I have normalized the spelling in the texts in this series in order to
be consistent, and to facilitate searches. Wherever possible I have used
the spellings of F.M. Kotwal and J. Boyd, A Guide to the Zoroastrian
Religion, Scholars Press, 1982.
|Aban (Phl., Pers.):
||water; name of a yazad presiding over
water; name of the tenth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; name of the eighth month.|
||lit. "libation to the waters"; a section of the
||the dynasty which ruled Iran from the time of Cyrus the Great
(559 B.C.) to the invasion of Alexander the Great (330 B.C.) (Var.
||fire; yazad presiding over fire; name
of the ninth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian religious
calendar. (Var: ader, Pah. 'atash, atesh, adur', Av. 'Atar')|
|Adar Burzin (Phl.):
||one of the three greatest sacred fires of Zoroastrianism (the
other two being 'Adar Farnbag' and 'Adar Gushasp'). It was placed
in a temple by Kay Vishtasp himself,
after it had 'revealed many things visibly, in order to propagate
the faith' (GBd 18.14). (Var: 'Adur Burzen-Mihr')|
||A Sacred fire.
||A Sacred fire. (var. Ader Goushasp)
|Adarbad Mahraspandan (Phl.):
||a Zoroastrian High priest, prime minister of Shapur II (309-379
||Name of a demon. See Eshm.|
|Afrasiyab (Pers.): [use Franrasyan]
||a Turanian king who repeatedly attempted
to overthrow the Iranians. (Var: 'Franrasyab')|
||lit. 'blessing, benediction', specific prayers of blessing
(in Pazand). (Contrast with nafrin, a curse.|
||(1) A multi-part ceremony of blessing; (2) specific prayers in the
Avesta which are recited during afrinagan
ceremonies; (3) a ceremonial vessel in which the sacred fire is tended.
(Var: 'afringan, afargan')|
||A particular grade of sin.|
||lit. 'place of fire', a fire temple. The more traditional
term is 'Dar-e Mihr' (Var: 'agiari')|
||the Devil, lit. 'Hostile/Destructive Spirit'. (Var: Phl. 'Ahreman',
GAv. 'Angra Mainyu', StdAv. 'Anra Mainyu').|
||("lord") spiritual lord or master, often found in conjunction with
||name of the first Gatha; name of the
first Gatha day.|
||the holiest prayer of the Zoroastrians. It begins with the
Av. phrase 'yatha ahu vairyo'. (Var: 'Ahunvar, Ahunawar', Av.
|Ahura Mazda (Av.):
||God, lit. 'Wise Lord', the Supreme Being of the Zoroastrians.
(Var: Phl. 'Ohrmazd')|
||(pr n) Son of Faridoon (Var. Iraj)|
||yazad of friendship and healing.
|Airyanem Vaejah (Av.):
||a cosmic mountain, aka 'Haraiti' or 'Hara Berezaiti'; an actual
mountain range in northern Iran.|
||lit. 'Beneficent Immortals', the highest spiritual beings
created by Ahura Mazda. Sometimes referred to as 'archangels'.
Their names are (Phl.): Vohuman, Ardwahisht, Shahrewar, Spandarmad,
Hordad, Amurdad. (Var. 'Amashaspand, Amahraspand', Av. 'Amesha
|Amesha Spenta (Av.)
||lit. 'Immortality', the Amahraspand presiding over the Earth;
name of the seventh day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; name of the fifth month. (Var: Av. 'Ameretat',
||lit. 'endless light', name of a yazad;
name of the thirtieth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; (Var. Aneran)
||(lit. 'gnomic, precept') collection of aphorisms, especially
of pragmatic advice or moral instruction
||(devil) See Ahriman.
||association (Var: 'anjuman')|
||soul of deceased person, as opposed to Zinda-rawan,
a living soul. (Var: 'anosheh-ravan')|
||(pr. n) Name of an illustrious personage|
||lit. 'good blessings, rewards', name of the yazad
presiding over blessings; name of the twenty-fifth day of the
month according to the Zoroastrian religious calendar. (Var: 'Ashishwangh,
Arshishwang', Av. 'Ashi Vanghuhi')
||lit. 'Asha-possessing farohar',
i.e. the farohar (guardian angel) of a holy person.|
||a king of ancient Iran, founder of the Sasanian
dynasty. (Var. Ardeshir)|
||(pr. n) Artabanus IV/V)|
|Arda Viraf (Pers.):
||a priest of the early Sasanian period,
author of a Pahlavi book which describes his visions of heaven
and hell (Var: Phl. 'Ardag Wiraz')|
||the Amahraspand presiding over Asha and
fire; name of the third day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; name of the second month (Var. Av. 'Asha Vahishta',
Phl. 'Ashwah, Urdwah, Urdibehesht')
|Aredvi Sura Anahita (Av.):
||lit. 'strong, immaculate Anahita', name of a female yazad;
name of a mythical river. (Var: Arduisur)
||(pr. n) King of Turkestan|
||a royal dynasty founded by Ashk. It is also known as the Parthian
dynasty (247 B.C.-226 C.E.)|
||a fundamental concept of Zoroastrianism; there is no adequate
translation, although the following are often used: World-order,
Truth, Right, righteousness, holiness; Ardwahisht (Skt. 'rta')
|Asha Vahishta (Av.):
||lit. 'possessing Asha', a righteous or
just person or being.
