the garden herb, the spicy herb, the grass, the young plant, the medicinal herb, the gum tree, the fuel wood, the fragrant herb, the oil tree, the dye wood and the cotton plant. 7. I will mention their details.

8. The produce of whatever is not entertainable for the food of men, and is perennial, such as the cypress, the plane, the white poplar, the box, [the grass, the tamarisk,] and others of this genus they call the wood and the tree.

9. The produce of whatever is entertainable for the food of men, and is perennial, such, as the date, the myrtle, the lote fruit, the vine, the quince, the apple, the orange, the [149] pomegranate, the peach, [the pear,] the fig, the walnut, the almond, and others of this genus they call the fruit tree.

10. [The produce] of whatever [is suitable, of that which is not] suitable for [the food of men,] and is perennial they call the tree.

11. Whatever is suitable for [the provisions of] life, whose trunk withers when they remove the crop, such as the wheat, the barley, the rice, the pea, the pulse, the 'gavina', [the purslane, the millet,] the vetches, and others of this kind they call the grain plant.

12. [What] ever has fragrant leaves, is cultivated by the hand labour of men, and is perennial they call the evergreen.

13. Whatever has odoriferous blossoms, and grows in various seasons by the hand labour of men, or has perennial root, and blooms in its season with new shoots and sweet scented blossoms, such as the rose, the narcissus, the jasmine, the 'nastarun', the tulip, the colocynth, the pandanus, the 'champa', the 'heri', .the saffron, the swallow-wort, the violet, the palm-tree flower, and others of this kind they call the flower plant.

14. Whatever has neither fragrant fruit nor fragrant blossom, and grows in its season by the hand labour of men they call the young plant.

15. Whatever is entertainable for the food of cattle and animals they call grass.

16. Whatever enters into cakes they call the spicy herbs.

17. Whatever is entertainable for eating with bread [and food], such as rue, parsley, coriander, 'kakicha', leek, and others of this genus they call garden herbs.

18. Whatever is like bamboo, the reed, the cotton, and others of this kind they call the cotton plant.

19. The pith of whatever is greasy, such as the sesame, the 'gushdana', the hemp, the olive, and others of this kind they call the oil-tree.

20. Whatever one can colour clothing with, such as the saffron, the Brazilwood, the turmeric, the 'vaha', [the 'rangin', the indigo,] and others of this kind they call the dye-wood. [151] 21. Whatever has odoriferous fibre or rind or wood, such as the mastic, the 'rast', the [comely] colocynth, the sandalwood, [the sweet basil,] the marjoram, the camphor, the mountain balm, and others of this kind they call the fragrant [shrubs].

22. Whatever exudes from the crust of the tree, they call the gum.

23. The wood of these trees, when felled, either dry or wet, they call the fuel wood. 24. And all these trees together they call medicinal plants.

25. [They mention all the trees to be of two kinds, of two classes and of one class.]

26. The principal fruits are of thirty species; ten species of them are fit to be eaten inside and outside, such as the fig, the apple, the quince, the cucumber, the grape, the mulberry, [the cluster of dates,] the pears and others of this species; [and other] ten are fit to be eaten outside, and are not fit to be eaten inside, such as the date, the peach, the small apricot of white [breast, the lote fruit, the myrobalan, the 'sar' and others of this species]; those [ten] which are fit to be eaten inside, and are not fit to be eaten outside, are [such as] the walnut, the almond, the pomegranate, the cocoanut, the hazel nuts the chestnut, the tree of Georgia [which they also name the pistachio nut, and] those, too, which [are] more than these, but [these] several [are] the principal ones; [those which they plant with two splits and two stems, such as the 'veh khurmar', the myrobalan, the 'awam', and others of this species they call the grafts.]


1. This, too, one says that every flower belongs to an Amesaspend. 2. [So I say:] the myrtle and the jasmine are Ohrmazd's own, the white 'saman' is of Vohuman, the white rose is of Ardwahisht, the basil royal is of Shahrewar, the [153] sweet basil is of Spandarmad, the lily is of Hordad, the 'champa' is of Amurdad, the mountain balm is of Day-pa-Adar, the marigold is of Adar, the lotus is of Aban, the white 'marv' is of Khwar {Khwarshed}, the narcissus is of Mah, the violet is of Tir, the 'mizvars' is of Gosh, the palm tree flower is of Day-pa-Mihr, the evergreens are of Mihr, the red 'heri' is of Srosh, the 'nastarun' is of Rashnu, the amaranth is of Frawardin, the hyacinth is of Warharan, the yellow 'hart' is of Ram, the fragrant mountain balm is of Vat, the fenugreek is of Day-pa-Den, the rose of a hundred petals is of Den, the ox eye is of Ashishvangh, the tulip is of Ashtad, [the white hom is of Asman, the lady basil is of Zam Yazad, the saffron is of Mahraspand, the 'marv-i Artakhshiran' is of Anagran, the hom of three kinds is Hom Yazad's [own].

3. As regards the saliva of the trees [one says]: Each salivation is a drop of water, and at the base is fire, at a distance of four fingers; and of all the plants squeezed, one says, the lote tree is the [most salivating and the most flower bearing].


0. As regards the chieftainship of men and animals, of everything.

1. One says in the Scripture: “[I] first created the man, Gayomard, brilliant and of white eyes." 2. He was great, but he was not the chief. For Zartosht was the chief; all chieftainship, too, was from Zartosht.

3. The large white goat, which holds down its head, is the chief of goats; [of] their species [it] was the first produced [forthwith].

4. The young white-jawed sheep is the chief of sheep; of their species it was the first produced.

5. The camel having white haired knees with two humps is the chief of camels. [155] 6. First the black haired ox having yellow knees was produced. He is the chief of oxen.

7. First the dawn-coloured horse, having yellow ears, of shining hair and of white eyes was forthwith created. He is the chief of horses.

8. The white ass having cat's paws is the chief of asses.

9. First of dogs the dawn-coloured dog, having yellow hair, was created. He is the chief of dogs.

10. [First] the brown hare was forthwith created. He is the chief of the wide travellers, of those beasts which are not tamable, as they are moving on the mountains.

11. First of birds the Sen of three fingers was produced. It is not the chief; for the Karshipt is the chief, the bird [which] carried the revelation to the enclosure which Jam prepared.

12. First of weasels the white ermine was created; it is the chief of the weasels. 13. As one says: "The white ermine, which came to the conclave of the Ameshaspends."

14. The Kar fish, that is the Araz, is the chief of the water creatures.

15. The Daitya river is the chief of flowing [waters].

16. The Darejya is the chief of the river banks; for, the residence of the father of Zartosht was on its bank; Zartosht was born there.

17. The White forest is the chief of forests.

18. The lofty Hukar, wherefrom the water of Ardvisur springs, is the chief of the summits.

19. Thither where the star Sataves is revolving is the chief of the high level plains.

20. The squeezed hom is the chief of pounded plants.

21. The ‘grama' of the desert is the chief of unpounded plants.

22. The large grained wheat is the chief of corns.

23. The summer purslane, which they also call 'gavars,' is the chief of small-grained corns.

24. The sacred thread-girdle {kusti}, of the width of an arm, is the chief of clothes.

25. The Frakhvkar is the chief of the seas.

[157] 26. When two men come up together, he who is the wiser and more truthful is chief.


1. And one says this, too, in the Scripture: "I have [not] assigned any distinction to all the material existences," that is, all are equal; wherefore, the light of industry is of immense [use] to persons; the worth of him who practises and does that which is good is [great]. For distinction is assigned to the water, for the undefiled water of Ardvisur is worth the entire water which is betwixt the sky and the earth, except the Arang river, created by Ohrmazd. Of trees, the date and the palm tree, which one calls the trees of sublime career, are worth all the trees betwixt [the sky and the earth], except the Gokaren tree with which they resurrect the dead. Of mountains, Mount Haparsen, the base of which is[in] Sigistan and summit in Khuzistan, which one calls the mountain of the whole of Pars, [is worth] all the mountains [betwixt the sky and the earth], except Alburz. And of birds the Chamrus bird is worth all the birds betwixt [the sky and the earth], except the 'Sen' of three fingers.

2. The conclusion is this. Whoever performs a great work, his worth is great.


0. As regards the whereabouts of the fire.

1. One says in the Scripture: "Five kinds of fire are created, such as [the fire Berezi-savang, the fire Vohufryan, the fire Urvazisht, the fire Vazisht, and the fire Spenisht."]

