Avesta: Westergaard Fragments (English)

Translated by James Darmesteter, SBE V, New York, 1898, pp. 245 ff.

These are the fragments, nine in number, published by Westergaard in his edition of the Zend-Avesta (pp. 331-334).


This formula, according to a modern Rivayat, is recited while putting on new clothes.

1. Along with Vohu Mano, Asha Vahishta, and Khshathra Vairya, pronounce thou, for the men and women of the holy Zarathushtra,1 a word of celebration and sacrifice, with a modest (?) voice.

1. For the faithful.

2. Pronounce thou that word, O Zarathushtra, for sacrifice and prayer unto us the Amesha Spentas,2 that thereby sacrifice may accrue unto the Waters and the Plants, and unto the Fravashis of the righteous, and unto the Yazatas of the spiritual world and of this world, divine creatures, beneficent and holy.

2. The Amesha Spentas, presiding over the different regions of nature, may be supposed to furnish the substance of animal or vegetable origin, of which clothes are made. Cf. Fragments to Vd. 18.2.



The following formulas are exactly conceived in the style of the Yasht formulas. The Iranian Hercules, Thraetaona-Faridoon, as conqueror of Azi Dahaka, is invoked against brigands. — Azi being a Serpent, Thraetaona appeared as well in a medical as in an heroic character: his Fravashi is invoked against itch and other diseases (Yt. 13.131), and his name is invoked in Tavīds (talismans) against illness, fever, and poison.

1. Fravarānź. I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zarathushtra, one who hates the Daevas and obeys the laws of Ahura:

For sacrifice, prayer, gratification, and glorification [unto Hāvani, &c.]

Khshnaothra. Gratification unto the Fravashi of the holy Thraetaona, son of Athwya.

Yatha ahu vairyō. — The Raspī: The wish of the Lord ... (let this Zaotar proclaim it!)

The Zot: Is the rule of Righteousness Let the righteous man who knows it proclaim it!

2. We sacrifice unto Thraetaona, son of Athwya, holy, master of holiness, to save the pious worshippers from the brigand, from the robber, from the Karapans.1

1. "The blind," those who are blind to the Law of Ahura.

3. Yatha ahu vairyo.

Yasnemcha. I bless the sacrifice and prayer and the strength and vigour of the Fravashi of Thraetaona, son of Athwya.

Ashem vohu. Ahmai raeshcha.2

2. The same formula as Yasht 3.19.



A prayer which it is recommended to recite every morning, after the prayer of the Hawan gāh, and every night before going to bed .

1. All good thoughts, all good words, all good deeds I do willingly.

All evil thoughts, all evil words, all evil deeds I do unwillingly.

2. All good thoughts, all good words, all good deeds will reach Paradise.

All evil thoughts, all evil words, all evil deeds will reach Hell.

And all good thoughts, all good words, all good deeds are the badge of the righteous for Paradise.



This fragment is the twenty-third and last Fargard of one of the Gathic Nasks, the Warsht-mansr, which was a commentary (Zand) in middle-Persian on the Gatha texts. Its Pahlavi translation is found in the Denkard 9.46. See the Airyema Ishyo itself, Yasna 54, Vendidad 20.11.

1. The Airyema Ishyo I declare, O pure Spitama, the greatest of all words; I created it as the most triumphant of all words. That is the word that the Saoshyants1 will pronounce.

1. The great saints of Mazdaism, whose virtue and merits are to bring about the decisive victory of Ahura over Angra Mainyu and the production of the resurrection.

2. Through it, I proclaim it, O Spitama, I become sovereign over my creation, I, Ahura Mazda; and through it Angra Mainyu, of the bad religion, shall lose the sovereignty over his own creation, O Spitama Zarathushtra.

3. Angra Mainyu shall hide under the earth under the earth; shall the demons hide. The dead shall rise up, life shall come back to the bodies and they shall keep the breath.


This fragment is composed of two series of invocations which differ only in the same manner as the Lesser Sīroza differs from the Greater one, that is to say, the first is introduced by the word Khshnaothra,1 and the second by the word yazamaide.2 These are two forms of Khshnuman for a Dron celebrated on the Warharan day for the benefit of a member of the family who is travelling.

1. Not expressed; the object is in the genitive case.

2. "We worship, we sacrifice to" (the object being in the accusative case).

1. [Khshnaothra. Gratification] to Ahura Mazda, bright and glorious;

To the Amesha Spentas;

To the well shapen and tall-formed Strength;

To Verethraghna, made by Ahura, and to the crushing Ascendant;

To the Safety of the roads;

To the golden instrument3 and to the Saokenta mount, made by Mazda;3

To all the Gods.

