Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East,
volume 24, Clarendon Press, 1885.
"As its name implies the Sad Dar is a treatise on 'a hundred
subjects' connected with the Zoroastrian religion. The word dar,
literally 'door, or gate,' being also applied to the chapters
of a book, and to the 'matters, or subjects,' of which it treats.
This work is not a Pahlavi text, being written in Persian with
an admixture of about four per cent of Arabic words; it is, however,
more quoted than any other work by the Parsi compilers of the
Persian Rivayats, or religious 'traditions,' in the seventeenth
century. In one of its recensions it is also found written in
Avesta characters, and the Avesta-Persian sentences alternate
with an old Gujarati translation, in imitation of the Pazand-Sanskrit
versions of Pahlavi texts compiled by Neryosang. In consideration
of the existence of this pseudo-Pazand recension, together with
the general acceptance of the work as an important authority,
and its being a convenient summary of many of the religious customs
handed down by Pahlavi writers, this work may be offered as a
suitable appendix to the true Pahlavi texts, connecting them with
the Persian writings that are too modern to be accepted as authorities
in religious matters.
It may ... be concluded that the prose Sad Dar had the reputation
of being a very old work in the early part of the sixteenth century."
(from introduction by E. W. West)
Chapter 0. Introduction
Chapter 1. Necessity of unwavering faith in the religion
Chapter 2. Sin not to be committed
Chapter 3. Advantage of perseverance in industry
Chapter 4. No one should despair of the mercy of Ohrmazd
Chapter 5. Advantage of Navazud and Geti-kharid
Chapter 6. The six indispensable good works
Chapter 7. Why we should recite certain formulas after sneezing
Chapter 8. Why high-priests must be obeyed
Chapter 9. The sin of unnatural intercourse to be punished, by any
one, by death on the spot
Chapter 10. Reasons for wearing the sacred thread-girdle and tying
it with four knots
Chapter 11. Why a household fire should be properly maintained
Chapter 12. Why the clothing of a corpse should be scanty and old,
though many people must follow the bier.
Chapter 13. Why ceremonies in honour of the souls of the departed
should be properly celebrated
Chapter 14. How nail-parings should be treated, and why
Chapter 15. How we should salute anything agreeable, and why
Chapter 16. A pregnant woman and new-born infant require the protection
of a fire or burning lamp, with other precautions
Chapter 17. Why a toothpick must be cut free from bark
Chapter 18. People should marry early, to benefit by children's good
works; and a childless man must have an adopted son
Chapter 19. Advantage of attending to agriculture
Chapter 20. Advantage of feeding the worthy
Chapter 21. How grace must be said before and after eating, and why
Chapter 22. Advantage of performing Jadangoi
Chapter 23. Tethered animals must be restrained
Chapter 24. Why and how Hom juice must be given to a new-born child
Chapter 25. Why promises must not be broken
Chapter 26. Every man of fifteen years must select a patron spirit
and a priestly guide whom he must obey
Chapter 27. When it is doubtful whether an action be right or wrong
a high-priest must be consulted
Chapter 28. Why the Avesta must be properly learnt and remembered
Chapter 29. Why liberality must extend only to the worthy
Chapter 30. Water must not be poured away, or drunk, in the dark
Chapter 31. Dogs must be fed and well-treated
Chapter 32. Why a hen or cock must not be killed for crowing
Chapter 33. Why search must be made where a corpse is supposed to
Chapter 34. Animals must not be often killed, and some never; also
certain parts should be consecrated
Chapter 35. Prayers to be used when washing the face
Chapter 36. Necessity of the Barashnom for both men and women
Chapter 37. Why the ten days of the guardian spirits [farohars] must be celebrated
Chapter 38. We must not drink from the same cup as those of a different
religion, until it is purified
Chapter 39. The sacred fire and its attendant must be properly maintained
(see Chap. 92)
Chapter 40. Parents and priests must be obeyed and not vexed
Chapter 41. The care and prayers necessary for menstruous women