|ashem vohu (Av.):
||one of the most sacred prayers of Zoroastrianism, which praises
||benediction, a prayer of admonitions addressed to a marrying couple. (RCC 37)|
||founder of the Arsacid dynasty (Var:
'Arshak', Greek 'Arsaces')
||An apostate, a heretic. (Av. Ashemaogha)
||lit. 'rectitude, justice', name of a yazad
presiding over justice; name of the twenty-sixth day of the month
according to the Zoroastrian religious calendar. (Var. 'Arshtat')
||lit. 'sky', name of the yazad presiding
over the sky; name of the twenty-seventh day of the month according
to the Zoroastrianism religious calendar.|
||a demon of death. (Var: Phl. 'Astvihad, Astovidad', Av. 'Astovidhotu,
||(pr. n.) king|
|Aspandyar (Parsi Pers.):
||an early hero of the Zoroastrian religion, son of Kay Vishtasp.
(Var. Pers. 'Ispandiyar, Isfandiyar')
|atash (Phl., Pers.):
|Atash Adaran (Pers.):
||the middle grade of consecrated fire.|
|Atash Bahram (Pers.):
||lit. 'victorious fire', the highest grade of consecrated fire.
|Atash Dadgah (Pers.):
||the lowest grade of consecrated fire.
||a man of priestly class (Var: 'athrawan, athravan').|
||the holy scriptures of Zoroastrianism (Var: Phl. 'abestag,
abistag'); the language of the Avesta (Var. 'Avestan');
||feast (gahambar) of bringing home
|Az (Phl., Pers.):
||the demon of greed.|
|Bahman (1) (Pers.):||see Vohuman.|
|Bahman (2) (Pers.):
||name of an Achaemenian king.|
|Bahram (1) (Pers.):
|Bahram (2) (Pers.):
||name of several kings in Iranian history.|
||ritual silence, lit. 'framing', a ritual utterance or prayer
which frames an action with the power of the manthra;
a high liturgical service (Dron service); the monthly or anniversary
day of the deceased.|
||a major ritual of purification lasting nine days. (Var. 'bareshnum,
barashnum, barashnum-i no shab').
||a bundle of twigs, tied together with a date-palm cord, held
by the priest during high liturgies. Current practice is to substitute
metal wires; grass laid out for the yazads
to sit on. (Var. Av. 'baresman')
||lit. 'of the Good Religion', a Zoroastrian, especially a lay
||a group of priests noted for upholding ancient traditions.
They are headquartered in Navsari.|
||the central well of the dakhma|
||a group of priests headquartered in Bharuch.|
||consecrated ash from a Fire-temple, used ritually. RCC 114, 259|
||lit. 'without prayer', a term for women in menses.|
||lit. 'offering incense', a ceremony of offering sandalwood
and frankincense to the consecrated fire during each of the five
watches of the day. (Var. 'bui, nirang-i bui dadan, boy dadan')|
||a ninth-century Pahlavi text.
||the demon of sloth (Var: Av. 'Bushyasta')|
||a bridge which souls of the dead cross, and where they are
judged (Var: Chinvat, Chinvar, Av. Chinavat)|
|daena (Av.):||See den.|
|daeva (Av.): ||See dew.|
|dagli (Guj.): ||A white formal jacket-like garment traditionally worn by
Parsi/Irani laymen and priests on formal occasions. Compare jama. (Var. daglo)|
|Dahak: (use Zohak)|
|Dahm (Phl.) (pl 'dahman')
||a yazad honored on the fourth day after
death; the plural, 'dahman' is synonymous with hamkar.