2. The fire Berezi-savang is the fire which glitters before Ohrmazd the Lord. 3. The fire Vohufryan, [which [159] is translated as "the good propagator,"] is that which is in the bodies of men and animals. 4. The fire Urvazisht is that which is in the plants. 5. The fire Vazisht is that which is in the cloud, which encounters Spenjagra in the combat. 6. And the fire Spenisht, which, [is translated as "the Beneficent,"] is that which is kept in use in the material world and also the fire of Warharan.

7. Of these five fires, one consumes both water and food, as that which [is produced] in the bodies of men [up to the testes. Its allotted work is to digest food and water.] One consumes water and does not consume food, as that which is in the plants, which lives and grows by means of the water. One consumes food and does not consume water, as that which they have in use in the world and also the fire of Warharan. One consumes neither water nor food, as the fire Vazisht, the Berezi-savang, and that which is within the earth, the mountains and other things.

8. Ohrmazd [forthwith created] them, [these three fires, which are the fires Farnbag, Gusnasp, and Burzin Mihr], since the original creation, like three lights, for the watching of the world. They ever glittered, [with gloriousness, in that astral body, in the world.] 9. And in the reign of Takhmurup, when men were passing, on the back of the 'Gav Srisok', from Xwaniratha to the other regions, one night, the middle of the sea was agitated by the wind, [and at the rear of the sea] the fire altar, wherein was the fire, as it was set in one place, on the back of the 'Gav,' fell into the sea with the fire. And all these three fires were glittering, like three lights, on the seat of the fire altar, on the back of the 'Gav,' so that there was light and those men again passed over the sea. 10. And Jam [used] to do all his works, during his reign, very well with the help of all those three fires. He had established the fire Farnbag in its proper place on the Khvarehmand mountain in Khvairizem. When they slew Jam, the fire Farnbag saved the glory of Jam from the hands of Dahak {Zohak}. 11. In the reign of king Vishtasp, by revelation from the Scripture, [161] they established it; out of Khvairizem, on Mount Roshan in the country of Kavulistan, as it remains there even now.

12. The fire Gushnasp used to protect the world, in that manner, until the reign of Kay Khosraw. When Kay Khosraw was razing the idol temples of Lake Chechast, it settled upon the mane of his horse, dispelled the darkness and gloom, and produced light, till he razed the idol temples. He forthwith established fire altars, in the same locality, on the Asnavand mountain. [For that reason they name it ‘Gushnasp,' because it had settled on "the mane of the horse".]

13. The fire Burzin Mihr was moving in the world and was protecting it, in the same manner, until the reign of king Vishtasp. 14. When Zartosht of immortal soul brought the revelation, [it demonstrated many things visibly,] in order to propagate the revelation, and make men without doubt, [so that] Vishtasp and his children might stand by the revelation of God. Vishtasp established it in its proper place on Mount Revand, which one calls the "Support of Vishtasp."

15. This material fire is the body of all these three fires and of all the Warharan fires. This glory of theirs resides in it. Resembling the body of man when it becomes in the womb of the mother, a soul from the spirit world sits over it, which verily governs the body while living. When that body dies, the body mingles with the earth, and the soul reverts to the spirit world. [16. It is also when they unite with it one thousand material fires, give the 'zaothra' to it, and establish it in its proper place with the ritual which is known, a spirit sits over it from the glory of the fires like those three, too, when they were residing in the material fire. The body of even the other Warharan fires is the material fire, their soul is that glory, which comes from the supernal realm, to be established on it. Even now they are performing, in the same manner, the destruction of the 'druj' and the protection of men. When people will extinguish them, the glory will return to the spirit world. 17. For this reason they call it the fire of Warharan, as all the fires that [163] are in the world have support from Warharan, and protection from Srosh, and they ascribe their unanimous cooperation to that cooperation with Warharan and the fire Farnbag which is the 'athravan' {priest} of the fires, the fire Gushnasp which is the warrior, and the fire Burzin Mihr which is the husbandman. They are the protectors of the world until the renovation of the universe {Frashegird}, as is visibly seen when they move and smite the devs and the drujs, when men say, "A fire has passed off."

18. There are many Warharan fires; a sovereign has established each one of them. Their detail is lengthy. 19. As Faridoon has established the fire Vartastar, which is in Bakhlan, in the Pisha district. 20. The fire Katakan, which Uzob son of Tuhmasp had established in the country, for that reward that he would be invoked. 21. Frasiyav had established the fire Karkoy as one fire in Sigistan when he wielded the sovereignty of Iranshahr.

22. The other fires are of many names, of large number, and of immense propitiations, from the reign of Vishtasp, when revelation came, up to the end of the Sasanians, all of which were counted as Warharan fires, many of which were extinguished in the reign of the Tajis {Arabs}, many of which still exist, each one being known as established by a sovereign.

23. As regards the fire Paramkar, it is manifest that it is burning without fuel. Smoke during the day and fire at night are visible. It accepts a clean thing when they throw it over it, and it darts back when they throw that which is defiled. It is not possible to go near it owing to its heat, and none of the sinning sorcerers dares to go to it. They say that it is by the side of the abode of the Vizakan.

24. One says that there is a fire of the same kind in Komish which they name "fire without nutriment." It is not possible to cover it with ashes. It consumes fuel when they place it over it, and it glows likewise when they do not place fuel. There are some who thus say, "That is the fire Paramkar.”



0. As regards the nature of sleep.

1. One says in the Scripture, "First, at the original creation, sleep was produced with the astral body of a man of fifteen years having white eyes." And the devs contaminated it too, like the water, the tree, the beneficent animal, the forest, the mountain, the stone, the flower, and even whatever else is, which is all defiled, whose substance also is mingled.

2. That sleep, which is in the astral body of a stallion horse, four or five years of age, who goes after his females, it , too, approaches men from behind, from the topmost part of the head up to the knees, and lasts for as much period as one can recite three or four 'Yatha ahu vairyo' from beginning to end. It was not produced along with the body, for it was produced separately from the body at the same time. For when the body was produced, sleep was behind it.

3. It is unlawful if men sleep more than a duration of four 'vichasts.' Sleep comes to all men; when one sleeps, it waits before the other. If all men would not sleep, and work with diligence, it would wait. For there is a being such as sleep in everyone's own person.


1. This too, one says, “It is not owing to industry that the land, the waters, and the plants yield fruit, and it is not owing to sleepiness and impotence that they do not yield fruit." For industry, sleepiness, and impotence exist in roan and the animal species.


CHAPTER XX. As regards the sounds.


1. This too one says: "The Chashara tone is that when they employ the pious man lamenting." For this reason he is lamenting, because when a pious man has to lament for the misery which has come up to him from the Evil Spirit with the words, "I want a certain thing" or "I have a certain misfortune," everything that is in the world is to be done in order to set down that misfortune.


2. The 'vin' tone is that with which pious men chant and recite the Avesta. The harp, the lyre, the lute, and all the music which they sing, they call 'vin.'


3. The stone sound is that wherewith they grind corn for pious men, such as that of the mill. They speak of pious men for this reason, because all happiness is produced for pious men, and the wicked, likewise, have participation therefrom. Then everything that they do for pious men and undergo toil, and the clamour which proceeds therefrom is called the righteous sound. It is unlawful when they do for the wicked, and is not to be considered as sound.


4. The water sound is that when water flows forth by flowing, or is lowered from the cloud, or rises towards the cloud, or men and animals pass across it.


5. The plant sound is that when the plant falls on to the earth after it has attained full growth. [169]


6. The land sound is that when they strike something down on it, or they demolish a house thereon, or dig stone from the mountain.


7. One says this too, "When they fell a tree, the tree mingles with the tree which is near that tree."

8. As regards the back and the face of the earth one says, "This is its face whereon the trees grow. That is its back which is behind it, that is, nothing grows underneath it."


