Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East,
volume 24, Clarendon Press, 1885.
- The sixtieth subject is this, that we are keeping the good
and pure religion of the Mazda-worshippers with us, so that escape
from hell may be possible for our souls. 2. And we are completely
united in hope, and through investigation (ta'hqiq) we fully understand
that, when we are steadfast in the good religion, we arrive in
heaven. 3. And we know that arrival in heaven occurs through virtuous
actions, and through them we are saved; so that we think of good,
speak of good, and do good.
- And no doing of good is better than that which offers itself
when a difficult duty comes before one of the good religion as
his soul wishes to depart. 5. Since it comes to thee, do thou
give help to that which has escaped his hand, so that he may come
out of that hindrance; and do thou not forsake him so that he
relinquishes the religion. 6. For after that, while he is in the
religion, and while his children, after him, are in the religion,
every duty and good work that he does -- and his children -- is
just like those which are done by thine own hand.
- And it is just like that with regard to poll-tax, it is also
indispensable to give it in semblance of help, so that they may
give that person his release ('halaz), and he may stay in his
own place, and the advantage of a good work (THavab) may come
to that other person.
- The sixty-first subject is this, that it is requisite to abstain
strictly from speaking falsehood; so that, every time that mankind
indulge in the speaking of falsehood with fondness, it is not
proper to do so; and falsehood is the chief of all sins.
- Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'Who is a liar like?' 3.
Ohrmazd, the good and propitious, said: 'A liar is a cooperator
- In revelation it says that there is no hereafter (a'hirat)
for the speakers of falsehood, and in the midst of mankind they
are contemptible ('haqir). 5. If such a man be powerful (mu'htashim),
and there be no avoiding ('haDHar) him in the vicinity of mankind,
they do not have any respect for him, and he is clearly (farzam)
an evil liar. 6. Although he possesses much wealth, it will all
depart from his hands, and, finally ('haqibat), begging of mankind
occurs to him, and his progeny also becomes scanty.
- The sixty-second subject is this, that it is necessary to
take early to the speaking of truth and doing of justice, and
to maintain oneself therein, for nothing whatever is better among
mankind than truth.
- Owing to truth Ohrmazd created this world and that other world,
and truth has remained on the spot, and on account of truth it
becomes pure. 3. And the accursed Ahriman, being devoid of anything
good, does not issue from that which is owing to truth. 4. It
is requisite to occasion the resurrection owing to truth; and,
as to every place where truth is not taken up, the glory in that
place has found a way out, and as to every household where much
of this resides, it is on account of truth, and Ahriman does not
find a way into that place.
- It is said in revelation that one truthful man is better than
a whole world ('halam) speaking falsehood; and Gavah of Isfahan
-- when he kept his stand upon the truth, and was speaking words
with truth until the time when Dahak [Zohak], who possessed the
whole realm, and the whole of the demons and mankind have been
afraid of him, through the truth of the words spoken -- was bold
with them in every speech, and became victorious (muthaffar) over
them by reason of the true words that he was speaking.
- The accursed Ahriman, when he perceived the spirit of truth,
had fallen senseless three thousand years. 7. From fear of truth
he never managed to hold up his head, and from fear of truth he
did not manage to come into this world. 8. And everything that
thou settest thy gaze (nathar) upon therein, that has remained
on the spot when thou seekest again an examination of it, has
remained through truth. 9. And the interpretation of the Ashem-vohu
is in truth, and, for that reason, they recite the Ashem-vohu
- The sixty-third subject is this, that it is necessary to practice
strict abstinence from adultery on this account, that through
every one who beguiles the wife of another, and commits iniquity
with her, that woman becomes, in a moment, unlawful as regards
her husband. 2. And, after that, every time her husband comes
round about her, it is just as though she had gone near to a strange
man. 3. The righteous bestowal of herself on her own husband,
in this situation, is always worse than his going with women of
a different religion, on this account, that, if that wife becomes
pregnant, it is just as though one of the good religion had fallen
away into a different religion, and thereby that man becomes worthy
- And it also happens, when that wife becomes pregnant, that
she may effect the slaughter of the infant, from fear of a bad
reputation. 5. Then, for that person whose child it is, it is
just as though he had effected the slaughter of the child with
his own hand; therefore, he is worthy of death. 6. If the infant
be born, and it remains in the religion, every sin that that child
of his commits is, for that person, just as though it were committed
by his own hand.