||embodiment of Prayer
||a sacred river in Eranvej.|
||a tower-like structure on which dead bodies are exposed, also
known as 'tower of silence'.|
|Damawand (Phl., Pers.):
||a famous mountain in Iran tied with Zoroastrianism. (Var:
|Dar-e Mihr (Pers.):
||a lesser fire temple; the area of a fire temple where high
liturgies are performed. Lit. 'Place of Mihr (Var. Dar-i Mihr, Dar-i-Meher)|
|dashtan (Phl., Pers.):
||a high priest (Var: Phl. 'dastwar')
||a judge. (Var: Phl. 'dadwar')
||name of the eighth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
||name of the twenty-third day of the month according to the
Zoroastrian religious calendar.
||name of the fifteenth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
|den/din (Phl., Pers.):
||1. 'religion', 2. 'inner self/conscience', name of the yazad
presiding over the religion; name of the twenty-fourth day of
the month according to the Zoroastrian religious calendar. (Var:
||Avestan alphabet. Name of the traditional script used for writing the Avesta.
(Var: Din Dabiri, Den Dabiri, Den Dabireh) |
||a ninth-century Pahlavi text, comprising a major survey of
the religion. (Var. Dinkard, Dinkart, Denkart)|
||a demon. (Var: 'dev', Av. 'daeva', OP. 'daiva')|
||lit. 'preface', an preliminary prayer (in Pazand) which names
the spiritual being that a ceremony is dedicated to. It also names
the benefactor and person in whose honor the ceremony is performed, and the town
where it is being performed.
Also known as (Phl.) Nirang Ashoan ('rite for the righeous souls'),
(Phl.) Nirang i Boy Dadan , or
(Guj.) Dhup Nirang ('rite for offering incense').
Also known as Nirang Peroz Bad from the opening words. |
||consecrated flat unleavened bread; a service in which bread
is consecrated. (Var: 'darun', Av: 'draona, draonangha').|
||embodiment of evil and pollution, demon of the lie, falsehood.
(Var: 'drug', OP. 'drauga')|
|druj i nasush (Phl.):
||the corpse demon.|
|Dukdaub (or Dugdov)
|duwazdah homast (Phl.):
||a high liturgy consisting of 12 sections, where Vendidad and
Yasna is recited. (Var. 'dwazdah-homast,
dvazdeh-homast, davazdah hamast')|
||lit. 'Iranian expanse', home of the Aryans. (Var. 'Eran-wez',
Av. 'Airyanem Vaejah, Airyana Waejah')|
|Erenavak [use Arnavaz]|
|ervad (Parsi Guj.):
||a priest, originally a title used for higher ecclesiastics,
currently used to refer to a priest who has undergone the first
stage of initiation into priesthood (nawar). (Var: Phl. 'erbad',
'herbad', Av: 'aethrapati')|
||demon of Fury/Wrath. (Var. Av. 'Aeshma', Phl. 'Xeshm')|
||(Pr. n.) daughter of Afrasiyab|
||lit. 'chapter, section', a term designating sections of the
Vendidad and other books of the Avesta.
Compare with kardah. (Var. 'fragard')|
||name of a heroic king of ancient Iran who flourished centuries
before Zarathushtra. (Var: Av. 'Thraetaona', Pers. 'Fariydun')|
||guardian angel, guardian spirits of the living and dead. (Var:
Phl. 'frohar, fravard, fravahr', Av. 'fravashi')|
||Parsi name for a ceremony dedicated
to the farohars.|
||obligatory prayers said in each of the five watches ('gahs')
of the day.|
|Fasli (Pers., Ar.):
||Zoroastrians who follow a religious calendar which intercalates
one day every four years, patterned after the Gregorian calendar.
(Compare with Qadimi and Shahanshahi.)|
||author of the Persian epic Shah-nama (Book of Kings) in which
many Zoroastrian myths are recorded.
||a spiritual being/angel, used interchangeable with yazad.
(Var. 'fireshta, fereshte')|
||lit. 'making wonderful', renovation of the universe, the last
judgment. (Var: Av. 'Frasho-kereti')|
||the last ten days of the religious calendar, during which
the farohars of the departed are remembered, aka All-Souls days,
Mukhtad. (Originally 'rozan Frawardigan'.)|
||name of the nineteenth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; name of the first month.|
|gah (Phl., Pers.):
||one of the five watches or periods of the day (named 'ushahin',
'hawan', 'rapithwin', 'uzerin', and 'aiwisruthrem'); also 'place'
or 'area'. (Var: 'geh')|
|gahambar (Phl., Pers.):
||six major seasonal festivals, named 'maidyozarem' (mid-spring),
'maidyoshahem' (mid-summer), 'paitishahem' (bringing in the corn),
'ayathrem' (homecoming of cattle), 'maidyarem' (mid-winter), and
'hamaspathmaidyem' (coming of the whole group [of farohars]).