0. As regards the whereabouts of the wind, the cloud, and the rain.

1. One says in the Scripture, "The good wind was forthwith created from this earth in the astral body of a resplendent man of fifteen years having white eyes, who has a proper coat, dress and boots, a completely warm outfit, such that when it came up to men, they felt it as pleasant as a body which is with life. And it comes up from the earth like a wine cup. When it blew, a half turning up to the right side of the Sun, and a half turning towards the direction of the Moon, it became manifest at the original source of the river Arang, which is its path on high. Owing to the fear of the devs, it observed everything separately, and blew on strongly with energy. It rent asunder that poison which the Evil Spirit had mingled in the earth and the plant; as, sweeping the poison with the strength of the water, it formed seas therefrom. 2. Then the devs went up for fight from behind the wind. They even contaminated the wind and stunned it. 3. Thereafter, the wind could not come in its own [171] essence, with that valour, over all the regions, and became divided into parts. 4. As one says: "The Evil Spirit spoke to the devs: 'Destroy this wind which is overpowering and valiant, created by Ohrmazd. For if you will destroy this wind, all the creatures will be destroyed by you' ". 5. And in that combat, as Vayu, the lord of long duration, did not come immediately for help, the wind, having been stunned, blew from the inhalation and exhalation of the breath, and the concourse of men and animals. 6. The wind first turned with agility from this region of Xwaniratha to Arezahi and Sawahi, and from thence turned with agility to Fradadhafshu and Widadhafshu, and from thence returned with agility to the region of Xwaniratha. 7. As, to whichever region it comes, from whichever direction it blows, in what ever manner it blows, it unifies everything, cold and warm, and wet and dry. For it brings stench when it passes through stink, good odour when it passes through fragrance, cold when it passes through cold, warmth when it passes through heat, and the substance of anything through which it passes. 8. The wind holds the lower possessions and higher possessions, the possessions of men and of level lands, the possessions of the sea, and the possessions of life, of this earth. 9. The organisation of men and of animals, of everything of time, is by means of the wind. Owing to stupefaction, it blows in excess or defectiveness. When it blows excessively, they call it the vivifying wind. It runs from various directions on account of being divided into parts, and they call it by various names. When it blows profitably, one calls it the good wind; when it blows harmfully, even the vivifying wind is defiled and stunned.


1. As regards the cloud one says, “It is a spiritual agent, which it is not possible to see and to comprehend with material eyes.”

[173] 2. When Sirius {Tishtar} arranges the water in the atmosphere with the strength of the wind, the cloud reaches every place spiritually, and Sirius rains the water, drop by drop, through that agent. If it were not so, the water could not have remained in the atmosphere and been conducted in various directions. It would not have come drop by drop, but in one lump. This, which is visible in the atmosphere, which men call the cloud, is the foam of water. Similar to the foam which accumulates over the top out of a cauldron, and pours down in drops when it has much accumulated. It is proper even if they call it the cloud. For that cloud remains spiritually with any water which goes to the atmosphere, and receives it. 3. As one says, "The cloud is that spirit which bears the material water," which there is one who calls the cloud, there is one who calls the water pourer.

4. At the original creation, it appeared from the direction of the west. For the wind hastened the water thither. One says the original abode of the cloud is there. Even now the wind is driving the water, in the same manner, to the West, and having prepared the cloud, brings it from the West to various directions, and rains the good water. 5. Wherefore Ohrmazd says, "I have forthwith created perfect warmth out of water." That is, men would feel as joyful as a body with life, when the cloud would turn to them.


1. And at the original creation, the cloud came up from the right side of the Sun, just like a wine cup. When it came up for thirty nights and days it produced that rain which undid the poison of the noxious creatures, and the ocean Frakhvkart arose therefrom. 2. After the down pour of that rain, the rain also was defiled owing to the contest of the devs, that is, it was divided into pieces.

3. As that which is written, "The dev Apaush fought [175] with Sirius {Tishtar}, and Spenjagra with the fire Vazisht, during the production of rain, and thunder and lightning were made to appear, and they produced that rain wherefrom salt seas arose.”

4. Even now that battle takes place thrice every year, when Sirius seizes and rains the water. The devs and the sorcerers arrive there for combat, and they hurl those three rains: one, that wherewith they sow the seeds; one, that wherewith the seeds attain to the husks; one, that wherewith the grain ripens and comes out. 5. When it rains in stray showers, owing to the defilement of the devs, and the calamity, injury, and defilement due to excess or defectiveness, Sirius {Tishtar} seizes the water from all the seas, but seizes the most from the ocean Frakhvkart.

6. As one says, "The ass with three strides, which moves forth in the ocean Frakhvkart, causes the entire water of the ocean to trickle by dropping, and casts the water towards the sides of the ocean."

7. Sirius {Tishtar} alights with the help of the Fravashis of the holy beings and even of other spiritual Yazads, has in his hand a large cup of rain which they call "a cloud for a pot for measurement." First he lays it over the water, secondly he turns it round, and thirdly he fills it, shakes it, and lifts it up, and ascends towards the atmosphere. Then that water advances with alacrity towards the wind, just as when a whirlwind raises a dust storm towards the atmosphere. 8. And the wind too draws and settles the water in that manner, in the atmosphere, by cooperation with Sirius, and conducts it to the various regions. 9. The celestial cloud stands before and rains, as is evident to the eyesight that a whirlwind in the sea carries the water to the atmosphere.

10. Men say, "Sirius {Tishtar} seizes the water with the cloud as the implement, and comes in when the wind seizes the water, so that when Sirius seizes the water from the salt seas, it leaves the saltiness and stench in the seas, and carries up that which is wholesome, and carries and settles everything like a pair of scales, in the atmosphere, until it takes [177] what is completely dense in the atmosphere, and rains drop by drop." 11. When the devs approach for opposition they let loose the cold thereon, congeal the water, and make the water so dry that it cannot rain. Either the drops congeal and snow falls, or they drag the rain from the place where it ought to rain, and pour it over an unprofitable place; as is seen that it either rains excessively on barren earth, or in the sea itself, or on cultivable land, and it does not rain over the place where it ought to rain.

12. When it happens in that manner, the fire Vazisht, as it is fixed in the cloud in order to oppose the dev Spenjagra, melts the water, and strikes the mace on the head of the dev Spenjagra. On account of that mace kindling the fire and melting the water, there takes place an illumination in the cloud, which they call lightning. 13. And when it strikes the mace, Spenjagra makes a dreadful cry which they call thunder. 14. The body of the fire Vazisht, too, is the same material fire which is with the water in the cloud. Its Fravashi is that light which has come to it from the Infinite Light. 15. Even Sirius {Tishtar} and the other celestial Yazads, which are its cooperators, fight likewise with the dev Apaush and its cooperators. 16. When the devs shine, they pour down the rain in parts, for the harm of the creatures, or disable it from benefiting the creatures. When the Yazads shine they produce the rain beneficially and in due measure. 17. As one says, "It rains half, on a day, as befits the Yazads, and the sorcrerers also, the Kiks too, and the devs, produce a half of the rain on the day.”

18. Since those agents for the production of rain, the wind and even the very Yazads producing rain, are in a mingled state, they bring together the water towards the cloud, with the same means, that is, with the strength of the wind, and produce rain. 19. As one says, “The Kiks let loose what the sorcerers have let loose. They let loose that for the affliction of men." 20. And they as well carry that aloft in the water, as they carry it down in the earth, that is, they produce the rain half the day, and [179] that water too returns to the same source of the waters wherefrom they seize them up.


1. One says this too, "At the original creation, when the Evil Spirit came in, on the same day the rain poured over the whole earth, the wind blew over the whole earth, and the Sun shone over the whole earth."


1. One says this too, "When Sirius {Tishtar} carries the water to the atmosphere with the strength of the wind, as whatever is mixed in the water, such as the stone, the fish, the frog, and others of this kind, manifest therefrom, goes with the water into the atmosphere. Since these same things pour back with the rain, as is evident to the eyesight, so that what men call the cloud rains either fish or frog or stone." 2. It is these stones, which it rains back with water, which have become warm in that manner, by the heating of the fire of the atmosphere. 3. This fire which falls, which men also call lightning, is as well of the wells as of the seas, which ascends with the water to the atmosphere. 4. When it falls by the hands of the devs, the antagonists of Sirius {Tishtar}, they seize, heat, and vitiate it with sorcery, defile it with excessive warmth and humidity or with cold and dryness, and bring it back to the world for the harm of mankind.

5. This arch which appears in the sky, which men call ‘thanvare' (= "the bow"), the shields of which are yellow, green, red, clay-coloured and of benignant radiance; and the devs, who rain the yellow and the red, in opposition to the green of Sirius {Tishtar} would contend with the clouds, in order that the rainbow [181] may not appear. And they are those whom they also call the dreadful devs. And whichever has the white light, and is pertaining to the Yazads, is that which would contend with the devs for assisting Sirius {Tishtar.}

6. The whirlwinds too, likewise, are also dreadful devs. Just as when Sirius {Tishtar} raises the water to the atmosphere with the strength of the wind, they raise the dust and the dirt, and carry them for opposing the clouds, and would contend with the clouds in that manner.