- And if a woman of those of the good religion commits adultery,
she becomes in a condition unlawful as regards her husband; and
if an infant be born it is illegitimate. 8. And the sin owing
to this will depart at the time when that person goes near to
her husband and shall say: 'What is there in me befitting thy
wife? 9. A calamity (ak) has occurred, and a crime ('hata) has
come into my body; thou knowest if thou wilt exercise forgiveness
('hafu) and if not, when if is not for me, do thou kill me; my
blood is lawful ('halal) unto thee.' 10. If he shall kill her,
her sin will depart owing to this; otherwise, this sin will not
depart from her in any manner (navai).
- And one calls this sin a sin affecting antagonists, and, so
long as the antagonist does not become satisfied, the sin flows
on, and they keep his soul back at the head of the Chinwad bridge,
till the time that its antagonist shall arrive and himself accomplishes
his antagonism, and they give him back a reply.
- The sixty-fourth subject is this, that it is necessary to
practice great abstinence from committing theft and seizing anything
from mankind by force.
- For it is declared in revelation that, as to every one who
steals one dirham away from another, when they really know it,
it is necessary to take two dirhams away from him, one dirham
being that which was carried off, and one dirham as the fine of
him who committed the theft. 3. It is also requisite to cut off
one ear, and it is necessary to strike ten blows with a stick,
and to detain him one period in prison.
- And if he shall steal another dirham, in the same manner one
is to take away two dirhams, to cut off the other ear, to strike
twenty blows with a stick, and to detain him two periods in prison.
5. And if he shall steal three dirhams and two dangs, it is requisite
to cut off his right hand. 6. If he shall steal five hundred dirhams,
it is requisite to hang him.
- On the spot the punishment is this, and among the spirits
it brings punishment on the soul itself. 8. And, if the other
person, does not know it, they take away twice as much good work,
among the spirits, from that thief, and give it to the soul of
this person. 9. If the thief possesses no good works, they give
the compensation from the constantly-beneficial treasury, and
exhibit the punishment on the soul of that thief.
- As to that person who has seized anything from another by
force, among the spirits they seize back four things as compensation
for every single one. 11. And if, on the spot where people capture
him, he makes it convenient to return four things in compensation
for one, when they have fully understood, as they capture that
person who is committing highway-robbery, that he makes it convenient,
they may kill him at once.
- The sixty-fifth subject is this, that every one is to practice
thanksgiving continually, and it is requisite that he maintains
it through good and bad; and he is to keep in view the benefits
of Ohrmazd. 2. Because the creator Ohrmazd demands two things
from mankind, the one is that one should not commit sin, and the
other is that one should practice thanksgiving. 3. And how much
soever more grateful mankind become, through virtue and worthiness
as regards him, they grant more abundant daily provision for the
grateful than that which is for other persons. 4. And as to every
one who is not grateful to him, the bread that he eats becomes
unlawful, and it is not proper for any one to do good in connection
- And it is declared in revelation that when an unthankful person
dies, wherever they deposit his corpse, the archangel Spandarmad
is trembling like a sheep that sees a wolf. 6. And as to a bird
that eats that corpse, on whatever tree it rests and settles,
it makes that tree wither away, and the person who sits down in
the shadow of the tree becomes ill.
- There are different things that it is necessary for those
of the good religion to make predominant over themselves. 8. One
is to exercise liberality in connection with the worthy; the second
is to do justice; the third is to be friendly unto every one;
and the fourth is to be sincere and true, and to keep falsehood
far from themselves. 9. And these four habits ('hazlat) are the
principles (azl) of the religion of Zartosht, and it is necessary,
when thou listenest to them thyself, that thou dost not listen
to any one else. 10. Because the creator Ohrmazd says, 'O Zartosht!
if thou wilt that thou become pure and saved, and that thou arrive
at the place of the pure, do thou accomplish these two duties:
-- 11. One is this, that thou prefer the friendship of the spiritual
existence to that of the worldly one, and consider the things
of the world as contemptible and those of the spirit precious;
on this account the glory of the world is sought with scorn, and
do not thou let the spirit escape. 12. The second is this, that
thou speak truly with every one and act justly with me, that is,
whatever thou dost not approve for thyself do not approve for
any one else; when thou hast acted in this manner thou art righteous.'
- The sixty-sixth subject is this, that it is incumbent on all
women to order the days (ayyam) of the Dvazdah-homast, because
the whole of any sin that may have arisen during menstruation,
and at other times, becomes cleared away thereby.
- And in the commentary of the Vendidad it says that every one
becomes sanctified in the days of the Dvazdah-homast, and all
sins become cleared away from her, like that which occurs at harvest
time, when a great wind comes on and carries it off; just like
this the sin departs from her, and the person becomes clean and
- And, for women, there is no duty more indispensable than this;
for it is declared in revelation that, when they celebrate a Dvazdah-homast,
it is a good work of a hundred thousand tanapuhrs, and if it be
the days of the Dvazdah-homast it is a good work of a thousand
thousand tanapuhrs, and when they celebrate it by day it is a
good work just like this.
- The sixty-seventh subject is this, that it is necessary for
women to practice great abstinence from committing adultery. 2.
For it is declared in revelation, as to every woman who has lain
with a strange man, thus: 'What is it necessary to call her, and
why is the explanation that she is of one nature with all wizards
- And in the commentary of the Vendidad it says '"every
woman who consorts with two strange men is the first down upon
me, who am Ohrmazd. 4. For if she takes a look into a river of
water it will make it diminish, if she takes a look at a tree
or shrub the fruit of the trees becomes scanty, and if she speaks
a word with a righteous man it will make the glory of the man
diminish." 5. Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd, "What occurs
on her account?" 6. The creator Ohrmazd spoke thus: "It
is necessary to kill her sooner than a biting serpent and similar
creatures and wild beasts, because she is more harmful to my creatures."'
- Therefore, since she is like this, it is necessary for women
to keep themselves with great effort, so that they may not become
unlawful unto their own husbands. 8. For, every time that one
of them gives herself four times to another person, she is, after
that, unlawful as long as she may be in the house of her husband,
and new sin is increasing in connection with her soul.
- The sixty-eighth subject is this, that for a menstruous woman
who casts an eye upon a fire it is a sin of twelve dirhams in
weight; and if she goes within three steps of the fire it is a
sin of a thousand and two hundred dirhams in weight for her; and
when she puts her hand to the fire it is a sin of fifteen tanapuhrs
- In like manner, if she takes a look at running water it is
a sin of twelve dirhams in weight for her; if she goes within
fifteen steps of running water it is a sin of fifteen dirhams
in weight for her; and when she sits down in running water it
is a sin of fifteen tanapuhrs for her. 3. And when she walks in
the rain, through every drop that drops upon her limbs there arises
a sin of one tanapuhr for her.
- If she comes to a Khwarshed Niyayesh, to observe it, it is
not proper for her to speak a word with a righteous man. 5. It
is not proper for her to put a bare foot on the ground. 6. It
is not proper for her to eat any food with a bare hand; it is
not proper for her to eat bread when satisfied. 7. It is not proper
for two menstruous women to eat together; it is not proper for
them to sleep so.
- And so long as three days have not elapsed it is not proper
to wash the hands, and three days after that, if she has perceived
herself clean, it is requisite to remain another day, and so until
the lapse of nine days, when, if she has perceived herself clean,
it is not necessary to remain to the end of another interval of
time. 9. If menstruation occurs for twenty-nine days, it is necessary
to consider that she is menstruous a second time, and during three
other days it is not proper to wash again, and it is necessary
to exercise care, just like that which I first wrote about.
- If she be doubtful whether menstruation is come to her, it
is requisite for her to strip off her dress, and then to take
notice if she has become menstruous, or if the dress that is stripped
off be clean. 11. If she has an infant to feed with her milk,
one puts away the dress from the infant, and gives it to the mother
till it has fed on the milk, and then it is proper to give it
to other persons. 12. It is pure, but when the mother washes her
head she also washes the head of the infant.
- And it is necessary for a menstruous woman that she should
not pass by the end of anything ceremonially washed, for, if it
be a thousand cubits (gaz) in length, she makes the whole of it
polluted, and it becomes unclean. 14. With any one who holds a
sacred-twig stand she should not speak a word; and if a priest
holds the sacred twigs in his hand, and a menstruous woman speaks
some (ba'hze) words from afar, or he walks within three steps
of a menstruous woman, she makes it unclean.
- The sixty-ninth subject is this, that it is not proper that
sunshine should fall on a fire, for, every time that sunshine
falls upon a fire, it is a sin. 2. If thou expose a fire to the
sun it is a sin of three stirs; and, if thou set down anything
on the top of the fire, it is necessary that it should not have
any hole -- so that the light (nur) ;and strength of the fire
might become less -- so far as thou knowest.
- The seventieth subject is this, that, as to any persons, when
they carry a corpse to the appointed place, it is necessary that
two suits of clothes be put on, on account of this work. 2. It
is requisite for those clothes to be on, and it is necessary to
make a dog gaze at the corpse twice, once at the time when life
becomes separated from it, and once at the time when they wish
to take it up.
- Then it is necessary that both those persons be connected,
and each of them is to tie a cord on one of his own hands, so
that the hand may go away from that of the other one. 4. And,
when they are moving, it is necessary for him to be prepared and
not to speak a word with any one. 5. And if it be a pregnant woman
they are to take her up by four persons, because there are two
- When, avoiding dead matter, one comes again upon it, he has,
in the end, to wash with ceremonial ablution, and that is requisite
for the reason that he may not thereby be rapidly a cause of wickedness
or death for any one.
- And if one does not show a dog to the corpse, and they take
it up, how many soever there be, the whole of them become polluted.
8. In the commentary of the Vendidad it is asserted, that every
one who takes up a corpse that a dog has not seen is polluted
and worthy of death, and never becomes clean; his soul also would
- The seventy-first subject is this, that, forasmuch as it is
not desirable for any one to eat dead matter for the sake of medicine
and remedy, let them beware (zinhar) when they eat it.
- For it asserts, in the commentary of the Vendidad, that it
is requisite to demolish the habitation, house, and abode of any
one who has eaten dead matter, and to fetch his heart out of his
body, and it is necessary to scoop out his eyes. 3. And along
with these torments, which they accomplish on him, his soul is
in hell till the resurrection.
- The seventy-second subject is this, that when any one carries
dead matter to water, or to fire, he is worthy of death. 2. And
it asserts in revelation, that any year when the locust comes
profusely, it comes for the reason that dead matter is brought
to water and fire. 3. And, in like manner, the winter is colder,
and the summer is hotter.
- The seventy-third subject is this, that, when a cow or a goat
has eaten dead matter, in any place, nothing whatever of its flesh,
or milk, or hair, should come into use for one year. 2. After
that one year it is clean: and, if it be pregnant, its young one
is likewise not clean for one year.
- And if a domestic fowl has eaten dead matter, its flesh and
eggs are, in like manner, not clean for one year.
- The seventy-fourth subject is this, that at dawn, when they
rise up from sleep, it is first necessary to throw something on
the hands, that is the hand-cleansing. 2. Afterwards, they are
to wash the hands quite clean with water, in such manner that
they are to wash the hands three times from the forearm (sa'hid)
to the end of the hand; and the face is washed from behind the
ears to below the chin and up to the crown of the head; and one
washes the feet three times thoroughly, as far as the leg (saq);
then one recites the Kem-na-mazda.
- If it be a place where there is no water, and the risk be
that the time for the Niyayesh should pass by, it is requisite
to cleanse the hands three times with dust, and to perform the
Niyayesh. 4. Afterwards, when one arrives at water, he is to wash
the hands and face a second time, and to accomplish the Niyayesh.
- Before the time when one throws something on the hands it
is not proper to wash the hands and face, and it is a tanapuhr
sin; it is also not possible to work at anything whatever with
the hands and face not washed.
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