3. Ny. 1.8.

2. We sacrifice (yazamaide) to Ahura Mazda, bright and glorious.

We sacrifice to the Amesha Spentas;

We sacrifice to the well-shapen and tall-formed Strength;

We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by Ahura, and to the crushing Ascendant;

We sacrifice to the Safety of the roads;

We sacrifice to the golden instrument and to the Saokenta mount, made by Mazda;

We sacrifice to all the holy [Gods].


These are the formulas recited in the preparation of the jivam (the milk that mixed with urvaram and hōm makes the parahom.) Those formulas are found in the Pahlavi Commentary to the Nirangistan § 68. The milch goat which is going to yield the milk, is introduced into the Urvīs-gāh, whereupon the Mobed, after reciting three Khshnaothra and one Ashem vohu, pronounces the Fravarane in the honour of the present Gah and of the animal which is milked.

Fravarane. I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zarathushtra, one who hates the Daevas, and obeys the laws of Ahura; [for sacrifice, prayer, gratification, and glorification unto Hāvani &c.]

Khshnaothra. Gratification, for sacrifice, prayer, gratification, and glorification,

[If there is only one animal:]

To the Body of the Bull,1 to the Soul of the Bull; to thy soul, to thee (tava) O Beneficent Bull.

1. Gaush has become the general name of all animal species. Cf. Vd. 21.1 n 1.

Yatha ahu vairyo. The will of the Lord &c. ...

[If there are two of them:]

To the Body of the Bull, to the Soul of the Bull; to the soul of you both (yuvākem), O Beneficent Bulls.

Yatha ahu vairyo ...

[If there are three of them:]

To the Body of the Bull, to the Soul of the Bull; to your soul (yushmākem), O Beneficent Bulls.

Yatha ahu vairyo...


These are the formulas pronounced during the preparation of the holy water or Zaothra. They are found in the Pahlavi Commentary to Nīrangistān, § 48.

The Mobed, taking in hand the two Zaothra cups, recites a Khshnaothra to the waters.

1. Khshnaothra. Gratification, for sacrifice, prayer, gratification. and glorification,

To the Good Waters1 and to all the waters created by Mazda;

To the great Sovereign Apam Napat,2 and to the water created by Mazda;

To thee, O Ahurani,3 [O Water] of Ahura!

1. The waters of the present sacrifice.

2. See Yashts and Sirozas, p. 6, n 1.

3. The waters of the bowl from which the priest draws water. Cf. the Guimet Zend-Avesta i, 409, n. 2; 416.

Yatha ahu vairyo.

[He puts the two cups on the surface of the water and says:]

2. We praise thee, O Ahurani, [Water] of Ahura; we offer unto thee good sacrifices and good prayers, good offerings, offerings of assistance.

[Then he dips them takes them up and puts them upon the Urvis-stone while he pronounces the following words :]

Yazatanam, thwā, ashaonam, kukhshnisha, us-bībarāmi, rathwascha berezatō, gāthāoscha srāvayōid: "I take thee up, may'st thou gratify the holy Gods and the great Ratu. — Let him sing the Gathas!"


The following fragment, the text of which is most corrupt and defies translation, seems to be a curse to destroy an enemy.

1. May he perish in the year, in the month!

I, worshipper of Mazda, desire to make him perish by my spells. If a man utter them, the evildoer shall perish thereby quick and soon ... May none be seized by that Druj!

2 . . . . . . . when Mahrkūsha1 shall perish and the army of the Druj shall be thrown down and broken.

1. Mahrkusha, the demon who is going to send the deathly winters in prevision of which Yima is ordered to build the Var (see Vd. 2.22 and notes).


This fragment is as corrupt as the preceding one. It seems to be meant as a glorification of the Ahuna Vairya.

1. Yatha ahu vairyo.

Give, O Mazda the desired reward,2 — a royalty befriending what is good,3 — the desired reward that Religion deserves.4

2. From Yasna 34.14a.

3. Yasna 51, 1a.

4. Yasna 54, 1 (Airyema ishyo).

2. Yatha ahu vairyo. This is the Word pronounced by Mazda. the lordly Word, the Manthra Spenta, the undestructible and unfailing; the victorious, evil-destroying, healing Word; the victorious, Word pronounced by Mazda; which utters and uttered health; victorious amongst all.

3. . . . . In it were uttered strength, victory, health, healing, prosperity, waxing and increase, according to that word in the Gathas: "all that can be wished for by your loyal servants."5

He who relieves the poor makes Ahura King.6

5. Yasna 65.14 (=L, 11 d).

6. The last line of the Ahuna Vairya (Ahunwar).

4.7 Let all the World of the Good Principle listen to this sacrifice to this prayer, to this gratification, to this glorification!

We sacrifice to the pious Sraosha.

We sacrifice to the Great Master, Ahura Mazda ....

7. Yasna 70, 6-7.