||mythical cosmic tree.
|garothman (Parsi Guj.):
||the 'House of Song', i.e. heaven. (Var: Av. 'Garo-nmana',
Phl. 'garodman', 'garotman')|
||(Pr. n.) brother of Afrasiyab (Av. Keresavazda)|
||the five sacred hymns of Zarathushtra (Yasna chapters 28-34,
43-51, 53), part of the Avesta; the five
supplementary days at the end of the Zoroastrian religious calendar
and the fireshtes presiding over them.
|gaw (Phl., Pers.):
||name of a yazad personifying cattle;
an ox, bull or cow.
||lit. 'mortal life', mythical first man according to some Phl.
texts. (Var: Av. 'Gayo-maretan')
|geh-sarnu (Parsi Guj.):
||recitation of the Gathas during a funeral service. (Var: Phl.
||an iron bier on which a dead body is removed|
||material existence; the world. (Compare with 'menog'.)|
||a ceremony of redemption, consisting of the recital of nine
||Ceremony which qualifies priests to initiate as candidate into the priesthood.
It consists of performing the Yasna ritual for six consecutive days. (RCC, p. 202)
||a small pocket on the throat of the sudre
(sacred shirt), also known as "kissa-e kerfa" (the bag
of good deeds) (Pers.).|
||see Ahura Mazda.|
||one of the Gujarat ecclesiastical groups of priests, serving
a large rural area, headquartered in Anklesar.
|gomez (Phl.):||(unconsecrated) bull's urine.
||lit. 'the soul of the cow (or settlement)'; name of the fourteenth
day of the month according to the Zoroastrian religious calendar;
(Av. Geush Urvan)|
||See Adar Gushnasp|
||A sacred being.|
||lit. 'coming of the whole group [of farohars]',
feast of All Souls. (Var. Hamaspathmaedaya)|
||a ritual greeting.
||purgatory, a neutral place between heaven and hell where souls
go when their good deeds equal their evil deeds. (Var: 'Hameshta-gehan')
||lit. 'co-workers', associates of the yazad
which presides over the day. The term 'dahman' is also used.|
||name of a plant with medicinal and spiritual properties; name
of the yazad presiding over the haoma plant.
(Var: Phl. 'hom').|
||Mythical mountain. (Var: 'Hukairya')|
|Hasar (Phl.) (Av. hathra)
||Ameasure of distance, as well as of time|
|Hathêvâro:||Hand fastening; part of the marriage ceremony (RCC 33).|
|Hathra:||a measure equal to one-half of a charetu, or about 3.5 furlongs.|
|Haurvatat (Av.):||see Hordad.|
||name of the second watch (gah) of each
day (sunrise to midday, i.e., 12 noon); a yazad
presiding over the second watch. (Var. 'havan', Av. 'havani')|
|hom (Phl.):||see haoma.|
||a mythological ruker of ancient Iran, founder of the Peshdadian
dynasty, He is credited with the discovery of fire. (Var. 'Hushang',
||lit. 'Perfection or Health', name of an Amahraspand;
name of the sixth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; name of the third month. (Var: Av. 'Haurvatat')
||name of various kings of the Parthian and Sasanian dynasties.
|Hoshedar (use Ushedar)
|Hoshedarmah (use Ushedarmah)
||One of the future Soshyants.|
||a Parsi occult movement, heavily influenced by Theosophy and the
pseudo-Zoroastrian Azar Kayvani sect.|
||Name of a demon. (Var: Skt. 'Indra')|
|Iraj: use Airik
||Son of Faridoon|
||the oldest sacred fire (Atash Bahram) in India, now in Udvada.|
||(Pr. n.) son of Zarathushtra|
|jama (Guj.): ||A long white formal garment traditionally worn by
Parsi/Irani priests, especially on formal occasions.
Compare dagli. Its use has to some extent been replaced by the dagli.|
||an early hero of the Zoroastrian religion. He was King Vishtasp's
Prime Minister, and the son-in-law of Zarathushtra. (Var: Av. 'Jamaspa')|
||a famous king of ancient Iran. (Var: 'Jamshid', Av. 'Yima Khshaeta')|
|jashan (Phl. Pers.):
||a frequently-performed religious service, in which an afrinagan
ceremony is performed. (Var: 'jashn', Parsi 'jasan').|
||poll tax levied from non-Muslims.|
||intercalation done to keep calendar consistent with seasons|
||A knife with metallic handle, used for cutting purposes. RCC 288|
|karb:||priest of the old religion. (Var: Av. 'Karapan').|
|karapan (Av.):||See karb.|
|kardah:||A section or division of most Yashts and other books of the
Avesta. Compare with fargard.|
||A furrow drawn on the ground to isolate impurities. RCC 109|
||one of the seven continents of the earth, named 'Arezahi'
(West), 'Sawahi' (East), 'Fradadhafshu' (Southeast), 'Widadhafshu'
(Southwest), 'Wouru-bareshti' (northwest), 'Wourujareshti' (Northeast),
and 'Xwaniratha' (central). Eranvej is
located in the latter.|
|Kavi Haosravah (Av.)