7. As regards earthquake it is manifest that even the same dreadful devs obstruct with sorcery the passage of that wind of life, which is the preserver, whilst moving through the fissures of the mountains, so that it may have no movement therethrough. So much earth, the stability of which is owing to that wind, is in tremor, and tears asunder. The wind reaches the base of its passage, and it may either cleave the mountain, or wander over the earth and the seas, or turn the houses and dwellings upside down. 8. And the place where there is no mountain, the earthquake neither approaches nor comes to sight. For it is a passage within the earth, which it is not proper to obstruct. When anything obstructs it, the earth soon splits, and if there is a passage, the earthquake does not appear. 9. For the sinful wind in the world is just as in the body of men. When the sinful wind tarries in their veins for destruction and decrease, and if the wind cannot obtain space for coming and going, the body reckons it a disease, and life seeks an outlet. When it becomes oppressive, the wind of life becomes dormant, and the body dies. And the more the evil admixture, the more oppressive is the sinful wind. So too is it manifest that men become the more sinful, 10. The sinful winds within the, earth, which they also call dreadful, are very oppressive and perpetrate much harm. Their connection too is with these planets, and they derive greater strength from them.



0. As regarding the nature of the noxious creatures.

1. One says in the Scripture, "When the Evil Spirit entered, he intermingled the poison of the noxious creatures, the outgrowth of sin, such as that of the serpent, the scorpion, the large venomous lizard, the ant, the fly, the locust, and an immense number of others of this kind, with the waters, the earth, and the plants." 2. At the time when their growth came into being, they evolved out of these four begetters, and noxious creatures were on earth knee high. 3. And afterwards during the great deluge, when as is said they perished, the infected water which remained in the sea, and that which remained within the earth, passed back into the land, and all evolved anew, in that stage of evolution and astral body, out of these four begetters, that are the water, the earth, the wind, and the fire, and they will all evolve from one another, in the same manner, also by birth. 4. As their essence, lustre of the eyes, and the wind of life are Ohrmazdean, and as their growth of sinfulness and evil desire in the world are Ahrimanean, this, too, is a great advantage that whenever men see them, they slay them or abstain from them. 5. From this, too, it is manifest that they are not the production of Ohrmazd. For their indigenous astral body and complexion are not similar to those of the beneficent animals and beasts. 6. The manifestation of their coming and perpetration of injury at night are due to their being of the same substance as darkness, and they do not refrain from injuring the creatures by experiencing fear, injury, and smiting. 7. Their bodies enter into the composition of remedies with a mixture of drugs, and the benefit of the creatures arises therefrom. For their being is from the four Ohrmazdean elements and begetters. 8. All the noxious creatures are of three kinds: watery, earthy, and winged; they speak of the watery noxious creatures, the earthy noxious creatures, and the winged noxious creatures.

[185] 9. Of the watery noxious creatures the frog, of the earthy the many headed dragon, and of the winged the serpent with wings, are the worst.

10. The serpent, the dragon, the two-headed and the seven-headed 'azdahak', the pointed-lipped, that which removes the slough and scum from the feet, such as the black tailed venomous lizard, the pointed crab, the desert and the land bat, the snake-eared, and that, too, which they call snake like, such as sits over the head of a large serpent, thin and white, of a finger's length, and others of many kinds are all of the serpent species.

11. And the scorpion, the parasite, the sea tortoise, the tortoise, that of the air, that of the abode, and others of this kind are all of the scorpion species.

12. The venomous lizard, the petal snake, and the snakes, too, of the rood and of the desert, and others of this kind are all of the venomous lizard species.

13. Even the round frog, that of the hunting place, the agile, the sphinx having the bezoar stone, that dropping corn, and that urinating sand, and all of this kind are of the frog species.

14. The silk worm, that, too, which is in the fire, as exists on the borders of Khorasan, out of which they dye the red colour, and that too which is in ice, each of which is as big as a band, and others which generate in various things, are all of one species.

15. The corn-carrying ant, that, too, which is biting, that, too, which they name nocturna and friend of clay, the clayey, and all others of this kind are of the ant species.

16. The bee eater and the black fly, the honey bee of three kinds, the spider, too, of several kinds, that, too, which prepares the nest house of clay, all of this kind are of the fly species.

17. There are other locust species, that which kills man, the gnat species, also the raven species, the species of the winged beings, and the frog species, whose details are long.

18. As these noxious creatures are either earthy or [187] even watery. One says that the noxious creatures are all sorcerers and the serpent is the most sorcerous, and does not die unless they kill it.

19. And of serpents there is that too which has venom in its eyes, and kills man by the glance as if it has stung him. There is that too which, from a distant place, drags on to itself and devours ox, sheep, horse, and man.

20. And of dragons there is that too, through whom there is so much evil knowledge that it perpetrates injury just like sinners.

21. The smaller noxious creature of the mud, on account of sorcerous destruction, approaches an eatable thing which they place at a distance from it, it being certain that it has access to it, not through smell or sight, but through sorcery.

22. The ant species too seize grains of food, to which they hasten with sorcerous destruction and therewith seize those of their own kind or the scorpion.

23. The spider variety, too, which digs the nest of clay, lays the worm in that nest, and digs the clay, will either be evolved as a bee eating fly or as the same spider, at the time it digs the clay.

24. Of the bee-eating fly one says that when it evacuates on meat, the worm is evolved therefrom, the mosquito when it evacuates on earth, the gnat when it evacuates in the atmosphere, the cocoon of the black worm when it evacuates on the perch of the pigeon, and the leech when it evacuates in water.

25. Of the ant it is manifest that if they do not destroy its nest for three hundred years, it is re evolved as a winged serpent. 26. This statement was heard from the Dasturs.

27. The winged serpent kills a person when it throws a millstone over him. 28. The Creator has destined the white falcon in order to kill that serpent; so that, when that serpent becomes winged, it goes underneath the heat of the Sun to fell the mill stone over men having life, that they may die; the white falcon goes to fight with the serpent, [189] and kills him; it may be that there is victory for the falcon, and it kills the serpent, or it may be that the serpent overpowers and kills the falcon. If both are of equal strength, both are coiled around each other, and fall dead on the ground, as many a person has seen.

29. Ohrmazd mostly diverts, with omniscience, these noxious creatures to the benefit of the creatures. Just as the bee which prepares honey, the worm from which there is silk and raw silk, the insect of the air which kills the scorpion, the petal snake which kills the snake, and others of this kind, which come like the arrows of the enemies, and do not become inactive, and they dart them back at the very enemies. The creatures too of Ohrmazd arose in the same manner. Just as the fish which kills and devours the fish, the bird which kills and devours the bird, and the beast which kills and devours the beast. And this too is the portent of the battle and the intermixture wherein no purity advances.


0. As regards the nature of the wolf species.

1. One says in the Scripture, “The Evil Spirit produced the dark and thievish wolf, the most worthy of darkness, noxious, of the darkest race, of black astral body, biting, with out hair, sterile, and with that disintegrated astral body, for this reason that when it tears the sheep, first its hair may fall off from its body." 2. He forthwith produced it in fifteen species: first, the black dismal wolf, rough and very intrepid, that is, it enters everything it dares to, and then the other wolf species such as even the tiger, the lion, the panther which they also call the 'kaput', the hunting panther, the hyena, the fox which they also call the jackal, the cave digger, the crab, the cat, that which is winged such as the owl, that which is watery such as the water drinker, and even the noxious creature of the jar which they name the wolf of the [191] water, the dark-bodied, and other aquatic species of species which are in the water species, just like other beasts, up to the production of the four-footed wolf which goes in flock when it is small.

3. He, the Evil Spirit, spoke when he produced the crab, "By me art thou created, thou who art the crab, of the wolves the most productive of pest, that I have even this happiness owing to thee that what thou strikest the teeth in, thou piercest and makest impure, and whoever eats that, without doubt the pain owing to that does not decrease. When thou bitest man, cancer is produced in the body." 4. Of these wolf species the crab is the worst. 5 As one says, "The good deed of him who kills four lion wolves will be as much as he would kill one dark-tailed crab."

6. The Dasturs say this, too, from the Scripture, "The Evil Spirit wished to produce these wolf species clandestinely, in the semblance of fever, disease and other evils, so that when they approach men, men may not see them. And Ohrmazd, for the sake of great advantage, formed their models, and showed them at the time to the Evil Spirit. 7. Thereupon, on account of after wit, the Evil Spirit clattered, 'Ohrmazd himself did that which I chose to do.' 8. Having attached the evils to those models, he made them corporeal, and the creatures ought to abstain the most from them." 9. From this too it is evident that the formation of their models is resembling that of the precious dog and analogous to the beasts, and not in the manner of noxious creatures. There are even some whom men avoid on account of fear, and there are some who are delighted with desire, such as the elephant and the lion, and their corporeality is due to the four generators: water, earth, wind, and fire.