Chapter 42. Why slander and seduction, sins producing accusers, are
Chapter 43. Noxious creatures must be killed, especially five kinds
Chapter 44. Walking barefoot is a sin, and why
Chapter 45. How repentance must be accomplished for every sin
Chapter 46. The proper age for tying on the sacred thread-girdle (kusti)
Chapter 47. Ceremonies must be celebrated after the death of a child
of seven, to liberate its soul from those of its parents
Chapter 48. A cooking-pot must not be more than two-thirds full, for
fear of boiling over
Chapter 49. A fire must be cold before the ashes are removed
Chapter 50. How the morning ablutions must be performed
Chapter 51. Why it is necessary to send a child to school
Chapter 52. Why a sacred cake must be consecrated every year on the
day Hordad of the month Farvardin
Chapter 53. Any one travelling twelve leagues must have a sacred cake
consecrated before he goes and every Warharan day during his absence
Chapter 54. If a man's serving wife has a son, he may adopt it; but
if only a daughter, he must adopt a relation's son
Chapter 55. When a sacred cake cannot be consecrated at a Navazud,
bread must be eaten with the Ohrmazd Baj
Chapter 56. Precautions and prayers necessary when evacuating water
Chapter 57. A hedgehog must not be injured, and why
Chapter 58. Advantages of a ceremony for the living soul
Chapter 59. The only Niyayesh for women is obedience to their husbands
Chapter 60. Steadfastness in the religion leads to heaven, and helping
others to be steadfast is the best good work
Chapter 61. Evils of falsehood
Chapter 62. Advantages of truth in word and action
Chapter 63. Regarding the sin of adultery
Chapter 64. Penalties for theft with and without violence
Chapter 65. Duties of thanksgiving and doing good
Chapter 66. All women must have the duwazdah homast celebrated
Chapter 67. Why women must abstain from adultery
Chapter 68. Precautions to be taken by menstruous women
Chapter 69. Allowing the sun to shine on a fire, even through holes,
Chapter 70. Precautions to be observed in carrying the dead
Chapter 71. Punishment for eating dead matter as medicine
Chapter 72. Bringing dead matter to water or fire is a deadly sin
Chapter 73. Any cow, goat, or fowl that eats dead matter is impure,
and its produce cannot be used, for a year
Chapter 74. Morning ablutions
Chapter 75. Cultivators must be careful that irrigation water is not
defiled with dead matter
Chapter 76. Period of purification after childbirth
Chapter 77. Purification and precautions after still-birth
Chapter 78. Why meat must not be eaten for three days after a death
in the house
Chapter 79. Advantages of liberality
Chapter 80. Different values of Ashem-vohu on different occasions
Chapter 81. Ohrmazd admonishes Zartosht not to postpone to-day's duties
and good works till tomorrow
Chapter 82. The sacred thread-girdle must be re-tied when dressing
before moving from the spot
Chapter 83. Proper fasting is from sin, not from food
Chapter 84. Prayers before sleeping and when restless
Chapter 85. Advice must always be asked of the wise and relations
Chapter 86. Water-dogs must not be killed
Chapter 87. Ceremonies to be celebrated after a death
Chapter 88. Polluted wood must not be used or burnt
Chapter 89. Any one eating dead matter, or polluting another with
it must be purified
Chapter 90. Nothing is to be given to a sinner
Chapter 91. How to purify articles of various materials when polluted
by dead matter
Chapter 92. The sacred fire must be properly maintained, and attendant
provided (see Chap. 39)
Chapter 93. Slander a sin, and how to atone for it
Chapter 94. Benefits must be reciprocated
Chapter 95. The merit of performing the Niyayeshes, and the sin of
Chapter 96. Mourning for the dead is improper
Chapter 97. Priests' instructions must be treated with respect
Chapter 98. Priests must teach the Avesta to laymen correctly
Chapter 99. Pahlavi must be taught to priests only
Chapter 100. Anyone molesting a harmless person in this world will
be delayed on his way to the other world
- In the name of Ohrmazd, the lord, the greatest and wise, the
all-ruling, all knowing, and almighty.
- This is a book (kitab), about the proper and improper, which
is extracted from the good and pure religion of the Mazda-worshippers.