||(king) (= Pers. Kay Khosraw)|
|Kavi Usan (Av.)
||(king) (= Pers. Kay Kavus)|
|Kavi Vishtaspa (Av.)
||(king) (= Pers. Kay Gushtasp)|
||a prehistoric dynasty of ancient Iran. (Var: 'kay, kayag,
kavi', Av. 'kavaya')|
|Kay Arsh (Phl.):
|Kay Kaus (Phl.):
||a Kayanian king. (Var: Av. 'Kavi Usan')|
|Kay Khosraw (Pers.):
||a Kayanian king, grandson of Kay Kaus. (Var: Av. 'Kavi Haosravah')|
|Kay Kobad (Pers.):
||founder of the Kayanian dynasty. (Var: Av. 'Kavi Kavata.')|
|Kay Loharasp (Pers.)
||Legendary king. See Lohrasp. (Av. Aurvat-aspa)|
|Kay Vishtasp (Phl.):
||king of ancient Iran, patron of Zarathushtra. (Var: Av. 'Vishtaspa',
|kem na mazda (Av.):
||an exorcism prayer from the Avesta.|
||(pr. n.) (= Pers. Garsivaz)|
||a king of ancient Iran. (Var: 'Garshasp', Av. 'Keresaspa')|
||(pr. n.) ('the Karb')|
||a group of priests, headquartered in Khambat.
|kheshm (Phl., Pers.):
||the a demon of wrath.
|Khorda Avesta (Pers.):
||the 'Small Avesta', a prayer book with excerpts from the Avesta.
||the sixth day of the year.
|Khorshed (Parsi Pers.):
|Khshathra Vairya (Av.):
||lit. 'dedication', a dedicatory
section (in Avesta) naming the yazad
in whose honor a ceremony is performed. There are two types of khshnumans,
nani ("shorter"), and wadi ("longer").|
|khwan (Phl., Pers.):||stone table or slab used for rituals.
Stands on fout feet, cut from ordinary stone or marble. (Var. Khwân)
(Modi, RCC 270-4)|
||divine grace or glory. (Var: Phl. 'farr', 'farrah', 'khurra', Av. 'khvarenah',
||'the shining sun'; name of the yazad
presiding over the Sun; name of the eleventh day of the month
according to the Zoroastrian religious calendar; (Var: Pers: Khurshid)
||next-of-kin marriage. (Var: Av. 'khvaetvadatha')
||sacred cord worn around the waist by Zoroastrians; the short
ritual of untying and retying the kusti.
|Lohrasp (Phl.):||a king of ancient Iran, father of Kay Vishtasp. (Var: Av.
|maga||A pit, dug during the barashnom ritual. RCC 109|
||a priest (pl. magi). Compare with "mobed".|
|mah (Phl., Pers.):
||moon; month; name of the twelfth day of the month according
to the Zoroastrian religious calendar; name of the yazad
presiding over the Moon.|
||lit. 'Holy Word', name of a yazad who
embodies the Holy Word; name of the twenty-ninth day of the month
according to the Zoroastrian religious calendar. (Var: Av. 'Manthra
||mid-winter feast (gahambar).
||mid-summer feast (gahambar).
||mid-spring feast (gahambar).
|Mani (Phl., Pers.):
||founder of Manichaeism, a Gnostic religion with Zoroastrian
elements, considered an arch-heretic (lived from 216 A.C.-275
||Holy Word; specific passages of the Avesta
with specific poetic and spiritual properties.
Compare with Mahraspand.|
||(pr. n.) Legendary king. See Minochehr. (Av. 'Manuschithra')|
||a ceremony which qualifies a priest to perform higher rituals.
Compare with nawar. (Var. 'martab')|
||the first human couple, sprung from the seed of Gayomard,
the first man.
||see Ahura Mazda.|
||another term for the Zoroastrian religion, lit. "worship
||A land north of Iran. (Var. 'Mazana'; modern 'Mazandaran')|
||spiritual existence; spiritual world. (Compare with getig.)