0. As regards various things, that is, in what manner they are created, and what antagonism came to them]



1. One says in the Scripture, “The white Hom, which they call the Gaokarena tree, which has grown in the ocean Frakhvkart, in the deep lake, is requisite for the performance of the renovation of the universe, as they will prepare immortality from it." 2. And the Evil Spirit, in opposition to it, has produced a lizard in that deep water, so that it may despoil the Hom. 3. And in order to restrain that lizard, Ohrmazd has there created two Kar fish, which are always encircling the Hom, so that the head of one of those fish is always towards [the] lizard. And these fish also have spiritual food, that is, they do not require food, and they will be contending up to the renovation of the universe. And there is a place where those fish are written of as the Araz of the water. 4. As one says, "The greatest of the creatures [of] Ohrmazd are those fish, and the greatest of the [creatures] of the Evil Spirit is that lizard, in body and vigour. They cleave into two parts whichever of both the creations [are] betwixt them, except that one fish which is the 'Vasi Panchasatvaram.' " 5. This too one says, "Those fish are so sensitive that they comprehend a sensation as minute as a sharp needle in the deep water, whereby the water increases or decreases."


6. About the 'Vasi Panchasatvaram' it is manifest that it goes in the ocean Frakhvkart. Its length is so much that when it hastens with a swift pace, and [proceeds] from dawn till when the day goes down, it has not gone as much as its own length of that big symmetrical astral body. 7. One says this too, "Even immense creatures of the water live owing to its chieftainship."


8. The seeds of all the trees are on the tree of many seeds which has grown in the middle of the ocean Frakhvkart; -- [195] there is one who calls it the good healer, and there is one who calls it the diligent healer, and there is one who calls it the all-healing. -- 9. Within its bark nine [mountains] are created; those mountains, full of tunnels, have nine thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine myriad [streams]. Within those mountains half of the waters is consigned, that is, the water proceeds from thence through the passage of those streams, to the seven regions of the earth, as the source of the entire water of the seas of the seven regions of the earth is from thence.


10. As regards the ass with three strides one says, "It stands in the middle of the ocean Frakhvkart. It has three feet, six eyes, nine mouths, two ears, one horn, [ash-coloured head,] white person, and spiritual food, and it is holy. 11. Of those six eyes of its, two are in the position of the eyes, two on the top of the head, and two in the position of the hump. And by means of those six eyes it smites and destroys [the worst disease and] pest. 12, And of those nine mouths, three are in the head, three in the hump, and three inside the flanks. And each mouth is as big as a house. It is itself as large as Mount Khvanvand. 13. And when each one of those three feet is placed, [it covers] as much ground as when a thousand sheep sit down in a circle by sitting together. A pastern of its foot is such as a thousand men with horses and a thousand chariots can pass in there through. 14. And those two ears surround the districts of Mazendaran. 15. And that one horn is as it were golden and hollow. A thousand [other] horns have grown therefrom, some of which are as big as camel, some are as big as horse, some are as big as ox, some are as big as ass, great as well as small. By means of that horn it destroys and shatters all the worst pests of the fighting noxious creatures.

16. When the ass takes a round in the ocean, and bends its ears, it shakes the entire water of the ocean Frakhvkart by [197] shaking, and the water trickles in the direction of Vanawat. 17. When it brays, all the Ohrmazdean female water creatures become pregnant, and all the pregnant noxious creatures of the water cast their young, when they hear that bray. 18. And when it stales in the ocean, all the water of the seas, which is in the seven regions {karshwars} of the earth, becomes purified. And it is even owing to that reason that when all the asses see water, they stale in it. 19. As one says, "If the ass with three strides would not give [purification] unto the water, all the waters which are in the seas would perish owing to the contamination which the Evil Spirit has brought on to the water, for the death of the creatures of Ohrmazd."

20. And Sirius {Tishtar} seizes the water from the ocean Frakhvkart mostly on account of the assistance of the ass with three strides. 21. And ambergris too, it is manifest, is the dung of the ass with three strides; for [even] if its food is mostly spiritual, still it casts away as urine and dung the moisture and the nutrition of the water which goes to its body through the pores.


22. [As regards] the 'Gav Hadhayas,' which they also call Srisok, one says, "In the beginning of creation it transported men from region to region, and at the renovation of the universe they will arrange immortality out of it." 23. And one says [in the Scripture], "It is living by the light of that superman who has prepared a fortification around it, over one third of this earth, lasting till the renovation of the universe {Frashegird}, [when] it is requisite."


24. As regards the bird Chamrush one says, "Many from the non-Iranian districts assemble, every three years," on the summit of Mount Alburz, in order to go to the Iranian districts, for bringing damage and to effect the devastation of the world. Then Burz Yazad comes up from the deep Lake [199] Arang, arouses the bird Chamrush, on the summit of all that lofty mountain, who plucks all those non-Iranian districts [just] as a bird does the grains of corn."


25. [And] as regards [the bird] Karshipt one says, "It knew how to articulate words, and [it] carried and propagated the Revelation into the enclosure prepared by Jam {Jamshed}; and there they utter the Avesta in the language of birds."

26. And as regards the sea cow one says, "It exists in all the seas, and when it bellows, all fish become pregnant, and all the noxious creatures of water cast their young."

27. The Sen bird and the bat will be described in a separate chapter.


28. And about the bird "Of holy love" which [they call] the bird 'Zor-bara Vohuman,' as also the holy bird, one says, "An Avesta is assigned in its tongue; when it speaks the devs flee from it and [do] not [keep] their abode thither. [It prepares its abode in the desert, and remains in non-Iranian districts, for this reason that the devs cannot] hold [their abode thither]." 29. And the devs and the sorcerers seize the nail paring when one has not recited the incantation over it, and dart it like an arrow at that bird and kill it.

30. That bird seizes and devours the nail paring when one has not recited the incantation over it, for this reason that the devs [and the sorcerers] cannot utilise it. When the incantation is recited it does not devour it and the devs can [not] commit sin therewith.


31. All other beasts and birds also are created in opposition to [the devs and] the noxious creatures. 32. As one says, "Which are the birds and beasts all in opposition to the noxious creatures and sorcerers?" [201] 33. This too one says, "Birds all are smart, and the crow is the smartest."


34. As regards the white falcon one says, ''It kills the serpent with wings."


35. The magpie bird [verily] kills the locust; it is created in opposition to it.


36. The vulture contemplating decrepitude, which is the black eagle, is created for devouring dead matter. 37. And so also the crow, the mountain kite, the mountain ox, the mountain goat, the deer, the onager, and other beasts all devour the dead body, and so also other [noxious creatures].


38. The dogs are created in opposition to the wolf species, and for the protection of the beneficent animals.

N, O, P

39. The fox is created in opposition to the 'khshawa' dev.

40. And the weasel is created in opposition to the crab and other noxious creatures of the burrows.

41. So also, [is] the big mouse [created] in opposition to [the crab.


42. The hedgehog] is created [in opposition to] the ant carrying off grain. As one says, "The hedgehog kills a thousand ants every time that it voids urine [203] into an ant's nest ". 43. When the grain carrier goes over the ground, it [therewith] digs a furrow [over it]. When the hedgehog goes over it, the furrow [again] goes away from [over] it, and it becomes level again.


44. The water beaver is created in opposition to the dev which exists in the water. [It makes water, there where the voice of the partridge goes, and the egg of the partridge passes.]

45. The conclusion is this: of all beasts, birds, and fishes, every one is created in opposition to a noxious creature.


46. As regards the black eagle one says, "It sees even from the highest perch, when [there is] a fistful of flesh on the ground. The scent of musk is given underneath its wing, so that if whilst devouring dead matter it smells the stink of the dead matter, it carries back its head underneath the wing, and is refreshed again."


47. Of the Taj {Arabian} horse one says, "He sees if, in a dark night, a single hair lies on the ground."


48. The cock is created a coworker with the dog, in opposition to the devs and the sorcerers. 49. As one says in the Scripture, "Of the material creatures, those that are co-workers with Srosh for the destruction of the druj are the cock and the dog."

50. This too one says, "[The house] would not have been furnished if I had not created the shepherd' s dog, the 'Pasush-haurva,' and the house-protecting dog, [205] the 'Vish-haurva'." 51. For one says in the Scripture, "The dog, with the status of the men of the world, is as smiting the druj [and disease] as the pig [with the status of the cattle of the world.]" 52. For one says, "The pig smites all contamination at a glance. When it grunts, it smites disease. Its flesh and fat are remedies for dispelling pestilence and disease, too, from mankind."

53. Then Ohrmazd has created nothing whatever without utility. For everything is created for some use. When you do not understand the reason of it, you ought to ask the Dasturs. For He has created the paw of the pig, even in this manner, that it may ever smite the druj.


0. As regards the religious year.

1. One says in the Scripture, "I created the material creatures complete [in] three hundred and sixty-five days," that is, the six periods of the Gahambars, which are arranged in a year.

2. One ought always to reckon the day first, then the night. For first the day goes off, and then the night [follows the day, and] comes[in.]

3. And from the season of Maidyoshahem, that is, the 'vehizaki' month Tir {Tishtar} and day Khvar {Khwarshed} up to the season of Maidyarem, that is, the 'vehizaki' month ‘Day’ and day Warharan, the day decreases and the night increases. And from the season of Maidyarem up to the season of Maidyoshahem, the night decreases and the day increases.

4. The [longest] summer day is as much as two of the shortest winter days. The longest winter night is as much as two of the shortest summer nights. 5. And the summer day is of twelve hathras, and a night of six hathras. And the winter night is of twelve hathras, and the day of six [hathras. And] a hathra of time [and a hathra too] of land are of the same proportion.

[207] 6. In the season of Hamaspathmaidyem, that is, in the pentad at the end of the month Spandarmad, day and night again become equal.

7. As, from the 'vehizaki' month Frawardin and day Ohrmazd, up to the 'vehizaki’ month Mihr and day Anagran, [which] become seven months, [is] summer. From the 'vehizaki' month Aban and day Ohrmazd, up to the 'vehizaki' month Spandarmad and the pentad at the end, which become five months, is winter. 8. The Aerpats make decision in respect of dead bodies and other matters in summer and winter from this reckoning.

9. In those seven months of summer, the periods of the days and nights are five. For they do invoke the Rapithwin. As the morning is the period of Hawan, the midday is the period of Rapithwin, the evening is the period of Uzerin, from the time when the stars have come to appearance up to Midnight is the period of Aiwisruthrem, and from midnight up to the time when the stars become invisible is the period of Ushahin. 10. In winter there are four periods; for from the morning up to [the period of] Uzerin is the whole [period of] Hawan, and the rest as I have said.

11. Its reason is this that the progress of winter is from the direction of the north, where the regions Wourubareshti and Wourujareshti are. And the original home of summer too is in the south, where the regions Fradadhafshu and Widadhafshu are. 12. In the 'vehizaki' month Aban and day Ohrmazd, winter acquires strength and enters into the world. The spirit of Rapithwin goes underneath the earth from above the earth, that is, the warmth and humidity of the springs of waters goes into the water, so that the roots of trees may not wither through cold and drought. 13. And in the 'vehizaki' month Day and day Adar, the winter approaches Eranvej with severe cold. And at the end of the 'vehizaki' month Spandarmad, it comes over the whole world.

14. Therefore on the day Adar of the month Day, they kindle the fire everywhere, and make a sign that winter has come.

15. In those five months, the water of the springs is [209] all warm. For Rapithwin preserves warmth and humidity there, and they do not invoke the period of Rapithwin. 16. As the month Frawardin and day Ohrmazd turns up, the strength and preponderance of winter decreases, and summer enters from its original home, and receives strength and preponderance. And Rapithwin comes above [the earth] from underneath the earth, and ripens the fruit of trees. 17. Therefore the water of springs is cold in summer; for Rapithwin is not there, and they do invoke the Rapithwin during those seven months, and summer comes over the whole earth.

18. And still in the direction of Hindustan, that place being nearer [to] the original home of summer, it is always neither cold nor hot. For at the time when there is the reponderance of summer, the rain always dispels the immense heat, and it does not become perceptible. In winter it does not rain, and immense cold does not become perceptible. 19. In the direction of the north, whence is the progress of winter, it is always cold; for in summer, owing to the utmost severity of winter there, one cannot so dispel cold as one might make himself warm. 20. And in places of mean latitude, the cold of winter and heat of summer come on vehemently.

21. Again, the year dependent on the revolution of the moon is not equal to the computed year. 22. For this reason, because the moon returns at one time in twenty-nine days, and at one time in thirty days, the lunar year has that one period of four hours in excess. 23. As one says, “Those who speak by the moon confound everything, unless they say that it comes twice in sixty days." 24. He who arranges the year from the revolution of the moon mingles summer with winter and winter with summer.

25. Note this: the 'vehizaki’ month Frawardin, the month Ardwahisht, and the month Hordad compose the season of spring. The month Tir, the month Amurdad, and the month Shahrewar are of summer. The month Mihr, the month Aban, and the month Adar are of autumn; and the month Day, [211] the month Vohuman, and the month Spandarmad are of winter.

26. And the sun returns to that point, that degree of Aries from which it had started in the beginning, in three hundred and sixty-five days, and five hours, and a fraction, which are one year. As every three months it comes to three constellations, more or less. 27. And the moon returns to the point from whence it had started in the beginning, in a hundred and eighty days.

28. A 'hathra' of land is a 'frasang' of one thousand steps of two feet each. 29. A mean 'frasang' is as much distance as a man of long sight looks onward, sees a beast of burden, and discriminates black from white. 30. A mean month [as is manifest] is six spans of time.


[0. As regards the great achievements of the spiritual Yazads.

1. Ohrmazd protects His creatures with forgiveness, radiance, and gloriousness. 2. His forgiveness is the nourishment of the creatures. His radiance is His bounty over the creatures. His gloriousness is this: the light created by Ohrmazd.

3. As one says, “The benefic light created by Ohrmazd," " The light of the Kays created by Ohrmazd," “The light of Iran created by Ohrmazd," as also “The unseizable light {khwarrah} created by Ohrmazd."

4. The light of the Kays is that which is created with Hooshang, Jam {Jamshed}, Kay Us and other rulers, and the lineage of the Kays too proceeds from it. 5. The light of Iran is that of the Iranians. 6. The unseizable light is that of the athravans; for sagacity is always with them. 7. Ohrmazd Himself is athravan, and one calls it "unseizable light {khwarrah}" for this reason, because Ohrmazd can be invisible, that is, of [213] unseizable light {khwarrah}, amongst the invisible beings. He can be such for this purpose, that the invisible beings may not see Him.

8. The six periods of the year divisions He named 'Rathwo Berezato' wherein He created the creations of material life. The explication of which is this: Ohrmazd the Lord, having fixed the three ‘Days’ {i.e. Day-pa Adar, Day-pa Mihr, and Day-pa Den} within the month, with His own name {i.e. ‘Day’ = ‘The Creator’}, in His own semblance, He Himself sits over the Unapproachable Light, and protects the spiritual and material creatures, being as near even the material as towards the spiritual. Vohuman, Ardwahisht, and Shahrewar stand to His right, Spandarmad, Hordad, and Amurdad to His left, and Srosh in front of Him.

9. And the creatures live by means of the forgiveness of Ohrmazd, they attain to the Best Existence by means of the bountifulness of Ohrmazd, and they will obtain salvation from the Antagonist and attain to the communion with Ohrmazd by means of the gloriousness and omniscience of Ohrmazd. 10. His material symbol is the righteous man. 11. He who will please or distress the righteous man shall have pleased or distressed Ohrmazd.

12. Vohuman's allotted work is introduction. 13. As one says, “The good courageous Vohuman, giver of peacefulness." 14. His goodness consists in introduction, that is, Vohuman carries the righteous to the Best Existence, and Vohuman makes introduction with Ohrmazd. 15. His courageousness is this that when the heroes of the Yazads and even those of Iran make peace, they prosper on account of Vohuman, since he goes in their midst. And when the heroes of the devs and even those of the non-Iranians have unpeacefulness, they repent on account of Vohuman, since he does not go in their midst. 16. His peacefulness is this that he gives peace to all the creatures of Ohrmazd, so that with that peacefulness of his, one can very well achieve the destruction of Ahriman with the devs, the preparation for resurrection and the final material life, and the perfection of immortality. 17. Innate wisdom and wisdom listened by the ears first appears on to Vohuman. He who will have [215] both these will attain to the Best Existence. He who has not both these will attain to the worst existence. He who has no innate wisdom can not acquire wisdom listened by the ears. He who has innate wisdom and has no wisdom listened by the ears, does not know how to utilize innate wisdom. 18. Of all the Yazads Vohuman is nearest the Creator. 19. The beneficent animal and the white dress are his in material life; he who will please or distress them shall have pleased or distressed Vohuman. 20. His cooperators are Mah, Goshorun, and Ram.

21. The allotted work of the moon is the distribution of light to the material existence. For fifteen days it waxes, for fifteen days it wanes. It is like the organ of sex of the males which gives the seed to the females when it grows. Thus the moon too in that manner grows for fifteen days, and dispenses happiness to the earthly beings. It decreases for fifteen days, that is, it accepts duty and good deeds from the earthly beings, and consigns them to the treasure of God.

22. As one says, “The andarmah, the purmah, and the vishaptatha;" for they call it 'andarmah' when it waxes from the first up to the tenth day. It is called 'parmah' when it waxes from the tenth up to the fifteenth day. It is called 'vishaptatha' when it wanes from the twentieth up to the twenty-fifth day. During these three pentads it dispenses light, and during the other three pentads it accepts meritorious acts. 23. Since the connection of the water is with the moon, during those three pentads all the waters rise up, as manifestly seen by the eyes. 24. Trees too grow up better during those periods, and fruit ripens the most.

25. As one says, “The Mah Yazad, distributor of light, full of cloud," that is, the cloud comes mostly on account of it, “fall of warmth," that is, the trees are very warm in the world on account of it, "full of growth," that is, it increases the flock of beneficent animals, "beneficial,” that is, it keeps things fresh, "good, full of prosperity," that is, it verily gives all prosperity and weal, "giver of boon," that is, it immediately gives the boon which they demand justly.

[217] 26. Gosh, that is, Goshorun, is the spiritual soul of the sole-created 'Gav', from whom the beneficent animals of five species came into being. 27. So too is the Hatayans, that is, 'Hadhayash gav', from whom they prepare the immortal beverage at the renovation of the universe. Her allotted work is the nourishment of the creatures.

28. Ram which, one says, is the good Vayu lord of long duration, is Vayu lord of long duration itself, whose allotted work is chieftainship among the spiritual warriors. 29. And when the soul of the righteous will pass over the pass of selection, the good Vayu will hold its hand, and carry it to its own seat. One calls it Ram for this reason, because it is the giver of delight to the entire creation. 30. Even when the evil wind severs the life from the body, the good Vayu accepts it, and gives it resignation.

31. From the eternal time the celestial sky and time came into being. 32. As one says, “The lordly celestial sky, the infinite time, and time the lord of long duration". 33. The celestial sky is that which distributes happiness. Its lordship consists in predominance. Just as the farmers furrow the earth, it too does the work of allotment.

34. A spirit which is coworker with Mihr they name Suk. All happiness, when destined for the world by the supernal workers, first comes to Suk, Suk hands over to the moon, the moon hands over to Aredvisur, Aredvisur hands over to the celestial sky, and the celestial sky distributes to the material world. Those to whom it gives much name it the celestial sky of happiness, and those to whom it gives little name it the celestial sky of evil. And this dispensation too reaches in time, which is of Vayu the lord of long duration, that is 'zrvana,’ which is the weapon of Ohrmazd, that with which He vanquishes falsehood. That too is the dispensation of time which was infinite up to the creation of the creatures, and finiteness is destined up to the end when the undoing of the Evil Spirit will happen, and then it will mingle with this infinity up to eternity and eternal progress. 35. The allotted work of Ardwahisht is this that it will [219] not allow the devs to inflict unto the souls of the wicked beings in the worst existence, punishment greater than is due for the sins which are theirs, and it will withhold them. 36. As one says, “Ardwahisht the excellent, immortal, and beneficent Law immutable". 37. For all persons will go to the Abode of harmony and will become worthy of happiness owing to their working the immutable Law.

38. And even in the beginning of creation when Ohrmazd created forth these six beneficent immortals, He Himself being with them the seventh and the best, He asked of them, “By whom are we created?" Not one of them replied. He asked a second and a third time in the same manner. Then Ardwahisht said, “We are created by Thee.” They, the others too, spoke in the same manner in co-response, and Ardwahisht too repeated it with them. 39. Ardwahisht first assigned the sovereignty to Ohrmazd. Then Ohrmazd recited an Ashem vohu. He forthwith made Ardwahisht the basis of whatever is spiritual. Just as if Vohuman be great, Ardwahisht is the base. Since, at the end of all the rites is the Ashem vohu, which is the excellent immutable Law, the greatest of all things. 40. And Ohrmazd asked thus for that reason, for when they would assign the sovereignty to Ohrmazd, the devs would have smiting and pain therefrom. 41. Fire is Ardwahisht's own in material existence. 42. He who will please or distress fire shall have pleased or distressed Ardwahisht. 43. It has the cooperation of Adar, Srosh, and Warharan.

44. These three spiritual fires are essential in material life: the Farnbag, the Gushnasp, and the Burzin Mihr. And next to these are the other fires, which sit in sanctuaries, which are enshrined in order to smite and destroy the druj, and for the protection of the creatures.

45. As regards the fire Farnbag, one says, “When the soul of the righteous passes away, it arrives thither at the Chinwad bridge, smites darkness, and produces light."

46. Srosh holds the matter from Ohrmazd for protection. 47. Just as Ohrmazd is the chief over spirit and matter, Srosh is the chief over matter. 48. As one says, “Ohrmazd [221] is the protector of the soul in the spiritual state, and Srosh is the protector of the body in the material state." 49. Because ever since they produced the creation, he has not slept well for the sake of protecting the creatures. He comes, along with the major devs, every night to every man, thrice on the same night, so that man may not be dismayed through fear of the devs. And on account of him all the devs involuntarily turn with dismay towards darkness. 50. The souls of the departed reach the pass of selection, under the protection of Srosh. They have therefore to perform all the rite, consecration, and praise offering of Srosh, over the seven regions {karshwars} for seven years. That being of the holy Law sits thither visibly as president. 51. As one says, “I propitiate Srosh of the holy Law, valiant, of august person, of terrific weapon, the lordly." 52. His valour is such that the reverberation of the mace, which he strikes in the East, does not subside till when he has struck it again in the West. 53. His august personality is such that he submits his person to the command of God. 54. His terrificness of weapon is such that the devs are not safe from his blow. 55. His sovereignty is this that. he is the ruler of Arezahi and Sawahi. 56. The Yazad Warharan is the banner holder of the spiritual Yazads. No person is more victorious than he, who always holds the banner for the victory of the Yazads. 57. The allotted work of Shahrewar is the recommendation of the deserving poor to Ohrmazd. The origin of all seniority is from Shahrewar. There is one who calls it 'khshatravar', which is interpreted as "kingship according to will." For this reason, because metal is its own material, one can achieve the entire sovereignty at will, progress, progress of the will, and responsiveness by means of weapons. The instrumentality of weapons of all metals is the spiritual weapon of entire metal, wherewith they vanquish the devs. 58. As one says, “I adore the mace well sheathed, which is aimed at the heads of the devs. 59. Mihr of wide pasture lands and the sun too have metallic weapons in the apertures of Mount Alburz, in order to smite the [223] druj. 60. Metal is Shahrewar's own material. 61. He who will please or distress metal shall have pleased or distressed Shahrewar. 62. It has the cooperation of Khwar {=Khwarshed}, Mihr, Asman, and Anagran.

63. Khwar {Khwarshed} is the shining, immortal, radiant, swift horsed sun. 64. Its immortality is this that final material life shall take place owing to the coining and going of the shining sun. 65. Its having a swift horse is this that it holds as steed a good horse over the light of Drvaspa. 66. Its radiance is this that it has the greatest sheen. 67. And one says this too, "Every night defilement rushes like the mane of a horse, over the earth, the water, and even other pure creations. And when the sun's radiance comes up, it smites the devs over the whole world, and makes it purified." 68. One says this too, "If the sun's radiance would come up one hour later, the devs would destroy all the creations." 69. The sun's radiance destroys gloom and darkness, the devs of the race of darkness secretly progressing pestilence, the thieves, the ‘kavigs,' and the oppressors.

70. The allotted work of Mihr is to adjudge the world with truthfulness. 71. As one says, “Mihr of the wide pasture lands, having a thousand ears and ten thousand eyes." 72. Its having wide pasture lands is this that if one can come and go fearlessly in the desert, it is due to Mihr. 73. Its having a thousand ears is this that five hundred spirits are doing its work of hearing. Its having ten thousand eyes is this that five thousand spirits perform its work of seeing, saying, “O Mihr! listen to this too and listen to that as well; see this too and see that as well.'' It is engaged with the sun every day till midday in this work. Therefore the judge on earth dispenses justice till midday. 74. Of Mihr one says this too, “It is ruler over all the countries, that is, there will be justice to every person and every object whom it approaches, whom Ohrmazd created the most glorious of all the spiritual Yazads." 75. And there is a spirit who is with the Yazad Mihr, whom one calls cooperator of Mihr. Its place is betwixt the moon and the sun.

[225] 76. Asman is the spiritual sky, which holds this sky just like the heroism which men have in their person, so that it did not let the Evil Spirit to return. With it are arrayed shining metals for comradeship.

77. Anagran are the spiritual unapproachable lights, the mansions bedecked with jewels, bored with ruby, and spiritually fashioned.

78. The allotted work of Spandarmad is the nourishment of the creatures, and the perfection of every substance which is in the creations. 79. The earth is her own material. 80. As one says, “The good, bountiful Spandarmad of perfect devotion, dulcet eyed, created by Ohrmazd, and holy." 81. Her goodness is this that she is meek and swallowing insult; it is such that she endures all the injury which reaches the earth of Spandarmad. 82. Her perfect devotion is such that she accepts, with resignation, all the injuries which they inflict on it. 83. Her bountifulness is such that all the creations live owing to her. 84. This holy spirit is created for the purity of the earth, that is, she purifies it when the devs bring defilement onto it at night. 85. This too is her allotted work, that every evening a light from each creation reverts towards Ohrmazd. The light comes at the Ushahin gah to the star station, and the shining dawn accepts it. And at the time of dawn it comes onto the circuit of Urvas, and the holy spirit accepts it. And she comes in the chariot, and every time she entrusts her own light to Him. 86. He who will please or distress the earth shall have pleased or distressed Spandarmad. 87. She has the cooperation of Aban, Den, Ashish {Ashishwangh}, and Mahraspand.

88. The shining dawn {Hoshbam} is that at whose base the sun's radiance comes up. Its lustre is manifest, its body is not manifest, until the sun' s radiance appears when it is the sheen of the dawn. 89. Its allotted work is the preservation of the intellect of men. Even from this it is manifest, that at that time their intellect is very acquisitive, it attains well to objects, learns well, and is thereby very acquisitive. And he too who goes off his intellect, returns to consciousness at that time, if it be not the advent of death.

[227] 90. All wateriness of Aredvisur is that of Anahit, mother of the waters. And when the male seed is rarefied from blood, and also when the females beget and become pregnant again, it is Aredvisur's own work.

91. And the abode of Burz Yazad is there where Aredvisur and the undefiled water are. Its major duty is this that it distributes the water of the ocean to all the regions. This action too of theirs is such that they save the creatures from grave calamity whilst voyaging in the ocean, and watch over the entire glory {khwarrah}. 92. As one says, “Burz, the lord, of the females, of the lineage of the waters, of the swift horse."

93. Hom Yazad in the 'Gaokerena' is the undefiled, healing Hom, through whom the performance of the renovation of the universe will take place.

94. The Dahm afrin is that spirit, that light, which approaches when men offer blessing. For, as the water reverts to the source in that measure as I have said, the blessing too which the good offer comes back to man in that measure. The blessing of the good is the preserver of the wealth which they acquire with industry. It reaches four times every day and night the person of all animate beings, the roots of all the trees, and the summits of the mountains. When one does good, the good reaches up to the expanse of the earth, the length of the river, and the altitude of the sun.

95. Den is the sagacity of Ohrmazd and the refuge of Spandarmad, wherefrom are manifest all the beings that are, that were, and that shall be. And it first became manifest to Vohuman, that is, the good Revelation of Mazda worship, opposed to the dev, of the regulations of Ohrmazd, which has cast off bondage, and laid down arms. The interpretation of which is this that she has shown the devs nature as distinct from the Yazad's nature, wherein there is no wrathfulness, defilement, and evil. For by the acceptance of the Revelation, the frames of the devs broke, and by the rites of Revelation, the Evil Spirit will perish with all the devs. By the rites of Revelation, the strength of all the spiritual Yazads will increase, and the prosperity of Sirius {Tishtar}, the timeliness of the years, the [229] spread of justice by the sovereigns, and all other goodness will accrue. Also by the rites of Revelation they will perform resurrection and the final material life, and immortality and happiness will come to the creatures.

96. Ashi is the spiritual holiness, the best existence, -- there is one who calls her the good Ahrishwang, there is one who calls her Ashishwang, -- the increase of light of the house. For whatever they give unto the worthy persons it shall revert in abundance to that house. She protects the treasure of the good beings. For the best existence too is like a mansion adorned with precious stones. As one says, “The abode which is the dwelling of the good beings." Since all the embodied beings are not following this Revelation of Ohrmazd.

97. The immortal beneficent Airyaman is that spirit which has the cure of all the diseases which are produced for the creatures. 98. As one says, “If I Ohrmazd had not created Airyaman for healing, the disease would not be cured by any medicine which the creatures partake to smite disease". 99. So also do the incantations {nirangs} and spells {awasun} of the Gathas, the holy Gathas, watch the spiritual ritual and light.

100. Mathra Spenta is the Word of Ohrmazd, that is the Avesta, whose interpretation is "the pure praise of God."

101. Neryosang is the messenger of God, that is, he sends the message to all. He is arrayed with the magnates and heroes for giving help in the world. And as regards the race of the Kayanians, one says that he propagates it. 102. As one says, “He who invokes the race of the Kayanians of the lineage of the lordly beings is Neryosang for the progress of the world," that is, those magnates and heroes are to make the progress and government of the world with his help.

103. Hordad is the chieftain of the years, months, and days, as she is the chieftain of all these. Water is her own material. As the existence, birth, and nourishment of all corporeal life are due to water, and the fertility of the land too is due to it. If people can live well during the year, it is on account of Hordad. 104. As one says, “When all happiness comes to the earth from the supernal beings, it comes on the [231] day Hordad, the new year day." There is one who says, “It comes on all the days, but it comes the most on that day."

105. It is manifest, that if in that day men would put on good garments over the body, smell pleasant perfume, take a good omen, remain on a seat far from defiled places and from wicked men, apportion the waters, and consecrate the periods of the day {gahs}, the days, even the 'ayaranam' and the 'asnyanam,' much good will come to them, in that year, and much evil shall be removed from them. 106. He who will please or distress the water shall have pleased or distressed Hordad. 107. She has the cooperation of Tir {Tishtar}, Wad, and Frawardin.

108. Tir {Tishtar} is Sirius, who makes the preparation of the rains, and the nourishment of the creatures.

109. Wad is the spiritual wind who holds this earth, below and above, and he verily disposes the water which Sirius {Tishtar} seizes.

110. Frawardin are the 'fravahrs', the holy 'fravarts,’ those that are before Ohrmazd the Lord, of those born and unborn, who are fighting with the druj in bodily growth. 111. As one says, “The Evil Spirit ever remained silent until he saw the holy man; for only the holy man of most good thought, of most good word, and of most good deed renders that Evil Spirit useless with all the offshoots of the devs". 112. And Sirius {Tishtar} too mostly seizes the water with their assistance. And the holy man who is the victorious Soshyant, will perform resurrection and the final material life.

113. The immortal Amurdad is the chieftain of the innumerable trees. For the tree is her own material, and she causes the trees to grow and the flocks of animals to increase. For all the creatures eat and live on account of her, and even at the renovation of the universe {Frashegird} they will prepare the nectar out of Amurdad. 114. He who will please or distress the trees shall have pleased or distressed Amurdad. 115. She has the cooperation of Rashnu, Ashtadm and Zam Yazad.

116. Rashnu is the spirit of truth who has arrayed even this same sleeplessness. For it is owing to the spirit of truth that the sinful devs cannot destroy the material creatures. [233] Rashnu adjudges even the souls of men as to sins and good deeds. 117. As one says, “Rashnu shall not see thither the rank of the judge who delivers false judgment. And Srosh of the holy Law complains, 'My world is therefore narrow, as truthfulness is not entertained thither.' "

118. And Ashtad also is the indicator of the celestial and the terrestrial path.

119. Zam Yazad is the spirit of the earth.

120. As one says, “These three lights stand up on the bridge Chinwad where Rashnu adjudges the soul, and Ashtad and Zam Yazad cause the soul to pass to the balance."

121. The Parend full of light is of fifty stars, which was created with Ashishwang for the use of the beneficent immortals. 122. As one says, “Parend of the swift chariot."

123. The propitiation of all the spirits and the affliction of all the devs are due to the consecration of these spiritual Gathas, as is evident from the Scripture.

124. And as one says in the Scripture, many specific works are incumbent upon these spirits, the detailed narration of which is long, and this much that is written is a summary.

125. Ohrmazd and the six Ameshaspends, whom one calls all the primary Ameshaspends, that is, they are without death and beneficent, speak to one another, “One must neither think, nor speak, nor do, what they do not think, nor speak, nor do."

126. The law of Ohrmazd's Revelation {Den} is good meditation, his weapon is truthfulness, his work is publicity, and his wish is this, “Do you question, seek, study, and recognise me, for when you do so, you will follow me the most." {Compare with Dk6.31: "It is the desire of Ahura Mazda from people is this: 'Know me', for he knows: 'If they know me, everyone will follow me'. The desire of Angra Mainyu is this: 'Do not know me', for he knows: 'If they know me no one will follow me'." (tr. Shaked)}

127. The Ohrmazdean essence is warm and humid, shining and fragrant, wherein ethereality is forthwith manifest.

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