3. What is expedient (vajib) is this, for every one to know and
keep this in practice. 4. And it is not desirable that he become
independent (hali) of this for a single hour (sa'hat). 5. Because,
when one becomes independent, the sin for each one may become
abundant; and when it is brought into practice the reward becomes
- On this occasion (vaqt) I, a servant of the religion -- like
the mobed Eran-shah, son (bin) of Yazad-yar, son of Tishtar-yar,
son of Adarbad, son of Mahraspand -- have sent a reward to their
souls, unto every one who reads and is bound by duty. 7. Thus
much (in qadar), which has come written, is a good work they know,
whosoever are superior; but it is not possible for every one inferior
to know of this. 8. If it were more (ziyadat) it is proper, but
if (imma) less than this it is not proper to know; while, in gratitude
for the benefits (shukr-i ni'hmat) of the sacred being, they become
increasing in action, and the sacred being, the most high (ta'halai),
makes benefits occur on the spot on that account.
- And, secondly, the kindness (lutf) and generosity (karm) of
the sacred being, the most high, are manifest from this, that
he created us with each member (alat) complete (tamam), and did
not keep anything from the maternal nature. 10. And whatever was
necessary for use he gave us. 11. At the head, likewise, he appointed
a master, which is the wisdom for the purpose that they may keep
these members in action.
- May the peace of the sacred being, the most high, be on the
souls of those acquainted with the religion of the pure Zartosht,
the Spitaman, and of those who are pure and virtuous. 13. For
the souls of those persons it is desirable that every duty they
perform they shall perform through the authority dasturi) of the
wisdom of the high-priests.
CHAPTER 1. Necessity of unwavering faith in the religion
- The first subject is this, that it is necessary that they
become steadfast in the religion, and do not introduce any hesitation
(shakk) and doubt into the heart. 2. And that they make a statement
('haqiqat) with confidence (i'htiqad), that the good religion,
the true and perfect, which the Lord sent into the world ('halq),
is that which Zartosht has brought; which is this I hold.
- Every time that mankind are like this, and do not introduce
any hesitation and doubt into the heart, of every duty and good
work that others have done, from the days of Zartosht until these
days, and of whatever one does after this until the resurrection,
there is a share for that person. 4. When the soul, on the fourth
night, arrives at the head of the Chinwad bridge, the angel Mihr
and the angel Rashn make up its account ('hisab) and reckoning.
5. And, if the good works it has done be deficient in quantity,
of every duty and good work that those of the good religion have
done in the earth of seven regions they appoint it a like portion
(nazib), till the good works become more in weight; and the soul
arrives righteous in the radiant locality of heaven.
- For it is declared in revelation, that of the duty and good
work which they perform in doubt -- that is (ya'hni), they entertain
a suspicion like this, that 'I do not know that this faith, which
I possess, is better in comparison with other faiths' -- no merit
whatever comes to their souls. 7. Therefore, the first (avval)
thing is to become steadfast in the religion; and this is the
chief of all good works.
CHAPTER 2. Sin not to be committed.
- The second subject is this, that it is necessary to make an
effort (gahd), so that they may not commit any sin. 2. If even
a trifling sin occurs it is not desirable to assume that this
small quantity does not possess harm hereafter.
- For it is said in revelation, that if such be the quantity
of sin that the sin is one filament of the hair of the eyelashes
more in weight than the good works are, that person arrives in
hell. 4. And if such a quantity of good works be in excess, he
arrives righteous in the radiant locality of heaven.
- Therefore, even if a sin be trifling it is not desirable to
commit it; and it is requisite to refrain, so that they may not
commit it, and may become without doubt as to the religion.
CHAPTER 3. Advantage of perseverance in industry.
- The third subject is this, that it is necessary for man that
he be continuously employed (mashjhul) on his own work, and then
the work becomes his own.
- For it is declared in revelation, that every one who hereafter
becomes employed on his own work, if in the midst of that work
any trouble and discomfort happen to him, obtains in that other
world twelve recompenses for every single instance. 3. If he becomes
employed on iniquity (fasad), and in the midst of that work any
trouble and harm happen to him, he so obtains in that other world
only torment ('huqubat) and punishment.
- Similarly (maTHalam), if any one be himself going, employed
on his own work, and a robber falls upon him on the road, and
carries off his property (qumash), or he be slain, they give him
back in that other world four things for each one of whatever
they have carried off. 5. If he be slain he becomes righteous,
any sin that he has committed goes clean away from him, and they
convey him to heaven. 6. But (amma) if he becomes faulty (batil)
in any duty, and a robber falls upon him on the road, and carries
off his wealth (mal), or he be slain, when he descends to that
other world all the property that other carried off from him becomes
just as though it were his who has carried it off from that person;
and, besides, there occur, as a substitute ('hivaz) for that property,
the punishment and torment they give him. 7. And if he be slain
it is just as though he who has carried it off from that person
were one who had innocently slain that person who arrives in hell
as retribution (mukafat) for sin.
CHAPTER 4. No one should despair of the mercy of Ohrmazd.
- The fourth subject is this, that it is not desirable for any
one that he should become hopeless of the pity (ra'hmat) and forgiveness
of Ohrmazd, and fix his heart outwardly on this, that our sin
is excessive and it is not possible to arrive in heaven. 2. Because
it happens that a small quantity of duty and good work is performed,
and it may be that for that quantity Ohrmazd, the good and propitious,
may have pity on him and may make him arrive in heaven.
- For it is declared in revelation, that one time when Zartosht
was in conversation with the sacred being, the most high, he saw
a man whose whole body was in hell, and one foot -- the right
one -- was outside of hell. 4. Zartosht inquired of the sacred
being, the most high, thus: 'What person has this man been?' 5.
Ohrmazd, the good and propitious, gave a reply (javab) thus: 'He
has been a king, and possessed the sovereignty of thirty-three
towns, and was conducting that sovereignty many years. 6. And
he never did any virtuous action, but was committing much oppression,
lawlessness, and violence (thulm). 7. By chance (qazara) he was
one day going on the chase, and arrived out at a place (mauza'h)
and saw a goat that was tied. 8. A morsel of hay was placed very
far off, and that goat was hungry. 9. Owing to this the goat was
trying to eat the hay, but did not reach the hay. 10. This the
king saw, and kicked his foot at that hay and cast it in front
of the goat. 11. Now, in recompense for that, that one foot of
his is outside of hell, and the remaining (baqi) limbs are in
- Therefore, although a sin has happened to any one, it is not
necessary for him to become hopeless. 13. And whoever has the
power (taqat) is to endeavor to perform good works, so that there
may be an atonement for the sin thereby; because the sacred being,
the good and propitious, is kind to every one.
CHAPTER 5. Advantage of Navazud and Geti-kharid.
- The fifth subject is this, that it is necessary for all those
of the good religion that they make a thorough effort, so that
they celebrate the ritual and become Navazud.
- For in our religion there is no good work more ample than
this. 3. And it is declared in revelation, that, although much
duty and good work be performed, it is not possible to attain
to the supreme heaven (garothman), except on that one occasion
when the Navazud ceremony is performed, or they have celebrated
a getig-kharid. 4. And on any occasion ('hal), if they are not
able to perform it with their own hands, it is requisite to order
it; and then it is inevitably necessary that the celebration of
the Getig-kharid should be in the same manner as they would have
performed it with their own hands.
- Man and woman are both equal in this good work; therefore,
it is not proper to neglect this duty, for it is the chief of
all the good works of the religion. 6. Because it is declared
in revelation, that on the day that they are performing the Navazud
ceremony, or are celebrating a Getig-kharid on his account, three
times the soul of that person arrives at heaven, and they show
it a place therein, and offer it a profuse greeting (niTHar).
- The explanation (tafsir) of the Gahs is this, that a Gah --
that is, that his own place -- becomes visible to him in heaven
- And if one does not perform a Navazud ceremony, or does not
order the celebration of a Getig-kharid, it is the same as when
a poor (gharib) man makes for a town, and does not obtain a spot
where he may alight in that place. 9. Although it is his own town
he is in this trouble. 10. Therefore, it is not possible to bring
to hand a place in heaven through any good work, except by the
performance of the Navazud ceremony, or by ordering the celebration
of a Getig-kharid.
- And a Getig-kharid is this, that heaven is purchased in the
world, and one's own place brought to hand in heaven.
CHAPTER 6. The six indispensable good works.
- The sixth subject is this, that of the many good works there
are those which, when they accomplish them, obtain great ('hathim)
rewards; and if one does not perform them severe punishment seizes
upon one at the head of the Chinwad bridge. 2. One is the celebration
of the season festivals [Gahambars]; the second is keeping the
days of the guardian spirits [fravashis]; the third is attending
to the souls of fathers, mothers, and other relations; the fourth
is reciting the Khwarshed Niyayesh [Sun
Litany] three times every day; the fifth is reciting the Mah Niyayesh
[Moon Litany] three times every month, once when it becomes new,
once when it becomes full, and once when it becomes slender; and
the sixth is celebrating the Rapithwin ceremony
once every year. 3. If not able to celebrate them oneself, it
is requisite to order them, so that they may celebrate them every
- These six good works are things indispensable unto every one.
5. When any one of them is not performed -- be it that which,
if omitted at its own time, it is not possible to accomplish,
or if it be. that one time one omits an occasion, and another
time they accomplish twice as much -- one should consider that
as an advantage, which occurs in retribution for it, or as atonement
for the transgression. 6. Because they call the transgression
of each of these six a bridge-sin; that is, every one through
whom a transgression of these may have arisen they keep back,
at the head of the Chinwad bridge, till punishment for it happens
to him, and no good work is possible in this place, which is torment
and punishment for him.
- Therefore it is necessary to make an effort, that they may
be performed each one at its own time, so hat they may obtain
a recompense, and not a severe punishment.
CHAPTER 7. Why we should recite certain formulas after sneezing.
- The seventh subject is this, that, when a sneeze ('hatsat)
comes forth from any one, it is requisite to recite one Yatha-ahu-vairyo
and one Ashem-vohu. 2. Because there is a fiend in our bodies,
and she is an adversary who is connected with mankind, and strives
so that she may make misfortune ('hillat) and sickness predominant
(mustauli) over mankind. 3. And in our bodies there is a fire
which they call a disposition -- in Arabic they say tabi'hat --
and they call it the sneezing instinct (gharizi). 4. It is connected
with that fiend, and they wage warfare, and it keeps her away
from the body of man. 5. Then, as the fire becomes successful
over that fiend, and puts her to flight (hazimat), a sneeze comes
because that fiend comes out.
- Afterwards, because it is necessary, they recite these inward
prayers and perform the benediction (afrin) of the fire, so that
it may remain for a long period while thou art keeping this fiend
defeated. 7. When another person hears the sneeze, it is likewise
requisite for him to utter; the said prayers, and to accomplish
the benediction of that spirit.
CHAPTER 8. Why high-priests must be obeyed.
- The eighth subject is this, that it is necessary to maintain
the religion by rule (dastur), and to practice obedience to the
commands of the high-priests; and every duty that people perform
they should perform by their authority.
- For it is declared in the good religion, that, if they accomplish
as many good works as the leaves of trees, or the sand-grains
of the desert, or the drops (qatrah) of rain, which they do not
perform by command of the high-priests, or to their satisfaction,
no merit whatever attains to their souls, and for the good works
they have done they obtain sin as a recompense. 3. While such
a one is living it is not proper to call him righteous, and when
he dies he does not attain to heaven, and not a single archangel
comes near him. 4. He does not make his escape from the hands
of the demons and Ahriman, and he does not obtain a release from
hell. 5. Because duties and good works attain to the soul on those
occasions when they perform them with the authority of the high-priests
and those acquainted with the religion, and when they give them
one-tenth of those good works.
- The ninth subject is this, that it is necessary to practice
abstinence from committing or permitting unnatural intercourse.
2. For this is the chief of all sins in the religion: there is
no worse sin than this in the good religion, and it is proper
to call those who commit it worthy of death in reality.
- If any one comes forth to them, and shall see them in the
act, and is working with an ax, it is requisite for him to cut
off the heads or to rip up the bellies of both, and it is no sin
for him. 4. But it is not proper to kill any person without the
authority of high-priests and kings, except on account of committing
or permitting unnatural intercourse.
- For it says in revelation that unnatural intercourse is on
a par with Ahriman, with Afrasiyab, with Dahak [Zohak], with Tur-i
Bradrok-resh who slew Zartosht, with Malkos who will arise, with
the serpent Srobovar which existed in the days of Sam Nariman,
and as many sins as are theirs. 6. And Ahriman, the evil one,
becomes more joyful, owing to this practice, than owing to the
other sins which have made high-priests necessary; for the soul
itself of that person becomes extinct.
- And when they commit the sin with women, it is just the same
as that with men.
- The tenth subject is this, that it is incumbent on all those
of the good religion, women and men, every one who attains to
fifteen years, to wear the sacred thread-girdle [kusti]. 2. Because
the sacred thread-girdle is to be a girding of the loins and to
preserve obedience (ta'hat) to the Lord, may he be honored and
glorified ('hazza va jalla)!
- The first person who set the wearing of this sacred thread-girdle
in view was Jamshed. 4. And it may be the whole (jumlah) of the
demons and fiends who are made extinct by the glory of wearing
the sacred thread-girdle.
- Every one who has tied the sacred thread-girdle round the
waist is out of the department of Ahriman, and is established
in the department of Ohrmazd. 6. And also, while he keeps the
sacred thread-girdle on the waist, there is a share for him of
all those duties and good works which they perform in the earth
of seven regions. 7. It is like that which occurs when they are
performing hamazor and hama asho,
and have put on this sacred thread-girdle [kusti] on that account,
or when, similarly, some one in Cashmere, or Eranvej, or Kangdez,
or the enclosure formed by Jam [Jamshed], performs a good work, and we are
not able to perform it with hama zor, then they and we, who wear
the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, are mutually connected
and equally meritorious, one with the other. 8. As no good work
attains to him who does not wear a sacred thread-girdle -- excepting
that which he performs himself -- it is therefore necessary that
any one of mankind should not put it away from the waist on any
occasion, so that the associated good works of those of the good
religion may attain to him.
- And those four knots, with which they tie it on, are on this
account, that it may give four attestations. 10. The first knot
is that which preserves constancy (qarar), and gives attestation
as to the existence, unity, purity, and matchlessness of the sacred
being, the good and propitious. 11. The second knot is that which
gives attestation that is the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers
which is the word of the sacred being. 12. The third knot is that
which gives attestation as to the apostleship and mission (rasuli)
in the just ('haqq) Zartosht, the Spitaman. 13. The fourth knot
is that which adduces more pleasantly, gives assurance (iqrar),
and openly accepts that I should think of good, speak of good,
and do good. 14. And from the whole I become established; and
the pure, good religion is this, that I persist in those views.
- And, again, when the archangels [Amahraspands] came meeting Zartosht they
likewise wore the sacred thread-girdle on the waist; and the distinctive
characteristic (farq) amid the laws of the sacred being is the
wearing of the sacred thread-girdle. 16. It is incumbent both
on woman and on man, and it is altogether (albattah) improper
when they do not wear it.
- The eleventh subject is this, that it is necessary to maintain
the fire-place properly, and to keep watch, so that the fire shall
not die out, and that nothing polluted and impure shall attain
to the fire; and it is necessary to make a menstruous woman avoid
being within three steps of it.
- Because every time that they maintain a fire properly, which
is within a dwelling, every fire which is in the earth of seven
regions becomes pleased with those persons, and, when they ask
a favor, or beg a necessity ('hajat), it becomes quickly operative.
3. And every time that one does not maintain it properly, every
fire which is in the earth of seven regions receives injury from
that person, and the necessity he begs does not become operative.
4. If any one does not maintain the fire-place properly, if he
gives a hundred dinars to the fire [Adar] Gushnasp there is no
acceptance of it, and that sin does not depart from him.
- For it is declared in revelation, that the creator Ohrmazd
has given sovereignty in heaven to Ardwahisht, the archangel,
and has spoken thus: 'As to every one with whom thou art not pleased,
do not let him escape into heaven.' 6. And this is also declared
in revelation, that, every time that they do not maintain the
fire properly, pregnancy becomes scarcer for the women, fewer
male children are born, and honor ('hurmat) in the vicinity of
the king becomes less for the men, and there is no approbation
(qabul) of their words.
- For every single fire which dies out in a dwelling a loss
of three dirhams and two dangs falls on the property of that person,
or it becomes the loss of this dwelling, or it does not reach
him from the place whence wealth comes to him.
- The twelfth subject is this, that, when any one dies, an order
is necessary that how much soever scantier clothing they are able
to make a beginning of, the better they act. 2. Beside (illa)
something become old and washed, anything new is not proper for
the purpose that they may let it go upon a dead body.
- For in the commentary of the Vendidad it asserts that, if
they shall pass on to a dead body as much as a woman's spindle
makes for a single thread, with the exception of that which is
unavoidable, for every single thread a black snake hangs, in that
other world, on to the liver of that person who has made a beginning
of the clothing. 4. Likewise, that dead person becomes his antagonist
('hazm), and hangs similarly upon his skirt, and speaks thus:
'This clothing, which thou hast put on my body, devours me, having
become worms and noxious creatures. 5. My name was put upon a
sacred cake, the fourth day, with a Yasht, so that there might
be alike a benefit therefrom for my soul, and it might be alike
unnecessary for thee to bear this torment ('haDHab).' 6. Owing
to that, many sorrows come to that person, and he has no advantage
from it. 7. Therefore, it is necessary to act with caution (i'htiyat),
so that, how much soever the clothing be scantier, they may make
a beginning of it.
- And as many as shall be able to walk after the bier (tabut)
and corpse shall walk. 9. Because every step that they go after
a corpse is a good work of three hundred stirs; and every stir
is four dirhams, in such manner that three hundred stirs are a
thousand and two hundred dirhams. 10. For every single step there
is thus much good work.
- The thirteenth subject is this, that it is necessary to maintain
the souls of fathers, mothers, and relations properly. 2. And,
when any day of theirs occurs, it is necessary to make an endeavor,
so that they may accomplish the ceremonial (yazishn), the sacred
feast (myazd), the consecration of the sacred cakes (dron), and
the benedictions (afrinagan).
- For it is declared in revelation, that, every time that any
day of theirs occurs, they will bring with themselves 9999 guardian
spirits of the righteous, like that case when any one goes home
himself, and brings people (qaum) in hospitality. 4. And, when
they utter the consecration of the sacred cakes and sacred feast
and the benedictions, those people become joyful and utter blessings
on that house and master of the house, and on the house-mistress
and any persons who are in that house.
- But if they do not celebrate the sacred feast, the consecration
of the sacred cakes, the ceremonial, and the benedictions, the
spirits will remain for them in that place from dawn as long as
the period of a day, and are maintaining a hope that 'perhaps
they will have us in remembrance.' 6. Then, if they do not bring
them into remembrance, the souls turn upwards from that place,
go very quickly on high, and will say, 'O creator Ohrmazd! they
do not know that we are such as we are, and that it is necessary
for them to come into this world, and in this world they will
not give any one acquittal. 7. For them there is need of the good
works in consecrating the sacred cakes and celebrating the sacred
feast and benedictions; there is no need of them for such as we.
8. Yet (va likin), if they would have maintained a place for the
duty of those days, we should have turned away from them misfortunes
of various kinds; but, as they have not maintained observance
of us in the day's duty, we are not able to come in friendship
to this house.' 9. Thus much they say, and turn away in anger,
and go away from that place.
- The fourteenth subject is this, that, when the nails are pared
according to custom (ba-'hilal), it is necessary that they put
the parings into a paper. 2. And it is further necessary to take
the Srosh-baj inwardly, and to utter three Yatha-ahu-vairyos.
3. And for the speaking of this -- to say with each Yatha-ahu-vairyo
the Avesta is this: -- Paiti te, meregha Asho-zushta! imau srvau
vaedhayemi, imau srvau awaedhayemi; imause te srvau, meregha Asho-zushta!
hyare arshtayasca, karetayasca, thanvareca, ishavasca erezifyo-parena,
asnaca fradakhshanya paiti daevo-Mazainyano; asha vohu manangha
ya sruye pare magaono. 4. Afterwards, one completes the Baj in
the manner that it was taken inwardly.
- At those two Yatha-ahu-vairyos, with which one completes the
Baj, at each one, he makes lines ('hattha) in a little dust in
the midst of the nail- parings. 6. And, if he does not know this
Baj, on uttering the Srosh-baj and those three Yatha-ahu-vairyos
he is to furrow three lines, with the nail-cutter, around the
nail-parings, and then he is to complete the Baj with those Yatha-ahu-vairyos,
and to put the dust, with the end of the nail-cutter, into the
midst of the nail-parings, and carry them to a desert spot. 7.
It is necessary that he should carry a hole down through four
finger-breadths of earth, and, having placed the nail-parings
in that spot, he puts the soil overhead.
- For Ohrmazd, the good and propitious, has created a bird which
they call Asho-zusht, and they call it the bird of Vohuman. 9.
They also call it the owl, and it eats nails.
- It is altogether necessary that they do not leave them unbroken,
for they would come into use as weapons (sila'h) of wizards. 11.
And they have also said that, if they fall in the midst of food,
there is danger of pulmonary consumption.
- The fifteenth subject is this, when one sees anything that
is welcome to the eyes, it is requisite to say 'in the name of
the sacred being.' 2. Because, if they do not say 'in the name
of the sacred being,' and an injury happens to that thing, or
a disaster occurs, one becomes a sinner; so far is notorious (ma'hlum).
- The sixteenth subject is this, that, when a woman becomes
pregnant in a house, it is necessary to make an endeavor so that
there may be a continual fire in that house, and to maintain a
good watch over it. 2. And, when the child becomes separate from
the mother, it is necessary to burn a lamp for three nights and
days -- if they burn a fire it would be better -- so that the
demons and fiends may not be able to do any damage and harm; because,
when a child is born, it is exceedingly delicate for those three
- For it is declared in revelation, that, when Zartosht, the
Spitaman, became separate from his mother, every night, for three
nights, a demon came on, with a hundred and fifty other demons,
so that they might effect the slaughter (halak) of Zartosht, and,
when they had beheld the light of the fire, they had fled away,
and had not been able to do any damage and harm.
- During forty days it is not proper that they should leave
the child alone; and it is also not proper that the mother of
the infant should put her foot over a threshold in the dwelling,
or cast her eyes upon a hill, for it is bad for her menstruation.
- The seventeenth subject is this, that when they cut a toothpick
('hilal), or a splinter which they wish to apply to the root of
the teeth, it is necessary that they retain no bark. 2. For if
a small quantity of bark be on it when they apply it to the teeth,
and they cast it away, if a pregnant woman puts her foot upon
it, the danger of that may be that the child comes to harm.
- The eighteenth subject is this, that it is necessary for mankind
to make an endeavor, so that they may espouse a wife in their
youth and beget a child. 2. And for women, in like manner, it
is necessary that there should be a longing (raghbat) for espousing
- Because it is declared in revelation, that every duty and
good work a child performs becomes the father's and mother's,
just like those which they have performed with their own hands.
4. The meaning (ma'hni) of pur ('a son') is that which signifies
pul ('a bridge'), for by this bridge they arrive at that other
world. 5. If there be no child for any one they call him one with
a severed bridge, that is, the way for him to that other world
is severed, and he is not able to attain to that world. 6. At
the head of the Chinwad bridge he shall remain; although he has
performed much duty and good works he is not able to make a passage
over the Chinwad bridge, and they do not make up his account and
reckoning. 7. And every archangel [Amahraspand] that comes forward
to that place first asks these words, that is, 'Hast thou brought
thy own substitute visibly into the world, or not?' 8. When he
has not brought it, they will pass over him, and his soul will
remain, in that place, full of anguish and grief (gham).
- A similitude (miTHal) of it is like that which happens when
any one may be in a wilderness, and there may be fear of wild
animals and creatures, and near to him may be his own town, but
a river of water is in front, and it is not possible to make a
passage over that river, as a bridge is fallen in, and he is not
able to arrive at that town, but he is always upon the bank (sart)
speaking thus: 'Would that the bridge would become perfect!'
- The duty as to children is in this aggregate. 11. