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Greater Bundahishn [text]

Translation by Behramgore Tehmuras Anklesaria

This digital edition 2002 by Joseph H. Peterson. Comments in {} added by JHP, mainly to facilitate searches. Punctuation and spelling has also been normalized to conform with other texts in this series.







[0. Rejoicing unto the Creator Ohrmazd, Who is Radiant, Glorious and All-knowing, Wise, Capable and the Greatest, -- with good-thought, good-word, and good-deed in meditation, utterance and action, -- and unto all the spiritual Yazads and earthly Yazads.

1. With lucky dispensation and good-omen, I will write, in the second fortunate constellation, during, the primacy of Anosha-ruban Spend-yat Mah-vindat Rustom Shatriyar, the friend of God, of entire wisdom, practicer of piety, friend of righteousness, recogniser of God, spiritual seer, loved by the good, the primate of the good Mazdyasnian Religion, and writer of the Bundahishn.

2. Owing to the coming of the Arabs to Iran-shahr, and their promulgation of heterodoxy and ill-will, orthodoxy has vanished and fled from the magnates, and respectability from the upholders of religion; deep wonderful utterances, and the proper reasoning of things, meditation for action, and word of true reason, have faded from the memory and knowledge of the populace.

3. On account of evil times, even he of the family of nobles, and the magnates upholding the religion, have joined the faith and path of those heretics; and for the sake of prestige, they have defiled, with blemishes, the word, dress, worship and usages of the faithful. 4. He too, who had the desire to learn this science and secret, could not possibly appropriate them, from place to place, even with pain, trouble and difficulty.]



0. [The] Information of the Tradition: first, as regards the origination of Ohrmazd and the opposition of the Evil Spirit; then, as regards the nature [of the earthly] creatures, from the original creation till the end of the final material life, as is [evident] from the Mazdayasnian Religion; [then, as regards the Possessions held from the Kayans; -- with explanation, whereabouts, and detail.]


1. It is thus manifest, [in the good Religion]: Ohrmazd was, forever, at the highest, in the Light, [for infinite time,] owing to omniscience and goodness.

2. The Light is the place and location of Ohrmazd; there is some one who calls it 'Endless Light'; and the omniscience and goodness are, forever, of Ohrmazd; there is someone who calls them 'Revelation'; Revelation has the interpretation of both these; one, that of the eternal, of Infinite Time; just as were Ohrmazd, Space, Revelation, and Time of Ohrmazd; .................. --.

3. Ahriman was, at the abysmal station, in darkness, owing to after wit and destructive desire.

4. His destructive desire is raw; and that darkness is his location; there is someone who calls it 'Endless Darkness'.-

5. Betwixt them was Void,- there are some who call it 'Ether'-, wherein was their joining.

6. They both have finiteness and infinity. 7. For, the utmost height is that which one calls 'Endless Light,'- [that is, it is 'not limited'-;] and the abysmal station is the 'Endless Darkness', [and that is infinity. 8. And owing to boundary, both are finite,] -- that is, betwixt them is a Void, and they are not connected with each other.

[7] 9. And again, both the Spirits are finite in themselves. 10. And again, on account of the omniscience of Ohrmazd, everything in the creation of Ohrmazd is finite; for, they know the covenant of both the Spirits. 11. And again, there will be the complete predominance of the creatures of Ohrmazd, at the final material life, upto eternity and eternal progress; [and that is] infinity. 12. And may the creatures of Ahriman perish at the time when the final material life shall take place; that, too, is finiteness.

13. Ohrmazd knew, through omniscience: "The Evil Spirit exists, who will defeat and seize, and even intermingle, with envious desire, the eminent supporters, with several eminent agents, to the end;" He created, spiritually, those creatures which were requisite as those agents.

14. For three thousand years, the creatures remained in the spiritual state, that is, they were unthinking, unmoving, and intangible.

15. The Evil Spirit, on account of after-wit, was unaware of the existence of Ohrmazd; then, arising from that abyss, he came to [the precinct of] the luminous [stars]. 16. When he saw Ohrmazd, that Light, and the unseizable Lustre, he made an attack, for destruction, on account of his destructive desire and malicious nature. 17. He, [then,] saw valour and fortitude, which were greater than his own, returned to darkness, and miscreated many Devs, destroyers of the creatures, and rose for battle.

18. When Ohrmazd saw the creatures of the Evil Spirit, they appeared to Him formidable, defiled and bad creatures, [full of wickedness;] they did not delight Him.

19. Then, the Evil Spirit saw the creatures of Ohrmazd; they appeared to him very [acute] creatures, [ever] worthy of inquiry; the creatures and creation of Ohrmazd delighted him.

20. Then, in whatever manner, Ohrmazd knew the end of the affair, He proffered peace unto the Evil Spirit, and said: "Evil Spirit! bring thou help, and offer praise, unto My creatures, so that, at that dispensation, thou mayest [9] become deathless, without decrepitude, hungerless, and thirstless."

[21. Its meaning is this: "If thou wilt not head the contest, thou wilt not render thyself useless, and it will be profitable to us both."]

22. Thereupon, the Evil Spirit spoke: "I shall not bring help unto Thy creatures, nor shall I offer praise; I will, [rather,] destroy [Thee] and Thy creatures too, upto eternity and eternal progress; [I will convert] all Thy creatures to unfriendliness unto Thee and friendship unto me."

23. Its explanation is this: he imagined: "Ohrmazd is helpless owing to him, and therefore He proffers peace;" he does not accept it, and even leads an attack.

24. Thereupon, Ohrmazd spoke: "Thou art not omnific, O Evil Spirit!" that is, thou canst not destroy Me, "thou canst not so do unto My creatures too, that they may not return to My relationship."

25. Then, Ohrmazd knew, by means of omniscience: "If I do not fix a period for [his] contest too, he can do so unto My creatures, [as he will lead the onset and everlasting dispute and confusion; and during the confusion, he] can seduce [the creatures], and make them over to himself;" just as, even now, there are many men in the mingled state, who practise impiety more than piety, [that is, they are mostly performing the will of the Evil Spirit].

26. Thereupon, Ohrmazd spoke to the Evil Spirit: "[I project] the time fixed for the contest in the mingled state, to nine thousand years;" for, He knew that He would render the Evil Spirit useless, by this fixation of time.

27. Then, the Evil Spirit agreed to that covenant, on account of inability to foresee the end; just as, two men, fighting together, fix up a period, saying: "Let [us] fight such and such a day up till [night]."

28. Ohrmazd knew this too, by means of omniscience: Within these nine thousand years, three thousand years will pass all according to the will of Ohrmazd; three thousand years [will pass] in the mingled state, according to the [11] will of [both] Ohrmazd and Ahriman; and, in the final contest [He ought to render] the Evil Spirit useless, and He will withhold adversity from the creatures.

29. Then, Ohrmazd chanted forth the 'Ahunwar', that is, He uttered a 'Yatha ahu-vairyo' of twenty-one words; He showed to the Evil Spirit His own final victory, the inability of the Evil Spirit, the perishing of the Devs, the rising of the dead, the final material life, and the unopposed condition of the creatures, upto eternity and eternal progress.

30. When the Evil Spirit saw his own inability, and the perishing of all the Devs, he fell back into darkness, having become stupefied [and unconscious].

31. Just as, one says in the Scripture: "When a one-third of it was uttered, the Evil Spirit died within his body, through fear; when two parts of it were uttered, the Evil Spirit fell on his knees; and when it was uttered complete, [the Evil Spirit] became stupefied and disabled [from] rendering the creatures of Ohrmazd [unfit for work]."

32. [He remained] for three thousand years in stupefaction.

[33. First, I will mention the spiritual creation of the creatures, and then the material.

34. Ohrmazd was the Lord, before the creatures, owing to creativity, and after the creation of the creatures, He was the Lord, Wisher of benefit, Prescient, Opposed to pain, Publicly governing everything, Beneficent, and All-observant.

35. He, first, created the essence of the Yazads, Good-progress, that Spirit whereby He can make good His own material body when He may contemplate the creation of the creatures; for, He had Lordship through the creation of the creatures.

36. He, Ohrmazd, saw, with clear vision: "The Evil Spirit will never turn away from opposition; that opposition will not be rendered ineffective, except by the creation of the creatures; there will be no progress of the creatures, except by Time; and that when He will create Time, even the creatures of Ahriman will progress."

[13] 37. Being helpless, He created forth Time, in order to disable the Antagonist.

38. Its meaning is this: "The Evil Spirit cannot be expelled, except by 'kâr-i-châr'; the explanation of 'kâr-i-châr' is this: "One ought to perform an 'action' by 'stratagem' and 'with efficacy.'"

39. Then, out of Infinite Time, He produced forth Time which is the Lord of duration -- there is someone who calls it Finite Time -- out of Time which is the Lord of duration, Impassability arose, that is, the substance of Ohrmazd will not pass away; out of Impassability, the Progress of prosperity became manifest, -- that is, the, unhappiness owing to the Devs may not come; out of the Progress of prosperity, spiritual Intransformability became manifest, the Spirit owing to whom the substance of Ohrmazd will not alter from that which was produced, at the original creation; out of spiritual Intransformability, the complete Will of the creatures of material existence became manifest, the righteous creation of the creatures and conformability.

40. Ahriman's was unconformability, owing to the unrighteous creation of the creatures and ignorance.

41. Its meaning and explanation are these that Ahriman will fight with Ohrmazd the Lord; and the sagacity, eternity, excellence, and impassability of Ohrmazd, and the inefficiency, perverseness, lack of excellence and after wit of the Evil Spirit, came into manifestation, when He created the creatures.

42. For, verily, Time, which is the Lord of duration, is the first creature that He created forth; for, before the mingling, it was infinite, the Eternity, which Ohrmazd created as finite; on account of that is it infinite that, from the original creation, when He created the creatures, upto the end, when the Evil Spirit will be inactive, is a cycle of twelve thousand years, that is finite, which will finally mingle with and be transformed to infinity, so that even the creatures of Ohrmazd will be everlasting, with Ohrmazd, owing to purity.

43. As one says, in the Scripture: "Time is more [15] powerful than both the creations, the creation of Ohrmazd and even that of the Evil Spirit; Time is accessible for work and regulation; of accessible beings, Time is the most accessible; of beings worth inquiry, Time is the most worthy of inquiry," -- that is, determination can be made by Time--; "It is by Time that a temporal dwelling is erected; by Time, the ornamented is dilapidated; and of mortal men, none can escape from it, neither when he flies above, nor when he digs a well in the depth below and sits within it, nor when he goes down underneath the spring of cold waters."

44. Out of His own Self, out of the Essence of Light, Ohrmazd created forth the astral body of His own creatures, in the astral form of luminous and white Fire, whose circumference is conspicuous; and out of the Essence of those Spirits, which remove the opponent that is in both the creations: that which is Power and that which is Time.

45. He created forth the astral body of the good Wind, as the Wind was necessary; -- there is someone who calls it the Wind which is the Lord of duration.

46. He created forth the creatures, with the help of the Wind which is the Lord of duration; for, when He created even the creatures, the Wind, verily, was an agent which was- necessary in His work.

47. The Evil Spirit miscreated his creatures; out of his own Essence of Darkness, in the astral form of the blackness of charcoal, of the wicked worthy of darkness, like noxious creatures of very sinful blemish.