(Var: Av. 'mainyu')
|Mihr (Phl., Pers.):
||yazad presiding over the contract; name
of the sixteenth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; name of the seventh month.
||a festival honoring the yazad Mihr, celebrated
on the 16th day of the seventh month. (Var: Mehragan, Mehregan, MEHREG?N).
||a king of ancient Iran. (Var: 'Manuchihr', Av. 'Manuschithra')
||a Zoroastrian priest, orig. head priest ('Magu-paiti', master
||All Souls festival. See Frawardigan.|
||a ceremonial food offering.|
||ablution, a ritual washing of the entire body, a higher form
of purification than padyab.|
||ceremony for naming a newborn, usually 10-12 days after birth|
||a short prayer of homage. (Var: 'nemaskar')|
|Nam Stayishn (Phl.):||name of a Pazand prayer praising Ohrmazd, part of the Khorda Avesta.|
|naogar (naôgar):||A stick with nine knots, used in purifying ceremonies. RCC 109.|
|nasa (Pers.):||dead matter, pollution; demon of putrefaction. (Var: Av. 'nasu',
|nask (Phl.):||lit. 'book, volume,' one of the 21 volumes into which the
Avesta was divided in ancient times; a religious service (Sudgar, Warsht-mansr, bag, damdad, nadar, pazag,
ratushtaiti, barish, kishkisrub, Wishtasp-sast, Washtag, Chihrdad,
Spand, Bagan-yasn, Nigadum, Duwasrud, Husparum, Sagadum, Jud-dew-dad,
|navjote (Parsi Guj.):
||initiation into the Zoroastrian religion, a ceremony of investiture
of the sudre and kusti.
Also called 'sedra pushun'.
|Navsari (Pers., Guj.):
||a town in Gujarat India, a stronghold of Zoroastrianism.
||a four day ceremony which qualifies a candidate for the priesthood.
Compare with maratab,
||New Years Day. (Var: 'Noruz', 'No Roz')
|Neryosang (Phl., Pers.):
||name of a yazad. (Av. 'nairyosangha')|
||lit. 'formula, spell', a short ritual accompanied by Avestan
or Pazand prayers; consecrated gomez.|
|nirang-i kusti bastan (Pers.):
||formula for retying the kusti, this short
ritual is a necessary prelude to longer prayer.|
||name of the most exalted and elaborate of Zoroastrian high
||one of five Zoroastrian litanies from the Avesta,
part of the daily prayers. (Var: 'nyayesh, nyayishn')|
||God, the supreme being; name of the first day of the month
according to the Zoroastrian religious calendar. (Var: Ormazd,
Av. 'Ahura Mazda')|
||language of the Achaemenian empire,
recorded in cuneiform inscriptions.|
||lit. 'disciple', a candidate for priesthood. (Av. 'havishta')|
||a woman of priestly family.|
||a white cloth mask used by a priest during ceremonies to keep
his breath from directly touching the fire.|
||a ritual washing of the exposed parts of the body. Compare
|padyab-kusti (Pers.):||a ritual ablution followed by the ritual untying and retyingof the kusti.|
|pagdi||traditional headgear (compare pheta).|
||the Middle Persian language, used between 300 B.C. and 950
A.C, in which many Zoroastrian writings are preserved.
||witch, sorceress; shooting star.
||feast (gahambar) of bringing in the harvest.
||local association of Zoroastrians.
|Palash (Parsi Pers.):
||a Parthian king (51-80 A.C.). (Var. Greek 'Vologeses I', Phl.
|panj tay (Pers.):
||a ceremony performed with a 'five-wire' barsom,
which is prerequisite for performing any high liturgy for the
day. (Var: 'baj of panch tai')
|panthak (Guj.):||priestly jurisdiction.|
|Paoiryo-tkaesha (Av.):||lit. 'primitive doctrine', forerunner of Zoroastrianism. Alternately, one of the first teachers of the Zoroastrianism. (Var: Phl. 'poryotkesh')|
|paragna:||a ceremony which precedes the Yasna.
||Zoroastrians who settled in India. Sg: Parsi. (Var: 'Parsees')
||a royal dynasty ruling Iran from 250 B.C.-226 A.C.|
||prayer of penance (in Pazand).|
||Lit. "sacred" or consecrated. A permanently constructed ritual furrow
(karsha, qv). RCC 115.
The platform of the dakhma is divided into separate
sections names pavis. RCC 68|
|paywand (Phl.) (paewand, paiwand):
||lit. 'connection,' ritual contact between persons serving
as a shield against pollution.
A ritual connection. "To hold a "paywand" means to be
in close contact or touch. This is done by holding a piece of cloth or cotton tape
by two persons to show that they are associated or joined in doing a thing."
||Pahlavi texts in which Aramaic elements are replaced with
their Iranian equivalents, transcribed in the Avestan script.|
|Peshdadian:||the first dynasty of ancient Iran.|
|Peshotan (Pers.):||an early hero of Zoroastrianism, he was the son of Kay Vishtasp.|
|Pesho-tanu (Av.):||a 'mortal-sin'; an individual who has committed a mortal sin.|
|pheta||traditional headgear. (Var. feta.) (Compare pagdi.)|
|Porseh Ceremony||Memorial Service|
||name of Zarathushtra's father. (Var: Av. 'Paourushaspa')|
|Qadimi (Pers., Ar.):
||one of the three movements within Zoroastrianism which observe
different religious calendars (the other two are called Fasli
and Shahanshahi). The Qadimi calendar
is one month ahead of the Shahanshahi.|
||lit. 'joy', name of a yazad; name of
the twenty-first day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
||the period of the day (gah) from noon to
mid-afternoon; a yazad presiding over the
Rapithwin gah. During five months of the year it is replaced by
a second Hawan.
||lit. 'truth, justice', name of a yazad;
name of the eighteenth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; (Av. Rashnu).
||judge, often found in conjunction with 'Ahu'.
(Var. Phl. 'rad')
||soul. (Var: Av. 'urvan')
|riman (Phl., Pers.):
||something that has become polluted by contact with dead matter;
a ceremony of purification, used by Parsees in place of barashnom
to purify lay persons.
||a collection of letters in Persian from Iranian priests in
response to questions by their Indian counterparts on a variety
of religious topics, written between 1478 and 1773 C.E.|
||a hero of ancient Iran.|
||lit. 'pure, simple,' Avestan texts without Pahlavi commentaries.|
||lit. 'a dog's gaze', this term refers to the practice of exposing
a corpse to the gaze of a dog, which is believed to drive away
some of the power of the druj.|
||a small building near a dakhma where
a fire is kept burning.
||a group of priests headquartered in Udvada.
||the Zoroastrian dynasty which ruled Iran from circa 226 A.C.-651
A.C. (Var: 'Sasanid')
||meal offering ritual prayer for dead.
||the third watch (gah) of each day (noonday
to 3 p.m.) during part of the year. Compare with Rapithwin.|
||one of the three movements within Zoroastrianism which observe
different religious calendars (the other two are called Fasli
||lit. 'Desirable Dominion', the Amahraspand
presiding over metals; name of the fourth day of the month according
to the Zoroastrian religious calendar; name of the sixth month.
(Var: Av. 'Khshathra Vairya')|
|Shayest Ne-Shayest (Phl.)
||Middle-Persian religious text (Var. Shayast-la-Shayast)|
||A bow of last respects. RCC 66|
|siroza, siruza (Pers.):
||lit. '30 days', a prayer from the Avesta
which honors 30 yazads.|
||the (World) Savior. (Var: Av. 'Saoshyant')
||lit. 'Holy Devotion', the Amahraspand
presiding over the earth; name of the fifth day of the month according
to the Zoroastrian religious calendar; name of the twelfth month.
(Var: Av. 'Spenta Armaiti')
|Spenta Armaiti (Av.):
|Spenta Mainyu (Av.):
||Holy Spirit. (Var: Phl. 'Spenamino')
||name of the third Gatha; name of the
third Gatha day.
||demon of thunderstorms.
||lit. 'Hearkening'; name of a yazad; name
of the seventeenth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; a spirit being who guards the soul for three
days after death (Var: Av. 'Sraosha')
|stum (Parsi Guj.):
||a prayer recited on meals in honor of the dead. (Var: 'satum')
||sacred shirt. (Var: 'sudra, sudreh')
||sacred shirt and girdle.
||a hero of ancient Iran, son of Gayomard, the first king of
Iran. (Var: 'Siamak', 'Syamak')
|syaw (Parsi Guj.):
||a suit of white clothes consecrated during the Dron service.
(Var: 'siav, shiav')|
||name of an ancient Iranian hero, son of Kay Kaus.|
||name of an ancient Iranian hero, son of Hooshang.|
||the ceremony of laying the foundation for a new Dakhma.|
||a mortal sin, or a good deed which can balance a mortal sin.|
|tan-dorosti (Paz., Pers.):
||a prayer of benediction (in Pazand).|
||(Phl. Taromat) Name of a demon, opposed to Armaiti.|
|Tir (Phl.):||see Tishtar.|
|Tiragan:||Religious celebration in honor of Tishtar.|
|Tishn (Phl.):||demon of thirst.|
|Tishtar (Phl.):||the star Sirius; name of the yazad presiding
over Sirius; name of the thirteenth day of the month according
to the Zoroastrian religious calendar; name of the fourth month.
(Var: Phl. 'Tir')|
|topi:||traditional skull cap generally worn during prayers.|
|Tur (Pers.):||name of an ancient Iranian hero, one of the three sons of
||a foreign tribe mentioned in the Avesta,
probably originally Scythian, later applied to all Central Asian
|urvis:||lit. "turning point" (as in a racecourse).
Cosmic racecourse, also, the ritual "circle or the limits within which the celebrants
have to remain." Also, the ritual table (altar, khwan) at which the ritual implements (alat)
are arranged (Khwan of alat).
Urvis-gah (Urviçgâ) is a synonym of Yazashna-gah.
[Var. 'rwaisa' (Gathic Avestan), Urviç, Aurves, Aûrvés,
Aurvis, urwes, urwis, urwês, urwîs.]
(Cf. Modi RCC 263, 271, 277; DD48.13; Windfuhr 2004, pp. 176-7.)
|Ushahin:||name of the first watch (gah) of each day
(from midnight to daybreak).|
||(pr. n.) One of three future world saviours (Var. Aushedar, Hoshedar)|
||(pr. n.) One of three future world saviours (Var. Aushedar-mah,
||name of the second Gatha; name of the
second Gatha day.
||a communal service performed on the third night after death.
||the fourth watch (gah) of each day (from
3 p.m. to sunset).|
||Yazad of the Star Vega.|
||one of the books of the Avesta; a high
liturgical service in which the Vendidad is recited.
||see Kay Vishtasp.
|Vispa Humata (Av.):
||a short prayer from the Khorda Avesta
focussing on good thoughts, words, and deeds.
|Visperad (Phl., Pers.):
||one of the books of the Avesta; a high
liturgical service dedicated to Ahura Mazda.
||lit. 'Good Mind', one of the Amahraspands;
name of the second day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar; name of the 11th month. (Var. Av. 'Vohu Manah')
|Vohu Manah (Av.):
||lit. 'of many bays', mythical ocean.|
||lit. 'wind, atmosphere', name of the yazad
presiding over the wind; name of the twenty-second day of the
month according to the Zoroastrian religious calendar. (Var. Gowad,
||name of the fifth Gatha; name of the fifth Gatha day.|
|warasyo (Parsi Guj.):
||a consecrated white bull. Its hair is used for ritual purposes.
(Var: 'varasyo', Av. 'varesa')|
||lit. 'victory', name of a yazad; name
of the twentieth day of the month according to the Zoroastrian
religious calendar. (Var: Pers. Bahram, Behram.)|
||name of the fourth Gatha; name of the fourth Gatha day.|
||one of the hymns of the Avesta honoring
various spiritual beings.|
||one of the books of the Avesta; the
name of a high liturgical service in which the text of the Yasna
is recited. (var. Yaçna, yazashna)|
|yatha ahu vairyo (Av.):
||the first phrase of the Ahunwar prayer.
||a created spiritual being, worthy of being honored or praised.
Used interchangeably with fireshte. (Var: Ijad, Av. 'Yazata')
||the last Sasanian king. The Zoroastrian
calendars numbers the year based on his reign, and uses the label
'A.Y.' for 'after Yazdegird'.
|yenghe hatam (Av.):
||one of the most sacred prayers of Zoroastrianism.
|yozdathregar ( Av.):
||lit. 'purifier', the priest who administers the barashnom
ceremony of purification. (Var: Av. 'yaozdathragar')|
||lit. 'earth', yazad presiding over the
earth; name of the twenty-eighth day of the month according to
the Zoroastrian religious calendar. (Var. 'Zamyad')|
||translation and exegesis. The term 'Zand-Avesta' or 'Zend-Avesta'
refers to an edition of the Avesta which has Zand interspersed
with the Avesta text. (Var. Zend.)|
||libation (Var: Phl. 'zohr')|
||name of the founder of Zoroastrianism. (Var: Parsi Guj. 'Zarthosht',
Phl. 'Zartosht, Zardusht', Greek 'Zoroaster')|
|Zarthosht (Parsi Guj.):
||lit. 'living soul' (as distinguished from anosharawan, the
soul of a deceased person); a ceremony honoring the yazad
Srosh on behalf of a living person. (Var, 'Zenda-ravan')|
||a mythical tyrant. (Var. 'Zahhak', Av. 'Azi Dahaka')|
||the religion founded by Zarathushtra
(12th century B.C.?), the oldest of the great prophetic religions.|