48. Out of the Essence of Self-willedness, he miscreated the vile 'Varûn' having no astral form, as 'Varûn' was necessary.

49. He, first, produced the Essence of the 'Devs', Evil progress, that Spirit wherefrom the harmfulness of the creatures of Ohrmazd arose; for, out of the Essence of Darkness, he produced the Infinite Darkness; and out of Infinite Darkness, there forthwith arose Untruthful Utterance, which became manifest, owing to the vileness of him the Evil Spirit; -- for, he created such creatures, whereby he would make himself [17] worse, that is, he might become ineffective; for, he miscreated that astral form, out of Infinite Darkness, he produced his own creatures in that astral form, and became useless owing to his own creation of the creatures.

50. Out of the Essence of Light, Ohrmazd produced Truthful Utterance; and the Beneficence of the Creator, -- the creation of the creatures, -- became manifest out of Truthful Utterance; for, He created forth the 'Athro' astral form, out of 'Infinite Light'; He produced all the creatures, too, in the 'Athro' astral form; the 'Athro' astral form and temporal Time became separated; out of the 'Athro' astral form, arose 'Ahunwar', the Spirit of the 'Yatha ahu vairyo', through whom, the original creation and the end of the creatures became manifest, that is 'Din': as 'Din' was produced along with the creation of the creatures; from the 'Ahunwar' arose the spiritual Year, which, in the mingled state, is now half shining and half dark, of three hundred and sixty-five days, which is a part of Time which is the Lord of duration.

51. Owing to it, both the creations progressed, in the contest.

52. As is said: "The creation of Ohrmazd remained in comfort, on account of His sovereignty, leadership, organisation, and supreme position; the creation of the Evil Spirit remained in discomfort, on account of his preponderance, violence, sinfulness and the abysmal station."

53. Ohrmazd came to the temporal Beneficent Immortals, when they were produced by Him; -- note that He had to reproduce them here, in material life; He has to remove injury from it, once again, at the final material existence--; He preserves the spiritual creation, spiritually; having produced the material creation spiritually, He produced it again in material life; He, first, produced the seven fundamental Beneficent Immortals, then the others; the seventh, Ohrmazd Himself; of the material creations, created in the spirit, the first are six; He Himself was the seventh; for, both, spirit first, and then matter, are of Ohrmazd; after the Wind which is the Lord of duration, of the Beneficent [19] Immortals], He, first, created forth Vohuman, through whom arose the progress of the creatures of Ohrmazd; He, first, created forth Vohuman, out of Good-Progress, the Essence of Light, with whom there was the good Mazdayasnian Religion; He knew this that it will reach the creatures, [up to] the renovation; and then, [He created] Ardwahisht, then Sahrewar, then Spendarmad, then Hordad and Amurdad; [the seventh, Ohrmazd himself; eighth, Truthful-Utterance; ninth, Srosh pertaining to holiness; tenth, Manthra Spenta; eleventh, Neryosang; twelfth, the eminent Rad 'Rathwo Berezato'; thirteenth, the just Rashnu; fourteenth, Mihr of wide pasture lands; fifteenth, the good Ashiswang; sixteenth, Parend; seventeenth, Sleep; eighteenth, Vat; nineteenth, Lawfulness; twentieth, Beneficence of Peacefulness in dispute, accusation, and defence.]

54. Of the material creations: first, the Sky, second, the Water, third, the Earth, fourth, the Tree, fifth, Beneficent Animal, sixth, the Man, [and seventh, Ohrmazd Himself; were His creations, which He created forth, with the help of the Wind which is the Lord of duration; for, when He had created forth the Wind which is the Lord of duration, it, too, became an agent that was requisite, for the creation of the creatures.]

55. [For opposition to these,] the Evil Spirit [miscreated] Akoman, [first of the arch Devs, then] Indra, then Sauru, then Naon-haithya, then Taromat, then Tairich and Zairich, [and then the other Divs; seventh, the Evil Spirit himself.

56. The Evil Spirit never contemplates, never utters, and never does any righteous thing; the happiness of the creatures of Ohrmazd was not requisite for him; the creatures of Ohrmazd did not need the happiness of the creatures of Ahriman.

57. Ohrmazd does not contemplate that thing which He cannot execute; and the Evil Spirit contemplates what he cannot perform, and also leads for quarrel.

58. The creation of Ohrmazd was so nourished, in the [21] spiritual state, that it was moisture, unthinking, unseizable, and immovent, resembling the sperm; then, out of moisture; there was intermixture, resembling sperm and blood; then, out of intermixture there was collision, resembling a knot; then, out of collision there was the breakage, into life, hands, and feet; then, out of breakage there was recession of the eyes, ears, and mouth; then, out of recession there was propulsion, when the creation was in motion; even now, in material life, the parts are collected in the womb of the mothers, in that manner, and they beget and nourish the newborn.

59. By means of the creation of the creatures, Ohrmazd has the motherhood and fatherhood of the creation; for, when He nourished the creatures, in the spiritual state, that was His motherhood; when He produced them in material life, that was His fatherhood.


0. As regards the material creation of the creatures.

1. When the Evil Spirit was inactive owing to stupor, as I have written above, he lay in stupor, for three thousand years.

2. During that inactivity of the Evil Spirit, Ohrmazd created the creation in material life; for, He created forth Fire out of Endless Light, Ether out of Fire, Water out of Ether, and Earth and all corporeality of Matter out of Water.

3. As one says, in the Scripture: "First, the entire creation was a drop of Water;" that is, everything was from Water, except the seeds of men and animals; for, those seeds are of the essence of Fire.

4. He, first, produced the Sky, in order to withhold the Evil Spirit; there is some one who says: 'the foremost'-; secondly, He produced the Water, in order to smite the 'druj' [23] Thirst; thirdly He produced the Earth, all corporeality; fourthly, He produced the Tree, for the help of the good-created Beneficent-Animal; fifthly, the Beneficent Animal, for the help of the Holy Man; sixthly He produced the Holy Man, for the destruction and inactivity of the Evil Spirit and all the Devs; then He produced the Fire, the Khvarag; He attached to it the ray from Endless Light, so good is its astral body as is the Fire's desire; then He created the Ether, in the astral form of a young man of fifteen years, which bears and preserves everything: this Water, Tree, Beneficent Animal, and Holy Man.

5. I will mention their whereabouts.

6. First, He produced the shining and visible Sky, which is very distant, and of steel, of shining steel, whose substance is the male diamond; its top is connected with the Endless Light; He produced all the creations, within the Sky, the fortification, resembling a bag within which is laid every implement which was requisite for the contest, or resembling a dwelling wherein everything remains; the prop of the base of the Sky, whose width is as much as its length, its length as much as its height, and its height as much as its capacity, is entirely like the desert, the chasm, and the forest; the Spirit of the Sky is meditative, speaking, active, knowing, beneficent, and discriminating; he accepted the work of lasting fortification against the Evil Spirit, that is, he did not let him go back, like the valiant warrior, who has put on armour, so that he may be saved fearlessly from the battle, the Spirit of the Sky so preserves the sky; He produced Delight, for the help of: the Sky; for, with Delight, He created it forth, wherein, even now, in the mingled state, the creation lives in Delight.

7. Secondly, He created the Water out of the substance of the Sky; so much as a man, who lays his two hands on earth, and walks with hands and feet, and the water stands up to his stomach; up to that height, did the water flow; He produced, for its help, the Wind and the Rain, that is: the cloud, snow, and lightning.

8. Thirdly, out of Water, He produced the round Earth, [25] having distant roads, without descent and without ascent, whose entire length is equal to the width, and the width to the magnitude, arranged in the middle of this Sky.

9. As one says: "He, first, created forth a one-third of this Earth, as hard as the eagle's crest; secondly He created forth a one-third of this earth, stuffed with dust; thirdly, He created forth a one-third of this Earth, felt topped."

10. He produced, within the earth, the substance of the Mountains, which, thereafter, increased and grew out of the Earth; for the help of the Earth, He produced iron, brass, brimstone, borax, limestone, and also all the principles of the hard earth, distinct from those of Istakhr, for, they are of a separate origin; so hard did He create the Earth, in the semblance of a man, when he had donned dress over dress, on all the sides, close over the body; and Water remained, everywhere, underneath this Earth.

11. Fourthly, He produced the Tree; first, it grew up in the middle of this Earth, several feet high, without branches, without bark, without thorn, fresh and sweet; it had, in its germ, all kind of force of the trees; He produced the Water and the Fire, for the help of the Tree; for every bark of the trees has a drop of Water at the top, and Fire before it at a distance of four fingers; it grew forever with their strength.

12. Fifthly He created the sole-created Gav in Eranvej, in the middle of the earth, on the shore of the river Veh-Daitya. that is, the middle of the earth; she was white and shining like the Moon, and her height was three reeds of average length; He produced the Water and the Tree, for her help; for she had strength and growth, from these, in the mingled state.

13. Sixthly, He created Gayomard shining as the Sun; his height was four reeds of average length; his width was symmetrical as the height; he was on the shore of the river Daitya, that is, the middle of the earth; Gayomard was on the left side the Gav on the right side; their distance from each other, their distance, too, from the water Daitya, was as [27] much as their own height; he was possessed of eyes, ears, tongue and mark; Gayomard's possession of the mark was this that mankind were born of his seed, in his semblance; He produced, for his help, repose giving Sleep; for Ohrmazd created forth the Sleep, in the astral form of a tall man, fifteen years of age and radiant; He created Gayomard, with the 'Gav’ out of the Earth; He created forth the sperms of men and animals, out of the Light and verdure of the Sky; as these two sperms are of the principle of Fire, not of the principle of Water; He produced them in the material body of the ‘Gav’ and Gayomard, so that the complete propagation of men and animals arose there from.

14. He produced these six creations, in the six periods of the Gahambars, computed in a year,.of three hundred and sixty-five days, of twelve months, each month being of thirty days, and one month of thirty five days; He named each day after a Beneficent Immortal.

15. I will mention their whereabouts.

16. First, He created the Sky, in forty days: as, from the day of Ohrmazd of the month Frawardin up to the day of Aban of the month Ardwahisht; He rested for five days: up to the day of Day-pa-Mihr; they are the five days of the 'Gahambar': its name is Maidyozarem; its explanation is this: the abode of the Sun and the Moon, and verdure, came into manifestation.

17. Secondly, He produced the Water, in fifty-five days: as, from the day of Mihr of the month Ardwahisht up to the day of Aban of the month of Tir; He rested for five days: up to the day of Day-pa-Mihr; they are the five days of the 'Gahambar’: its name is Maidyoshahem, the explanation of which is this: He made the Water shining, for, at first it was dark.

18. Thirdly, He produced the Earth, in seventy days: as from the day of Mihr of the month of Tir, up to the day of Ard of the month of Shahrewar; He rested for the five days: up to the day of Anagran; they are the five days of the Gahambar: its name is Paitishahem; its explanation is this: He made the basis and the progress of the creations manifest on Earth. [29] 19. Fourthly, He produced the Tree, in twenty-five days: as from the day of Ohrmazd of the month of Mihr, up to the day of Ard; He rested for five days: up to the day of Anagran; they are the five days of the 'Gahambar': its name is Ayathrem, the explanation of which is this: the leaf, fragrance, colour, and verdure became manifest.

20. Fifthly, He produced the Beneficent Animal, in seventy-five days: as from the day of Ohrmazd of the month of Aban, up to the day of Day-pa-Mihr of the month of Day; He rested for five days: up to the day of Warharan; they are the five days of the 'Gahambar': its name is Maidyarem, the explanation of which is this: He made the provision of winter manifest, for his own creations.

21. Sixthly, He produced Man, that is, Gayomard, in seventy days: as from the day of Ram of the month of Day, up to the day of Anagran of the month of Spandarmad; He rested for five days: up to the five Gathic periods; they are the five days of the 'Gahambar'; there is someone who calls them the five pilfered days, there is someone who calls them stolen: its name is Hamaspathmaidyem, the explanation of which is this: the military congress became manifest on Earth; because, the Farohars of men advanced together in battle array.

22. The names of the five pilfered days, there is someone who Galls them the five Gathic periods, there is someone who calls them the good pentad, are these in the Scripture: Ahunawad Gah, Ushtawad Gah, Spentomad Gah, Wohukhshathra Gah, and Wahistoisht Gah.

23. The names of the thirty days, which are placed in a month, are: the day of Ohrmazd, Vohuman, Ardwahisht, Shahrewar, Spandarmad, Hordad, Amurdad, Day, Adar, Aban, Khwarshed, Mah, Tir, Goshorun, Day, Mihr, Srosh, Rasnu, Frawardin, Warharan, Ram, Wad, Day, Den, Ard, Ashtad, Asman; Zam, Mahraspand, and Anagran.

24. The names of the twelve months, from the same Beneficent Immortals, are: the month of Frawardin, the month of Ardwahisht, the month of Hordad, the month of [31] Tir, the month of Amurdad, the month of Shahrewar, the month of Mihr, the month of Aban, the month of Adar, the month of Day, the month of Vohuman, and the month of Spandarmad.

25. I will mention further the whereabouts of each one of them.]


0. As regards the procreation of the Luminaries.

1. Ohrmaz created [forth] the Luminaries, between the Sky and the Earth; the stars of the constellations and also those which were not of the constellations [were stationed], then the Moon, and then the Sun.

2. As, He first created the firmament; the stars of the constellations were fixed thereon, especially these twelve, whose names are: the Ram, the Cow, the Twins, the Crab, the Lion, the Husk of Corn, the Balance, the Scorpion, the Centaur, the Goat, the Pot, and the Fishes, which are subdivided into twenty-eight asterisms of reckoning, the names of which [are these]: Padevar, Pesh-parviz, Parviz, Paha, Aze-sar, Beshn, Rakhvat, Taraha, Azara, Nahn, Maian, Avdem, Mashaha, Spor, Husru, Sroi, Nur, Gelu, Grafsha, Varant, Gao, Goi, Muru, Bunda, Kaht-sar, Vaht, Mayan, Kaht; all the original material creations made their residence thereon, so that when the Adversary, would arrive, they might fight against their own enemy and the creatures might be saved from their antagonist; each of these constellations is a specimen of a soldier and veteran, who is posted for battle; six thousand four hundred eighty (thousand) small stars are created forth, for help, [those which the astronomers now number, besides those innumerable, as, they are for their mutual-help.]

3. Over these constellations, He appointed four chieftains, in four directions; He appointed a chieftain over these chieftains; He appointed many innumerable stars that are [33] recognised by name, in various directions and various places, as givers of vigour, by cooperation, to these Constellations.

4. As one says: "Sirius [Tishtar] is the chieftain of the East, Sataves the chieftain of the South, Antares [Vanand] the chieftain of the West, the Seven Bears [Haptoring] the chieftain of the North; the Lord of the throne, Capicornus, whom they call the Lord of Mid- Heaven, [is the chieftain of chieftains; Parand, Mazd-tat, and others of this list are also chiefs of the directions

5. And astronomers call these stars of the directions and sides as leaders; and they mention the first magnitude, the third magnitude, …… as to the big, small, and middling stars.

6. He ordained this firmament in the semblance of a year: the twelve constellations like twelve month every constellation having thirty degrees, just as every month has thirty days.

7. He appointed the Seven Bears [Haptoring] in the Northern direction, thither where Dozakh [=hell -JHP] was, when the Adversary came in; a band from every region, out of the seven regions, is attached to it, for the organisation of the regions, in the mingled state: for that reason, it is called the' Seven Thrones.'

8. He ordained the sphere, nature and class of these constellations, so that they might remain in motion, in the mingled state.

9. Again, He arrayed, above them, the unmixable stars, so that, when the Adversary would arrive, they might repel him in the combat, and would not let him mingle with the higher sphere; He appointed the Glory of the good Mazdayasnian Religion, as chieftain over them; the place is called the brunt of the battle, the manifestation of purity in the mingled state; for this reason, they are called unmixable stars, because, when the Adversary came, they did not mingle with him; astronomers name a firmament which is above the firmament, where through there is no ebb and descent, for they cannot judge the mixable stars, and the substance of the pure-bodies.

10. Above that, He created the Moon having the seed of the Beneficent Animal. 11. Above that, He created the shining swift-horsed Sun. 12. He appointed the Moon and [35] the Sun, as chieftains of those mixable stars; that is, they are all bound to the Sun and the Moon.

13. Above the Sun. He created the Throne of the Beneficent Immortals, which is attached to the Endless Light, the Throne of Ohrmazd. 14. These, too, are the six stations of the six creations, just as the creations of material life are six.

15. And in the midst of the half of the firmament, He appointed the Wind, the Cloud and the Fire Vazisht, so that, when the Adversary would arrive, they might seize the water of Sirius and produce rain; with the Spirit of the Water; He formed their connection, too, also with the Sun; the Moon, and the Stars; His valiant Sirius, who is the Chieftain of the East, is co-worker and associate of the Fire Vazisht, the Wind and the Cloud.

16. Of these stars, the big ones are as large as an eagle which is of the magnitude of a house, the middling are as large as a four-sided granary, and the small ones are as large as the head of a domestic ox; the Moon is as large as a race-course of two hathras; as, each hathra on earth is like an average frasang; the Sun is as large as Eranvej.

17. Until the coming of the Adversary, the Moon, the Sun and the stars were standing still, they did not move, and were passing their time with purity, and it was always mid-day; after the coming of the Adversary, they were in motion and would not desist from that motion, until the end.

18. The motion of the Sun is like that of a very large three-feathered arrow, when a very big man darts it from a very large bow; the motion of the Moon is just like that of an average three-feathered arrow, when an average man darts it, from an average bow; the motion of the stars is like that of a small three-feathered arrow, when a short man darts it from a small bow.

19. Of these constellations; Tishtar, Besn, Taraha, Azara, Pateywar, and Pesh-parviz are of very swift motion.

20. The mean duration of the Sun, from the time when it leaves a constellation, until it attains to the next, is as much as is requisite for a man who takes up a stone and throws it.



0. As regards the reason of creation of the creatures, for contest.

1. Ohrmazd fixed the names of the thirty Beneficent Immortals on the thirty days in this manner: first Ohrmazd, then the six Beneficent Immortals, which become seven; and the eighth Day -- that is, ‘the Creator’ --, and then the six Beneficent Immortals, which becomes seven, and the eighth Day -- that is, ‘the Creator’ --, and then the seven Beneficent Immortals, which become eight; and the ninth Day -- that is, ‘the Creator’ -- and then the seven Beneficent Immortals, which become eight; as, He has provided His own name, in four places in the month, Ohrmazd and the three Days, as: one is His Name, one is His Space, one is His Revelation, and one is His Time, which were forever.

2. When the Evil Spirit came for opposition, Ohrmazd created forth Time which is the Lord of duration, in the astral body of a shining, white-eyed, tall and courageous man of fifteen years, whose courageousness is due to skilfulness, and not owing to theft and violence.

3. He Himself had put on white raiment and had the lustre of the priesthood; for all knowledge is with the priests, who are the demonstrators to persons, and teachers therefrom to every person; the proper work of Ohrmazd, too, was the creation of the creatures; He must produce the creatures with knowledge; therefore, He had put on the raiment of the sages, that is the priesthood.

4. The good Wind had put on golden and silvery garment, studded with gems and much coloured with every colour, the raiment of warfare; as, he is the pursuer of the enemies, in order to strike the antagonist and to protect the creation.

5. As one says: "The proper work of the Wind is to remove the antagonism betwixt both the creations; for, the Beneficent Spirit and even he who is the Evil Spirit produced him, for this that he might end the contest, he might ever increase the creation of Ohrmazd and destroy that of the Evil Spirit." [39] 6. Out of Time, He created the Firmament which is the material-body of Time the Lord of duration, Divine Destiny; it had put on clay-coloured clothes, and had the raiment of husbandry; as its proper work was the happy destiny of the world, He produced it in readiness, just like the husbandmen to till the world.

7. As Ohrmazd prepared His own creation amongst all the six Beneficent Immortals, He produced the spiritual and material creations, too, in the same-manner; just like the spiritual Ohrmazd and the six Beneficent-Immortals: Vohuman, Ardwahisht, Shahrewar, Spandarmad, Hordad, and Amurdad, so, too, are the sky and the six stations: of which the first is the Cloud station, the second the Sphere of the constellations, the third the unmixable Stars, the fourth the ' Best- Existence,' the Moon is on that station, the fifth the Garothman, which is called Endless Light -- the Sun is on that station --, the sixth the Throne of the Beneficent-Immortals, the seventh the Endless Light, the Throne of Ohrmazd; thus, too, the material creations created He six: first the Sky, second the Water, third the Earth, fourth the Tree, fifth the Beneficent Animal, sixth the man, and seventh, the Fire, whose radiance is from the Endless Light, the Throne of Ohrmazd.

8. He created forth the Fire, so permeated, in the entire creation, like a master of the house, who when he entered the house, carefully laid by the garments which were in the house. 9. He ordered the Fire to perform the service of man, to prepare food and to smite disease, during the antagonism of Ahriman; and when they blow it out of anything, it should come out, and when they put fuel over it, it should hold it forth.

10. He so appointed and stationed all the Beneficent Immortals, for cooperation in the contest of the creations that, when the Adversary camel each one took hold of his own opponent for fight, so that a fresh mandate was not necessary.

11. I will mention their whereabouts further.

12. The first of the Spirits Ohrmazd; He took to Himself Man, the basis of material beings; His cooperators [41] are the three 'Days': one Space, one Revelation, and one Time, ‘the Lords of all' that are the spirits of the entire creation.

13. He produced forth Man in five parts: body, life, soul, prototype, and farohar; as, body is that of matter; life is that which is connected with the wind and has the production and bringing of the complexion; the soul is that which listens, sees, speaks, and knows, with the consciousness, within the body; the prototype is that which stays on the Sun station; the farohar is that which is before Ohrmazd the Lord; for that reason, He so created that when men die, during the antagonism of Ahriman, the body may unite with the earth, the life with the wind, the prototype with the Sun; and the soul with the farohar, so that they cannot destroy the soul.

14. The second of the Spirits is Vohuman; of material creations, he accepted the varieties of the Beneficent-Animal for himself; for his help and cooperation, He produced the Moon, the good-created Animal, Ram, the lordly Firmament, Infinite Time, and Time the Lord of duration; He created forth the .Beneficent Animal in five parts: body, life, soul, prototype, and spirit; so that, during the antagonism of Ahriman, the Animal soul may accept the seeds of the beneficent. animals from the Moon station, may-propagate them, in the world, with the help of the good Ram, and when they die, the body may unite with the earth, the life with the Animal soul, the soul with Ram, the prototype with the Moon, and the spirit with Vohuman, so that they cannot destroy it.

15. The third of the Spirits is Ardwahisht; of material creations, he accepted the Fire for himself; for his help and cooperation, He produced Adar, Srosh, Warharan, and Neryosang; for this reason that, during the antagonism of Ahriman, the Warharan Fire, established and organised in the abode, may give support, and Srosh may yield protection; when it extinguishes, it may unite, through Warharan with Srosh, through Srosh with Adar, and through Adar with Ardwahisht again, so that the devs cannot destroy it.

16. The fourth of the Spirits is Shahrewar; of material creations, he took the Metal to himself; for his help and cooperation, [43] He produced the Sun, Mihr, the Sky, the Endless Lights, the good Suk, Aredvi-sur, Hom Yazad, Burz Yazad, and Dahm Afrit: for, the firmness of the Metal is owing to the Sky, the original substance of the Sky is metallic, its organisation is due to the Endless Lights; the Endless Lights are of the Endless, Shining, golden abode, bedecked with gems, which is connected on high to the Throne of the Beneficent Immortals; so that, owing to this cooperation, the devs cannot make the Metal invisible, during the antagonism of Ahriman.

17. The fifth of the Spirits is Spandarmad; of material creations, she accepted the Earth for herself; for her help and cooperation, He produced Aban, Den, Khrad, Mahraspand, Ashishwangh, Aredvi-sur, and Anahit, who, as is known, is the Spirit who is the purifier of the Earth possessing the seed of the waters; before her are arrayed Mahraspand the Beneficent Manthra, the Word of Ohrmazd, Wisdom, Revelation, the preponderant Glory of the abode -- there is someone who calls her Ashishwang, the Glory of the heavenly Ashish, -- Aredvi-sur and Anahit, father and mother of the Waters, for this cooperation, during the antagonism of Ahriman; and these cooperating Spirits keep watch over the Glory.

18. The sixth of the Spirits is Hordad; of material creations, she accepted the Water for herself; for her help and cooperation, He produced Tir, Wad, and Frawardin; as Tir is Sirius who, during the antagonism of Ahriman seizes the Water, with the help of Frawardin, that is, the Farohars of the holy, and consigns it spiritually to the Wind, the Wind conducts and passes the Water swiftly to the regions, and with the cooperators they rain it by means of the Cloud.

19. The seventh of the Spirits is Amurdad; of material creations, she accepted the Tree for herself; for her help and cooperation, He produced Rashnu, Ashtad, Zamyad, and the three Glories, which adjudge the souls of men, for good and evil deeds, there at the Chinwad bridge, during the antagonism of Ahriman.

20. Other innumerable Spirits of the creations are arrayed, for cooperation with them, as is written about [45] those that are in the Firmament of the Constellations.

21. He divided each one of the days, too, within the month, in five periods, and appointed a Spirit over each period: just as, morning is the period of the day to which the Spirit Hawan is related, midday is the period to which the Spirit Rapithwin, evening is the period to which the Spirit Uzerin, ablution time is the period to which the Spirit Aiwisruthrem, and dawn is the period to which the Spirit Ushahin is related. 22. They, too, were destined by Him for cooperation; for, He arrayed Hawan for cooperation with Mithra, Rapithwin with Ardwahisht, Uzerin with Burz Yazad, Aiwisruthrem with the Farohars of the holy and Warharan, and Ushahin with Srosh and Rashnu; for He knew that when the Adversary would arrive the day would be divided into these five periods,] whilst before the advent of the Adversary, there was eternal midday, that is, the Rapithwin.

23. Ohrmazd performed the spiritual Yazishn ceremony with the Beneficent Immortals in the Rapithwin Gah. He produced [all the creations] during [the performance of] the Yazishn, deliberated with the Consciousness and Farohars of men, and having brought tl~ Wisdom of all knowledge onto men He asked: "What appears more advantageous to you when I may create you into material life: will you contend with the Druj in the embodied. existence, and destroy the Druj, shall I restore you perfect and deathless in the end, and reproduce you in material life, so that you become deathless, undecaying and without enemy forever; or, is it necessary to protect you forever from the Adversary?"

24. [They] the Farohars of men saw, by means of the Wisdom of all knowledge, the evil that would arrive in the material world on account of the wicked Ahriman, and the final inoffensiveness of the Adversary; and they agreed to go to the material world, in order to become perfect and deathless again, in the final material life, up to eternity and eternal progress.



0. As regards the Adversary's approach to the Creation.

1. One says in the Scripture: "When the Evil Spirit saw the inefficiency of himself; and all the devs, owing to the holy Man, he was stupefied, and remained in stupefaction for three thousand years."

2. During that stupefaction, the heads of the devs severally exclaimed: "Arise, Oh our father! for we shall wage that war in the material world, whereby Ohrmazd and the Beneficent Immortals will have anguish and unhappiness." 3. [They] severally recounted their own misdeeds.

4. The wicked Evil Spirit was not cheered therewith, [and did not rise from that stupor,] owing to fear. of the holy Man, until the wicked Jahi came, on the completion of three thousand years; she exclaimed: "Arise, Oh our father! for, in the war, I will let loose so much affliction on the holy Man and the labouring Animal that, life will not be beseeming owing to my deed; I will ravage their glory; I will afflict the Water, [I will afflict the Earth,] I will afflict the Tree, I will afflict the Fire, I will afflict all the creations produced by Ohrmazd."

5. She so recounted those misdeeds that the Evil Spirit was cheered, sprang from that stupor, and kissed the head of the Jahi; this impurity which they call menstruation became manifest through Jahi.

6. The Evil Spirit exclaimed to Jahi : "[Ask] whatever [may be] thy wish, so that I may give it thee."

7. [Then, Ohrmazd knew by the Wisdom of all knowledge: the Evil Spirit has power to give at the time, whatever Jahi desires; for the great advantage, He] saw [the] astral body and position of the Evil Spirit; and He showed to Jahi that astral body, resembling a young man of fifteen years, and affixed the thought of Jahi on to him.

8. Thereupon, Jahi exclaimed to the Evil Spirit : "Give to me the desire for man ", [that is, "I may sit in the abode under his chieftainship."

[49] 9. Thereupon, the Evil Spirit exclaimed: "I do not tell thee what thing to ask; is it fit to ask what thou knowest to be without benefit and vile at the time?" for, when she had asked, he had no power to give.]

10. Then, the Evil Spirit, with all the dev [agents, rose] against the Luminaries; he saw [the] Sky, [which he showed to them spiritually, as it was not produced material;] with malicious intent he made an on rush, [drew the Sky, which was at the Star station, down towards the void which, as I have written at the commencement, was under the base of the Luminaries and the Planets, so that] he stood [above the Star station,] from within the Sky, [up to] a one third; like a serpent, , he [forthwith wished] to drag. the Sky underneath the Earth [and to break it] ; he entered, in the month of Frawardin, and the day of Ohrmazd, at noon; the Sky was as afraid of him as a sheep of a wolf; he, then, came to the Water, [which I have said,] was arranged underneath this Earth; he, then, pierced and entered the middle of this Earth; then, he came to the Tree;. then, [to] the Gav and Gayomard; then, he came [up] to the Fire; so that, like a fly, he went to all the creations.

11. He made the world so much invisible, at noon, that [the Sky held the darkness, below and above the Earth,] just like a dark night.

[12. Thereupon, the Spirit of the Sky spoke to the Evil Spirit: "I shall have to offer protection up to the farthest time," -- that is, "I will not let thee go out."

13. He brought change of taste over the Water.

14. Thereupon the Spirit of the Water spoke: "Whither shall Vohuman, Ardwahisht, and Shahrewar give?" -- "where shall they so convey to me?" that is, "now that the Adversary has come, where is that reward?”]

15. He let loose noxious creatures over the Earth; biting and venomous [noxious creatures,] such as [the dragon,] serpent, scorpion, [venomous lizard, tortoise,] and frog, [so crawled and thereby polluted the Earth] that he did not leave [any part of the Earth] even as much as the point of a needle free from noxious creatures. [51] [16. Thereupon, the Earth spoke: " May revenge come to these revengers, in this dispensation in which they are produced."]

17. He [so] brought poison over the Tree that it withered immediately.

[18. Thereupon, the Spirit of the Tree spoke: "Owing to her devotion, Ohrmazd will cause the Tree to grow."]

19. He let loose Greed, Needfulness, [Pestilence,] Disease, Hunger, Illness, Vice and Lethargy on the body of , Gav' and Gayomard.

20. Before his coming to the 'Gav', Ohrmazd gave the healing Cannabis, which is what one calls 'banj', to the' Gav' to eat, and rubbed it before her eyes, so that her discomfort, owing to smiting, [sin] and injury, might decrease; she immediately became feeble and ill, her milk dried up, and she passed away.

21. Thereupon, the 'Gav' spoke: " Thou shalt enjoin the nurture of the beneficent animals, their best deed and work."

22. Before his coming to Gayomard, Ohrmazd brought on Sleep over Gayomard, for as much duration as one might utter words of a stanza; for, Ohrmazd created the Sleep in the astral form of a radiant and tall young man of fifteen years.

23. And when Gayomard awoke from Sleep, he saw the world dark as night, the Earth [was] not [left] free even as much as the point of a needle, [owing to the intrusion of the noxious creatures,] the .Firmament was in revolution, the Sun and the Moon were in motion [towards] the world having [a bottom], owing to the roaring. of the Mazendaran Devs and their fight with the Constellations.

24. Thereupon, the Evil Spirit imagined: "The creations of Ohrmazd all, except Gayomard, [are] made inactive [by me]"; he let loose Astwihad, with a thousand death producing devs, on Gayomard ; they did not find any means to kill him, [as] the destined time had not come.

25. As one says: "[At the original creation,] when the Evil Spirit came up [for] opposition, the period of Gayomard’s life and rule was destined for thirty years"; he lived thirty [53] years, after the coming of the Adversary.

26. Thereupon, Gayomard spoke: "[Now] that the Adversary has come, all mankind will be of my seed, and this one thing is good, as they will perform works and meritorious deeds."

27. Then, he came to the Fire; he mingled smoke and darkness within it; the [seven] Planets, with many [associate] devs, mingled in the Firmament, for contest with the Constellations; [he] so disfigured the whole creation as when smoke arises [out of] fire over the entire space; [they fought, for intermingling, also with the Space of the Sublime workers ;] for ninety days, the Spiritual Yazads were combating, in the material world, with the Evil Spirit and all the devs, [till they] were thrown into Dozakh [=hell -JHP] defeated, in order to prepare the rampart of the Sky, so that the Adversary cannot mingle with it.

28. Dozakh is in the middle of the Earth, there where through the Evil Spirit entered, having pierced the Earth; as, over all the elements of the material world, a transformation to duality, opposition, combat, and mingling of high and low became manifest.


1. This, too, one says: When the sole created 'Gav' passed away, she fell to the right hand, and when Gayomard passed away [there-] after, he fell to the left hand.

2. 'Goshorun', as is the soul of the sole-created 'Gav', came out of the body of the 'Gav', stood before the 'Gav', and cried to Ohrmazd, as much as a thousand men, when they vociferate at a time: " To whom hast Thou left the chieftaincy of the creatures, when the Earth has lain in ruin, the Tree is dried, and the Water afflicted? Where is the man of whom Thou saidst: 'I will produce', so that he may proclaim preservation?"

[55] 3. Thereupon Ohrmazd spoke: "Thou art ill, Oh Goshorun 1 thou hast borne the illness from the Evil Spirit [and the malice of the Devs]; this oppression of the Evil Spirit would not have been, if it was proper to produce that man in this Earth at this time."

4. Forth went Goshorun up to the Star station, and cried in the same manner, forth up to the Moon station, and cried in the same manner, and forth up to the Sun station, and [cried in the same manner.]

5. He, then, showed her the Farohar of Zartosht, saying: " Him I will produce for the world, so that he may proclaim preservation."

6. Goshorun became satisfied and assented, saying : "I will nourish the creatures," that is, she agreed to be recreated in material life as the beneficent animal.


[0. As regards the antagonism of the two Spirits, that is, in what manner, the heads of the Devs came spiritually, for antagonism, against the Spiritual Yazads.

1. Just as: Ahriman against Ohrmazd, Akoman against Vohuman, Indra against Ardwahisht, Sauru against Shahrewar, Naonhaithya, he whom they call Taromat also, against Spandarmad, Taurvi-ch against Hordad, and Zairi-ch against Amurdad, Eshm [Aeshma] against Srosh, Falsehood and Untruth against Truthfulness, the Spell of sorcery against the holy Manthra., Excess and Defectiveness against Temperance which is the good Religion, Wicked Thought, Wicked Utterance, and Wicked Deed against Good Thought, Good Word, and Good Deed, Astwihad which is called 'the Wicked Wind' against Ram which is 'the Good Wind', the pathless Varun against Innate Wisdom, Casting the evil eye which is Malignant Glance against Spiritual Sight, Idleness against Diligence, Lethargy against Sleep, Revenge against [57] Peacefulness, Pain against Delight, Stink against Fragrance, Darkness against Light, Poison against Antidote, Bitterness against Sweetness, Parsimony against Charity, Avarice against Discriminate giving, Winter against Summer, Cold against Warmth, Dryness 'against Humidity, Hellishness against Heavenliness, Wickedness against Holiness, Apostasy against Piety, Decrepitude against Youth, Night against Day, Unforgiveness against Mercifulness, 'Ganayih', that is, Smiting against Beneficence, Defilement against Purity, Contamination against Religious purification, Discontent against Contentment; 2. Other Div-ik growths against Yazad-ik growths, such as the Mazendaran Devs and Drujs against the Yazads, the Allotters of Destiny, the Beneficent. Immortals.

3. Even in the material existence: Darkness came against the Sky, Thirst against Water, Dry impurity, Noxious creatures and Lizard against the Earth, Hunger against the Tree, Hunger and Thirst against Beneficent Animals, Death and. Pestilence against Healing, Diseases of various kinds against Mankind, the Extinction and Blowing against Fires, that is, when one makes them burn man and animal for dryness of the corporeal state, Lion and Thieves of the wolf species against Dogs and Animals, Lizard against Fishes, 'Bo' with other winged Noxious creatures against Birds, Wicked Apostates against Holy Men, 'Jahi' against Women, Unrighteous Armament against Righteous Armament, the Destroying Druj against Life promoting Lineage, and other material Drujs against the terrestrial Yazads.

4. Even in the Firmament: the dark Mihr came against the Sun, and the dark Moon against the Moon having the seed of the Beneficent Animal ; they have bound the dark ones to their own ray by covenant ; other winged Sorcerers with thirty fold destructive Planets] came [against the Constellations;] the seven Planet Chieftains against the seven Chieftains of the Constellations, such as the Planet Mercury [Tir] against Sirius [Tishtar], the Planetary Jupiter against the ‘Seven Bears' [Haptoring], the Planetary Mars against Antares [Vanand], [59] the Planetary Venus against Sataves, Saturn [who is the Chieftain of] the Planetary [Chieftains] against the Lord of Mid-Heaven, even the tailed Dragon and Mush Parik against the Sun, Moon, and Stars.

5. The Sun has bound Mush Parik to his own ray by covenant, so that she could commit little harm; [when she will get loose, she will allot much injury until recapture.

6. Also in the Cloud station, Spenjagra came against the Fire Vazisht, Apaus Dev against Sirius and the associates of Sirius.

7. Other Devs also of innumerable names came against the Wind and the Yazads producing rain. 8. Their details are long; their motion and contest in retrogression and slowness are manifest in astrology also.


0. As regards the horoscope of the World, that is, how it was disposed.

1. One says in the Scripture: “The Adversary entered the earth, in the month of Frawardin, day of Ohrmazd, at noon, when day and night were equal.

2. The house of Life was at the nineteenth degree of Cancer, the asterism Azara too was disposed in the star Sirius ; of the Planets, Jupiter was in it; Leo was the house of the Purse; Virgo was the house of the Brothers; Libra was the house of the Foundation, Saturn was disposed in it; Scorpio was the house of Progeny; Sagittarius was the house of Servants, the thief Dragon's Tail was disposed in it; Capricornus was the house of Partnership, Mars was disposed in it; Aquarius was the house of Death; Pisces was the house of Activity, Venus and Mercury were disposed in it; Aries was the Mid-Heaven, the Sun was disposed in it, in the asterism Patiywar; Taurus was the house of Auspiciousness, the Moon was disposed in it; Gemini was the house of Misfortune, the Dragon's Head was disposed in it. [61]

3. As these Planets entered the Firmament in this manner, they were engaged in contest with the Constellations: the dark Mihr and Moon with the Sun and Moon, Kings of the Luminaries, Jupiter with the Seven Bears, Chieftain of the North, Venus with Sataves, Chieftain of the South, Mars with Antares, Chieftain of the West, Mercury with Sirius, Chieftain of the East, and Saturn with the Lord of Mid- Heaven, the Chieftain of Chieftains.

4. In the same manner, of the Planets: Mercury Chieftain of the East, Mars Chieftain of the West, Venus Chieftain of the South, Jupiter Chieftain of the North, Saturn Chieftain of Chieftains, and the dark Mihr and Moon, Kings of the dark bodies, were disposed in the terrestrial Sky.

5. Gochihr stood in the middle of the sky, like a dragon, its Head in Gemini and Tail in Sagittarius, as there are always six constellations betwixt its Head and Tail; its motion is backward; every ten years, its tail returns there where is its head and its head returns there where is its tail.

[63] 6. The tailed Mush Parik was arrayed with wings; the Sun fettered her to his own ray, so that she could not perpetrate harm; when she will become free, she will do much injury to the world. till she is recaptured, having come eye to eye with the Sun.

7. And of these Planets, the dark Mihr and Mush Parik are bound by covenant, in the intermingled state, to the ray of the Sun, underneath the Sun, and the dark Moon to the ray of the Moon.

8. The remaining others are bound also to the ray of the Sun owing to slowness, and decrease of motion; they cannot keep more than that distance; for, Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars, each one is bound, at a distance of one hundred and eighty degrees from the Sun, Mercury at a distance of one thousand, eight hundred, and sixty minutes, and Venus at a distance of two thousand, eight hundred, and thirty-one minutes from the Sun.

9. Each one of these Planets has found in the Firmament, in the twelve abodes of the Constellations, its enemy's abode, its exaltation and fall, a conjunction giving profit, joy, and affliction. And many other kinds of habitation of its own; as all the operations of Time have connection with the Constellations, as is visible to the eyesight, they destroy, lower the high and increase what is diminished; their motion too is not like that of the constellations; for there is a time when they are swift, there is another when they are slow, there is a time when they are retrograde, there is another when they are stationary; their being named 'apa-akhtar’ is owing to this that they are ‘not akhtar;' this light of theirs, visible from them, is also the Ohrmazdean Light, similar to the wicked who put on the dress of the soldier. There are benefits therefrom just as from the light in the eyes of the noxious creatures: one is this that they can do little harm, on account of putting on the light; and one is, this that men may see them and not be afraid of them; the illustration of these Planets is like darkness; for they are devs, producing decrepitude and injury. When they run in the Firmament, the Light becomes visible, twinkling in the Firmament. [65] 10. One says in the Scripture: “If a person were to see that deception his eyesight would vanish."]


1. Mount Alburz is around the world; Mount Tera is in the middle of the Earth; the Sun, revolving like a crown around the world, reverts, in purity, above Mount Alburz, around Tera.

2. As one says: “The Tera of Alburz, from behind which revert my Sun, Moon, and Stars."

3. For, in Alburz, there are a hundred and eighty lights in the East, and a hundred and eighty in the West; the Sun enters through a light and departs from a light, every day; the Moon, the Constellations also, and the Planets, all have connection with, and motion towards, it. It is warming three regions and a half, every day.

4. As is visible to the eyesight, day and night are equal twice every year. 5. For, at the commencement of the conflict, when the Sun went forth from the first degree of Aries, day and night were equal, it was the season of spring; when it arrives at the first degree of Cancer, the days are the longest, it is the beginning of summer; when it arrives at the first degree of Libra, day and night are equal, it is the beginning of autumn; when it arrives at the first degree of Capricorn, the nights are the longest, it is the beginning of winter; again], when it arrives at Aries, night and day again become equal. 6. As it is in three hundred and sixty days that it goes forth from Aries and returns to Aries, and in those five Gatha days it comes and departs from the same light; the light is not mentioned; for, if it had been mentioned, the devs would have known the secret and would have inflicted calamity.

7. From there where the Sun had risen on the longest day up to where it rises on the shortest day is the East, the Arezahi [67] region. 8. From there where it had risen on the shortest day up to where it sets on the shortest day is the direction of the South, the Fradadhafshu and Widadhafshu regions. 9. From there where it sets on the shortest day up to where it sets on the longest day is the direction of the West, the Sawahi region. 10. From there where it had risen on the longest day up to where it sets on the longest day is [the direction of] the North, the Wouru-bareshti and Wourujareshti regions.

11. When the Sun rises, it warms the Arezahi, the Fradadhafshu, and Widadhafshu regions and a half of Xwaniratha. When it sets on the other side of Tera, it warms the Sawahi, the Wouru-bareshti, and Wourujareshti regions and a half of Xwaniratha. When it is day here, it is night there; [for, the night is manifested on account of Mount Tera.

12. In the beginning, when the Adversary entered, it so happened that the dark Sun and Moon could not perpetrate any harm, on account of the contact with the radiance of the Sun and the Moon; and the Seven Bears [Haptoring] and Sataves happened to be of greater vigour than Jupiter and Venus; they disabled Jupiter and Venus from doing harm. For this reason the astrologers call them beneficent. Mars happened to be more vigorous than Antares, and Saturn than the Lord of the Throne; their harmfulness is evident. Therefore, astrologers reckon them as maleficent; and Mercury, who is Apaosh dev, came against Sirius [Tishtar]; both happened to be of equal strength and of equal vigour. Therefore, astrologers say "Mercury is beneficent with the beneficent ones, and maleficent with the maleficent ones. There are some who say so: "Apaosh is not Mercury."

13. For this reason, they say: “Jupiter is the star of life, and Saturn the star of death;" for, Jupiter, on account of inability during opposition, allots that which is the opponent's wish and gives life, eminence, and wealth. Saturn, on account of superiority which is due to the opponent, does that which is death, evil, and poverty to this adversary. For this reason is he the adversary.

14. One says that Venus is of watery nature, as her [69] opponent, Sataves, is of watery nature; and one calls Mercury airy, as his opponents are Sirius and the Wind, producers of rain.

15. Again, there is this that till the advent of the Adversary, six thousand years of time had elapsed: three thousand years in spirituality, and three thousand years of materiality in purity; and those six thousand years were from Aries up to Virgo, and each constellation ruled a thousand years.

16. As the rule of the millennium came to Libra, which is the house of fall, the fall of the Sun, the Adversary entered from underneath.

17. Saturn was disposed in Libra; on account of having been in his own exaltation, which is in Libra, Saturn accepted the rule of the millennium; as Aries is above Libra, Saturn the ruler of darkness, the Sun the ruler of light, adverse to darkness: so, too, is Libra the exaltation of Saturn and the fall of the Sun, and Aries the exaltation of the Sun and the fall of Saturn.

18. On account of the preponderance, too, of Saturn and even of Libra, men became taller and bigger in that millennium.

19. The Sun, too, was the ruler of light and above all the constellations, and Saturn was the ruler of darkness and above all the planets.

20. Then, the point from where the Sun had advanced up to the same point where it returned is reckoned as a year of three hundred and sixty-five days, five hours and a fraction, each day of which is of twenty-four hours , one half dark and one half light, that is, night and day; and five periods of the night and day became manifested.

21. Just as the contest of each creation is with its own opponent, so too is that of day with night; for the six months when there is an increase from night to day are against the six months when there is an increase from day to night.

22. And other rules of astronomy are manifest; but the more lucid are those which are manifest from the good [71] Mazdyasnian Religion: this target over the sky, which they call the 'Path of Kayus' (= Milky Way), and the Path of the Dragon Gochihr as in the firmament, and mentioned in detail above.]


0. As regards the creations of matter [waging] war against the Evil Spirit.

1. One says in the Scripture: "The Evil Spirit wished to go back as he entered and saw the creation with design of the creatures, the preponderance of God, .and his own feebleness."

2. The Spirit of the Sky, having arrayed himself against the Evil Spirit, leads the attack like the [agile] warrior who [wears a metallic] armour, that is the sky itself, till Ohrmazd had prepared around the sky, a fortification stronger than the sky.

3. He [stationed,] around the fortification, the Farohars of the holy, that are the warriors, valiant cavaliers with spears in hand, just [like] the semblance of the hair on the head, analogous to those who guard the fortification; [and they name 'khvaena ayanha' (= "shining steel") the fortification whereon those holy beings are.]

4. The Evil Spirit did not find the way of retreat therefrom; he [saw] the destruction of the devs and his own inability [as clearly] as Ohrmazd saw His own final victory and the preparation for the renovation of [the creation] up to eternity and eternal progress.

[5. This was the first conflict which the Spirit of the Sky waged with the Evil Spirit.]



0. The second conflict which the Water waged.

1. Since the star Sirius was in the Ascendant in the watery Cancer, in the asterism which they call 'Azara', it reappeared at the evening in the direction of the West, on the same day when the Adversary had entered.

2. For, each month belongs to a constellation, the month of Tir is the fourth month from the new year, and Cancer is the fourth constellation from Aries: as the relative of Cancer, which is its Sirius, posited in it, showed prognostications for the production of rain, it caused the water to move [towards] the cloud on high, with the strength of the Wind.

3. The Associates with Sirius were: Vohuman and Hom Yazad for guidance, Burz Yazad [for cooperation], and the contending Farohars in orderly array.

4. Sirius was transformed into three astral bodies: the astral body of man, the astral body of horse, and the astral body of bull; it flew in the light for thirty days and nights, and it produced rain in each astral body for ten nights and days; as astrologers, too, say: "Each constellation has three astral bodies.” 5. Every drop of that rain became as big as a large basin [of water of the Awaniyan festival], there was water up to a man's height over the whole earth. 6. The noxious creatures, that were on earth, were all killed by that rain, [save those outside of the path who were winged, who] went into the burrows of the earth.

7. Then as life stirs within the body, the atmospheric Wind was stirred up by the Spirit of the Wind, as [it, too, blows] and is not mixed; it swept the entire water, brought it towards the ends of the earth, and the ocean Frakhvkart became therefrom.

8. The dead noxious creatures remained within the earth; their venom and stench mingled over the earth; and in order to remove the venom from the earth, Sirius descended into the ocean in the astral body of a white horse with a long tail; the div Apaosh hastened to encounter him in the [75] likeness of a black horse with a spotted tail; he drove away Sirius up to a 'frasang' with defeat.

9. Sirius asked for [strength] from Ohrmazd, and Ohrmazd conveyed strength to him.

10. As one says: "Immediately, the strength of ten stallion horses, ten stallion camels, ten stallion bulls, ten mountains and ten rivers came to Sirius."

11. He caused the dev Apaosh to run up to a 'frasang' with defeat.

12. Therefore, for that reason, they speak of " the arrow with the vigour [like that of] Sirius."

13. Then, having seized the water with the cloud for a pot, they mention thus a measuring implement of the work, he caused it to rain very severely, in drops like bull's heads and man's heads, in [spanfuls and] handfuls, big and small.

14. During that production of rain, Spenjagra, and Apaosh fought, and the Fire Vazisht turned up its mace [and caused the water to run in the clouds]; owing to the blow of that mace, Spenjagra. roared and shouted, as even now, roaring and lightning are manifest in that conflict during the production of rain.

15. He produced rain in that manner for ten nights and days; the venom of the noxious creatures, which was within the earth, mingle d entirely in the water and made the water salt; for some of the germs which the noxious creatures were disseminating, remained within the earth.

16. Then the Wind resettled the Walter in the same manner, on the completion of three days, in the various directions of the Earth, and three great seas and twenty small seas arose therefrom; two fountains of the sea came into manifestation therefrom: one the Chechast, and one the Sobar, Whose original sources are connected with the fountain of the sea.

17. He caused two rivers to flow from the direction of the North, which went, one to the East and one to the West, which are the Arang river and the Veh river. [77] 18. As one says: "By those fingerfuls of Ohrmazd two water flows drew their [source]."

19. Both the rivers turn over both the ends of the Earth and mingle again with the ocean Frakhvkart.

20. And when those two rivers [had] flown, eighteen navigable rivers [then] flowed from the same original source as theirs, and other waters, then, flowed out from those navigable rivers; they all, too, pour back to the Arang and the Veh, wherefrom [arose] the munificence of the world [and long life of the creatures.

21. This was the first conflict which the Water waged with the Evil Spirit.


0. The third] conflict which the Earth waged.

1. As the Evil Spirit entered and the Earth trembled, the substance of the mountains was produced in the Earth; [on account of the shaking of the Earth, the mountains were immediately in motion:] first, Alburz of Divine destiny, then the other mountains within the Earth; for as Alburz grew up, all the mountains were in motion; for, they have all grown up from the roots of Alburz; at that time, they proceeded from the Earth, like trees, which cause the tendrils to run above and the roots underneath. their roots were so arranged by connection, passing into one another. 2. And thereafter, [it was not possible] for the earth to shake from its place. 3. [As] one, says [in the Scripture]: "The mountain is a great joint of lands."

4. And the passage of the waters is made within the mountains below and above the roots of the mountains wherethrough they flow in: just as the roots of trees pass into the earth, resembling the blood in the veins of men, which gives strength to the whole body.

5. In this manner, all the mountains except Alburz, [79] came up from the Earth in eighteen years, owing to whom are the exaltation and benefit of men.

6. [As one says: “They are produced forth for entertainment, for the priests, warriors, and husbandmen."

7 .This was the first conflict which the Earth waged with the Evil Spirit.


0. The fourth] conflict which the Plant waged was that when it had become dry.

1. As the Plant is her own, the Beneficent Immortal Amurdad, pounding it small, mixed the Plant with the Water which Sirius had seized; and Sirius rained the Water over the whole Earth. 2. Plants grew over the whole Earth [just] like hair upon the beads of men. 3. Ten thousand [of them] grew up from that one principal species, in order to withstand the ten thousand diseases which the Evil Spirit designed forthwith for the creatures. 4. Out of these ten thousand, one hundred and thirty thousand species [within species] of plants grew up.

5. The Tree of many seeds, having been produced from all those seeds of plants, grew up in the ocean Frakhvkart, wherefrom the seeds of all the species of plants are growing [on that tree].

6. Near to that tree, the Gokaren tree was produced, in order to keep away ill-shaped decrepitude; and the complete exaltation of the world arose therefrom.

[7. This was the first conflict which the Plant waged with the Evil Spirit.



0. The fifth] conflict which the sole created 'Gav' waged.

1. As she passed away, on account of her vegetable nature, fifty five species of corn and twelve species of medicinal herbs grew from the limbs of the 'Gav', out of the earth. 2. They entrusted to the Moon the light and the vis which were in the seed of the 'Gav'. 3. They adorned the seed, filtered by the light of the Moon, with all colours and instilled life within it.

4. Thence, a pair of animals, one male and one female, and then, [two] of each species, [as] two hundred and eighty two species, forthwith appeared on earth [resembling two 'fragangs' which one says eighteen 'hasars' in the Scripture.]

5. [The abode of the beneficent animals is on land,] the birds [swam] in the atmosphere and the fish in the water [wherefrom was the abundant nourishment of the creatures.

6. This was the first conflict which the 'Gav' waged with the Evil Spirit.


0. The sixth conflict which Gayomard waged.

1. Since it was manifest on the Firmament about Gayomard that he lived for thirty years during the antagonism of Ahriman, by the contest of the constellations and the planets.

2. As is said: " It was Time that, before the Adversary, destined the life and rule of the valiant Gayomard for thirty winters."

3. On the advent of the Adversary, the planet Jupiter was posited in the watery Cancer in the house of life, in [83] his own exaltation, who, owing to his predominance over the enemy, allotted to Gayomard the existence of life.

4. And the planet Saturn was posited in Libra in his own exaltation, even in a backward position, wherefrom was the Cardinal house, the Underworld, who, on account of his superiority over the opponent, allotted death.

5. On account of Jupiter being in his own exaltation, in the Cardinal house of Life, and his preponderance over Saturn, he averted the death from Gayomard up to thirty years.

6. When Saturn again returned to Libra where is his own exaltation, Jupiter was posited at that time in Capricorn where is his own fall; and on account of the preponderance of Saturn over Jupiter, death came up to Gayomard and he fell on the left hand side.

7. On his passing away, his seed went into the Earth, just as even now all men emit the seed on passing away.

8. As the body of Gayomard was made of metal, seven kinds of metal appeared out of the body of Gayomard.

9. Out of the seed which went into the Earth, Mashye and Mashyane grew up in forty years, through whom arose the perfect progress of the world, the destruction of the devs and the inability of the Evil Spirit.

10. This was the first conflict which Gayomard waged with the Evil Spirit.


0. The seventh conflict which the Fires waged.

1. The Fire Vazist too opposed Spenjagra for the production of rain, the Fires Farnbag, Gushnasp, and Burzin Mihr for the protection of the world and the preservation of the creatures, and the other Fires, such as those within [85] the plants, men, and beneficent animals for the up keep and growth of life; the organisation of the creatures of the world arose therefrom.

2. This also was the first conflict which the Fires waged with the Evil Spirit.


0. The eighth conflict which the Fixed stars waged against the deceitful Planets.

1. Each one engaged in contest with his own opponent, they are arrayed against their rivals till the renovation, just as I have written the horoscope of the world.

2. This was the first conflict which the Fixed stars waged with the Evil Spirit.


0. The ninth conflict which the spiritual Yazads waged with the Evil Spirit, when they cast him, smitten and defeated, to Duzakhv.

1. As one says, “The spiritual Yazads were sleepless and thirstless for ninety days and nights, during the waging of the conflict."


0. The tenth conflict which the unmingling stars waged, when they did not allow darkness and sinfulness to mingle with the Supreme worker.

1. As one says, "The Light of the good Mazdayasnian [87] Revelation is kept over that station round the sky, like the 'aiwyaonhan', that is, like the sacred thread girdle [kusti], that is bedecked with stars and shaped by the spirits, of three rounds and with four knots."

2. These stars are engaged in fighting with the Evil Spirit up to the end, as is written.

3. Thither is the momentous issue of the final battle which is called "purity in the mingled state."


0. As regards the archetypes of these creations.

1. One says in the Scripture, "When the Evil Spirit entered, he came not in the year, month, and day, for he came swiftly in a moment. First he came to one third of this Earth, secondly to two-thirds of this Earth, and thirdly to this Earth entire, then to the Plants that are of Ohrmazd; having seized their astral bodies, Ohrmazd carried them up to the Star station and entrusted them to the stars. It is their light which the stars now reflect towards the material world."

2. As one says: "Fixed stars are of watery nature, of earthy nature, and of herbal nature.”

3. Those of watery nature are Tishtar, Taraha, Azara, Pateywar, Pesh-parviz, and the five stars which they call Parviz; they are of the species of the water.

Those of earthy nature are the Seven Bears [Haptoring] and the Cardinal sign of the Mid-heaven; they are of the species of the earth.

And others besides these are of herbal nature.

4. Then the Evil spirit came to the 'Gav.' The 'Gav' fell towards the Southern side, on the right hand: she first folded her right leg.

5. Having seized the astral body of the 'Gav' and the archetype of the 'Gav', Ohrmazd entrusted them to the Moon; as this is the illuminer which the Moon reflects towards the material world.

[89] 6. As one says, "The Moon having the seed of the beneficent animal;" that is, the archetype of the 'gavs' and the beneficent animals is on the Moon station.

7. Then, when the Evil Spirit came to Gayomard, Gayomard fell towards the Southern direction, on the left side; he too first folded his left leg.

8. Taking hold of his astral body, Ohrmazd entrusted it to the Sun station; as this is the light wherewith the Sun shines over the material world.

9. For the 'Gav' was just like the Moon, and Gayomard was just like the sun. Ohrmazd destined them for material life and carried them high above when the Adversary came, so that they might reflect light towards their own basic origin and the Light might not come into the possession of the devs, whereby they might become powerful. If it had not been ordained thus, that light would not have reflected towards the material world, in the manner of Fire, to which a blaze from the "Endless Light" is attached. When they kindle it, it reflects the light, giving it above, to its own basic origin from where it has come.

10. One says this too, "When death came up to Gayomard, the Evil Spirit first came up to the right leg, to the little finger, then he let loose hunger over the heart. Ohrmazd and the Evil Spirit were there; Ohrmazd, so that He might feed Gayomard with flesh and butter, so that the devs may not tear him asunder by his abstaining from food;" -- for that reason, life was very obdurate in the bosom, within the body of Gayomard; -- "then he came over the shoulder, and then he went up to the top of the head." 11. And light so faded from the body of Gayomard as when they beat red hot iron over the anvil and it turns black.

12. Even now, men die in the material world in this manner; so that first the legs stiffen and then the other limbs up to the bosom, and then life remains very obdurate in the bosom and the dying one eats food so much so that men are misled thereby thinking that the person is getting well, and then he soon dies, and when he dies his complexion changes.] [91]


0. As regards the whereabouts of the lands.

1. One says in the Scripture, "[There are] thirty-three kinds of land." 2. [As] that which I [have written above in the matter of the land]: when Sirius produced [the] rain wherefrom the seas arose, [the land,] having seized the damp everywhere, [broke] into seven pieces, -- [the lower premises] became [the upper premises, the crown became the bottom;] -- one piece, as much as one half, is in the middle, and six pieces are around it; and these six pieces are as much as Xhwaniratha; the name' keshwar' was applied to them, that is, they had circumference.

3. As [they call] one piece towards the eastern direction the Arezahi region, [one piece towards] the western [direction] the Sawahi region, two pieces towards the southern direction the Fradadhafshu and Widadhafshu regions, and two pieces towards the northern direction the Wourubareshti and Wourujareshti regions, [and they call] Xhwaniratha [that which] is in the middle [of those and as big as those.

4. It is not possible to go from region to region, save by the guidance and radiance of the Yazads.

5. As they say, "Betwixt Arezahi and Sawahi] and Xwaniratha they have a sea;" for a portion of the ocean Frakhvkart is held around it; ["and Fradadhafshu has a forest in the middle; betwixt] Wourubareshti and Wourujareshti a lofty mountain has grown up;” so that [there may be a connection] of region with region, [so that] it may not be possible to go [from one to the other].

6. And all the happiness of these six regions was produced the most in Xwaniratha, and the Evil Spirit [fought] the most even with Xwaniratha [and] produced [the utmost unhappiness for Xwaniratha], on account of the smiting which he saw therefrom; for the magnates and heroes are produced in Xwaniratha; and the good Mazdayasnian religion also is produced in Xwaniratha, and then they carry it to the other regions; Soshyant too will be born in Xwaniratha, who [93] will destroy the Evil Spirit and will perform the resurrection and final material life.

[7. As they say, "Most men will be in Xwaniratha, and Xwaniratha will be the most powerful, and the druj also will be the worst in the Xwaniratha region, and even those other regions are finally to carry the druj from it.]


0. As regards the whereabouts of mountains.

1. One says in the Scripture, "The first mountain that grew up was [Alburz of divine destiny and thereafter all the mountains grew up] in eighteen years."

2. Alburz grew ever till the completion of eight hundred years: for two hundred years up to the Star station, two hundred years [up] to the Moon station, two hundred years [up] to the Sun station, and two hundred years [up] to the utmost height of the Sky.

3. As the other mountains have grown [up] out of Alburz, in. number two thousand, two hundred and forty-four mountains, that are the lofty Hugar , the Tera of Alburz, the Daitih peak, the neck of Arezur, the Usindom mountain, Mount Haporsen which [is] what one calls Aparsan, Mount Zeredhaz, which is Mount Manus, Mount Airich, Mount Kaf [which is the] mountain Usihdatar, Mount Arezur-bum, Mount Royishnomand, Mount Patashkhvar, the mountain which they also call the mountain 'Greatest in glory,' Mount Revand, Mount Dar-spet, the Baker mountain, Mount Vas-shigopt, Mount Gihaomand, Mount Vapromand, Mount Spend-dat, the Kadrvasp mountain, the Asnavand [mountain], the Koiras mountain, the thirteen mountains which are in Kangdez, of which they say, "These small mountains of good [light] are full of comfort."

4. I will mention their details.

[95] 5. Alburz is around this earth, attached to the sky.

6. The Tera of Alburz is that through which the Stars,. Moon and Sun revolve and through which they come back.

7. The lofty Hugar is that from which the water of Aredvisur descends from the height of a thousand men.

8. The Usindom mountain, which is of shining steel that is the substance of the sky, is in the middle of the ocean Frakhvkart, through which the water pours down from Hugar.

9. The Daitih peak is that which is in the middle of the world, of the height of a hundred men, whereon is the Chinwad bridge; they judge the soul at that place.

10. The neck of Arezur is a summit at the gate of 'Duzakhv, [hell] where [-to] is the continual congress of the devs, [that is,] they practise [all deceitfulness] thither.

[11. As one asks, "Which place on Earth is very distressful?” One would reply, "The neck of Arezur at the gate of Duzakhv, whereon the congress of the devs takes place.

12. They say this too, "Besides Alburz, the Haporsen mountain is great;" that is, they call Haporsen the mountain of the entire Pars; its base is in Sigistan and its end in Khuzistan, [even in Khvarasan is its bottom.

13. Next] Mount Manush is great, the mountain on which Manuschihar was born.

14. [A computation of] other mountains most [of which] have grown [up] from these: as they say, "Districts [of low water and] districts with water at the top have arisen mostly around these three mountains."

15. Mount Airich has grown from Mount Haporsen in May and Hamatan up to Khvarazm.

16. Mount Manush is connected also with Haporsen in the east on the frontier of Turkastan.

17. Mount Kaf has grown from the same Mount Haporsen.

[97] 18. Mount Ushihdattar is in Sigistan.

19. The Arezur mountain is that which is in the direction of Arum.

20. The Patashkhvargar mountain is that which is in Tabristan and Gilan and that direction.

21. The Revand mountain is in the east, whereon sits the Adar Burzin [Mihr]; its being 'revand' is this that it is "full of radiance."

22. The Vatges mountain is that which is full of timber and full of trees on the Vatgesian frontiers and that direction.

23. The Baker mountain is that which the Turanian Frasyaw had used as a stronghold; he had built [that] abode within it; His Majesty the happy Piroz [has ] to day founded thereon a myriad citadels.

24: Mount Vas-shigopt, that which is in Pars, is from the same Mount Haporsen.

25. Mount Giha-omand and Mount Vapromand are those out of which Kabul and its borderlands have grown up [to] the direction of Chin.

26. The Spend-dat mountain is on the circuit of the Revand [mountain].

27. The Kadrvasp mountain, on the summit of which is Lake Sobar, is in the district of Tus.

28. The Koiras mountain is in Eranvej.

29. The Asnavand mountain is in Atarpatakan.

30. The Royishnomand mountain is that whereon plants have grown.

31. The table mountains those which are everywhere [in] various lands and various districts, whereon they perform cultivation and fertility, have grown, many in name and many in number, from these same mountains [that are enumerated; as those whose names are manifest in. books and districts]: Mount Vanavt, Mount Asproch, Mount Pahargar, Mount Damavand, Mount Rawa, Mount Zargun, Mount Gesbakht, Mount Davat, Mount Michan, Mount Mara, which have all grown from Haporsen, Manush. [99] and other mountains that are enumerated.

33. For the Davat mountain, which is connected with Khuzistan, is also from the Haporsen mountain.

34. The Damavand mountain, that on which Bevarasp is fettered, is from the same Patashkhvargar.

35. Even Mount [Komesh was connected with Georgia; as] they call Mount Komesh the mountain which "Had come to Help," that by which Vishtasp had defeated Arjasp, the mountain which was broken there from that mountain in the midst of the battlefield.

36. They say, "In the war of Religion, when defeat was with the Iranians, it fell down in the midst of the battlefield out of these mountains from which it broke, and the Iranians were saved thereby. They named it ‘Come to help.’”

37. The Vanavt mountain is on the same "Ridge of Vishtasp," [thither,] towards [Revand, whither] is the abode of the Adar Burzin Mihr, nine 'frasangs' to the west.

38. Rorawa Bagan is in Zrawat; there are some who name this place Zrawat, there are some who name it [Rawa] Bagan, and there are some who name it Kala; on two sides there is a mountain, a road in the middle, and a fortress below; for this reason, [the fortress,] which is built there, is what they call the Kala fortress; this place is in the land of Sirach.

39. Mount Asproch is above Chinistan.

40. Ges-bakht is in Pars.

41. Pahargar is in Khvarasan.

42. Mount Mara is in Laran.

43. Mount Zar-gun is in Turkastan.

44. Mount Bagastun is in Spahan [and Kermansaan].

45. Others besides this enumeration, which are in motion, are considered table mountains in the Mazdayasnian Religion, small hills, those which have grown as diverse fragments in diverse places. [101]


0. As regards the whereabouts of the seas.

1. One says in the Scripture, "The Frakhvkart Ocean occupies one third of this earth, in the direction of the south, on the border of Alburz."

2. It is so wide formed that a thousand lakes are located in it; there is someone who calls them the springs of Aredvisur, and there is some one who calls them the fountains of the lakes. 3. Every lake has a fountain of water [through] which water [comes out and pours into the lake. 4. Every single water fountain of each lake has so much width and length that] when a [good horse] man gallops the horse, he may turn round it in forty days [and nights], that is one thousand eight hundred large frasangs.

5. Since, the purity of [that] water, through heat and moisture1 is more than that of other waters, which are flowing, every day, from the springs of Aredvisur towards the south and the Mount Alburz, a hundred thousand golden charmels are formed there; that water goes on to the lofty Hugar through [those] channels, through heat and transparency; and there is a lake on the top of that mountain; it pours into that lake, becomes pure, and returns through a separate golden channel; a wide golden branch springs forth from that channel over Mount Usindom at the height of a thousand men amid the Frakhvkart ocean; from thence one portion pours forth into the ocean for the purification of the ocean, and one portion reaches over the whole of this earth through moisture and drizzle, and all the creations obtain [freshness] and health there from, and it dispels the dryness of the atmosphere.

[6. As they say, “The lofty Hugar, all the holes of which are golden, through which the undefiled Aredvisur springs forth from the height of a thousand men."]

7. Of the salt seas three are principal, and twenty-three are small. Of the three which [are] principal, one is the Putik, one the Kamrut, and one the Siyav-bun.

[103] 8. Of all three the Putik is the largest, owing to which the tide and the ebb take place, and being in the same direction as the ocean Frakhvkart, it is attached to the Frakhvkart.

9. Between this ocean Frakhvkart and a side of the Putik, there is a sea which they call the Lake Sataves. [All] hardness, brackishness, and impurity, that are inclined to go from the Sea Putik to the Ocean Frakhvkart, are repelled by a mighty high wind blowing from that Lake Sataves, and whatever is pure and clean goes into the Frakhvkart and the spring of Aredvisur, and the rest pours back into the Putik.

10. The connection of this sea is attached to the Moon and the Wind; through waxing and waning, rising and setting, as her revolution is [towards the south.]

11. The connection too of the Lake Sataves is attached to the star Sataves, under whose shelter are the seas and the southern direction, just as the rivers and the northern direction are under the shelter of the Seven Bears [Haptoring].

12. As regards the tide and the ebb, they say, "At every period of day, from before the Moon, two winds are blowing, whose abode is in the Lake Sataves: they call one the down-draught, and one the up-draught. Tide takes place when the up-draught blows, and ebb when the down-draught blows."

13. In the other seas there is no tide nor ebb, since the revolution of the Moon is not towards them.

14. The sea Kamrut is that which passes to the north, to Tabristan.

15. The Siyav-bun is in Arum.

16. Of the small seas the twentieth is the sea Kyansah, as is in Sigistan; at first, there were no noxious creatures, snakes, and frogs in it, and the water was sweet.

17. Even other [small seas have sweet water.]

18. It was not proper to go near [these] salt seas [too] up to a hathra, owing to the stench in the vicinity; so much [105] of that stench and saltiness [are mitigated] by the beating of the hot wind that when the renovation of the universe takes place, they will become sweet again.


0. As regards the whereabouts of the rivers.

1. One says in the Scripture, “Ohrmazd caused these two rivers to flow forth from the northern direction, from Alburz. One, which they call Arang, proceeded to the west, and one, which [they call] Veh, [proceeded] to the east."

2. Eighteen rivers flowed forth after them from the same source [and descended into the earth from the same Alburz and came into manifestation in Xwaniratha], just as other waters have flowed forth from them in large number.

3. As one says, "They flowed, each one [after the] other as swiftly as a man who recites an 'Ashem vohu' from beginning to end.”

4. These [waters] all mingle again with these [two] rivers which are the river Arang and the river Veh.

5. Both of them are going round the ends of the earth and pass into the seas, and all the regions drink out of the living water, and then both meet in the ocean Frakhvkart and return to the source from which they had flowed.

6. As one says in the Scripture, "Just as light comes in from Alburz and goes out from Alburz, water too comes in, from Alburz and goes out from Alburz."

7. This too one says, “The spirit of the Arang begged of Ohrmazd: 'First, give all the joy wherefrom the river Veh may have happiness, and then give me immortality; the spirit of the river Veh, too, similarly begged of Ohrmazd for the river Arang; on account of love and friendship towards each other, they flowed forth with [107] united strength; as before the coming of the Adversary they were without flow and when they will smite the Druj they will again be without flow.

8. I will mention the most important of the eighteen principal rivers besides the Arang and the Veh and the other rivers which flowed from them: the river Arang, the river Veh, the river Tigris which they call the Dajtar also, the river Euphrates, the river Daitya, the river Dargam, the river Zend, the river Hari, the river Marv, the river Helmand, the river Akhoshir, the river Vataeni, the river Zeshmund, the river Khvajand, the rivet Balkh, the river Mitran [which] they also call the river Indus, the river Spet, the river Tort which they also call the Kor, the river Khvarey which they also call the Mesrakan, the river Araz, the river Termez, the river Vand(as)ish, the river Darejya, the river Kasa, the river Set, [the river] Peta-mehan that is the Chitro-mehan, water, the river of Mokrastan.

9. I will mention their details.


[0. As regards the particular rivers]

1. The river Arang is said to be that which comes out of Alburz and passes on to the land of Syria, which they also call Sham, and to the land of Egypt which they also call Mesr; there they call it [the swift] river ['Spitois'].

2. The river Veh passes on in the east, goes to the land of Sind and pours into the sea in India. There they call it the river Mitran [and also call it the river Indus].

3. The source of the river Euphrates is from the frontier of Arum; it passes on to Assyria and pours into the Tigris. Its productivity is this that they make irrigation on land. 4. It is manifest that Manushchihar excavated the source and reserved the entire water in one place.

5. As one says, "I worship the Euphrates, full of fish, [109] which Manushchihr excavated for the sake of his own soul, took the water and irrigated the land."

6. The river Tigris comes out of Delaman and pours into the sea in Khuzistan.

7. The river Daitya comes out of Eranvej and proceeds to Dutistan. Of all the rivers, the noxious creatures abound the most in it. 8. As one says, “The river Daitya full of noxious creatures."

9. The river Dargam is in Sogdiana.

10. The river Zend passes through the mountain of Panjistan and pours back into the Hari-rud.

11. The Hari-rud flows from the Hapursen range.

12. The river Helmand is in Sigistan. Its source rises from the Hapursen range. This is distinct from that which Frasiyav diverted.

13. The river Akhoshir is in Komish.

14. The river Zeshmund, on the side of Sogdiana, pours back into the river Khvajand.

15. The river Khvajand goes through the middle of Samarkand and Ferghana. They call it the river Jaxartes.

16. The Marv-rud, the river 'Full of.glory,' in Khvarasan, flows from the Hapursen range.

17. The river Balkh enters the mountain Bamian [from] the Hapursen and pours into the river Veh.

18. The river Spet is in Atarpatakan {Azerbaijan}. 19. They say, “Dahak {Zohak} thither begged a boon of Ahriman and the Devs.”

20. The river Tort, which they also call the Kor, comes out of the sea of Siraw, and pours into the sea of Georgia.

21. The Ziyawayi is the river which comes out of Atarpatakan and pours into the sea in Pars.

22. The source of the river Khvarey is from Ispahan; it [passes] on to Khuzistan and pours forth into the river Tigris. In Ispahan they call it the river Mesrakan.

23. The river Araz is in Tabaristan. Its source is from Mount Damawand. [111] 24. The river Termez also pours back into the river Beh.

25. The river Vandasis, which they also call Sakan, is that of Pars.

26. The river Kasa comes also to the country of Egypt; there they also call it the river Kasya; and this same is the river Veh, and there they call it the Kasa. Even in Sind they call it the Kasa.

[27. The river Vataeni, in Sigistan, had its source from Kyansah.]

28. The river Peta-mehan is the Chitro-mehan water that is in Kangdez.

29. The river Darejya is in Eranvej, on the bank of which was the residence of Porushasp, the father of Zartosht.

30. There are other innumerable waters and rivers of springs and channels, which [are fed] from those [living waters].

31. The source of [those rivers is one and they call them in various countries and various localities by various names.

32. As regards Frasiyav they say, “He diverted a thousand springs of [waters] in the sea Kyansah, which were as big as horse, as big as camel, as big as ox and as big as ass, large as well as small. He diverted, in this sea [a] golden spring which is called the river Helmand. Having diverted the source of the river Vataeni and six navigable waters in this sea, he made men settle there.”


1. They mention seventeen species of liquid in the Scripture: as, one is [the wetness which] settles on the plants; second, that which is flowing from the mountains, that is, of the rivers; third, the rain water; fourth, that of [the well, that which is] still, and others without particular [113] names; fifth, the semen of beneficent animals and men; sixth, the urine of beneficent animals and men; seventh, the saliva of beneficent animals and men; eighth; the liquid which is in the skin of beneficent animals and men; ninth, the tears of beneficent animals and men; tenth, the blood of beneficent animals and men; eleventh, the oil in beneficent animals and men, [that] which is the wished-for object in both the worlds; twelfth, [the liquid which is in the gestation of beneficent female animals and women; thirteenth,] the perspiration of beneficent animals and men; [fourteenth, that which is within the wombs of beneficent female animals and women] with which they nourish the embryo; fifteenth, that which is underneath the bark of plants; as is said, “Every bark has a drop of water at the bottom, and fire before it at a distance of four fingers;" sixteenth, [that which is mingled in the plants, which they call the juice of the sumac plant; seventeenth,] the milk of beneficent female animals and women. 2. All these mingle again with these rivers, either by evanescence or in the embodied state. For liquid is both in the embodied state as well as in evanescence.


1. This, too, one says, “The spirits of these three rivers, that are the river Arang, the river Marv, and the river Helmand were so dissatisfied that they would not flow into the world, owing to [the harm], defilement, and stagnancy which they saw that they had during the antagonism of Ahriman, until Ohrmazd showed Zartosht to them, saying, “I will produce him, who will pour ' hom' and holy water onto your water. Cleanse it again and proclaim preservation."

2. This, too, one says, “The water [onto] which less impure matter and more holy water have come, returns to its source within three years; that to which impure matter [115] and holy water have both come in equal proportion, returns within six years. That to which more impure matter and less holy water have come returns within nine years. 3. Thus too the plants growing give vigour to the roots in this proportion. 4. So also do the benedictions which the holy men offer, revert to themselves in this proportion."

5. As regards the river Kataeni one says that the Turanian Frasyaw excavated it with the mace; it will flow again as big as a horse, when Ushitar will arrive. So also will the springs of the sea Kyansah; its being Kyansah is this that the seed of the Kays is deposited there.

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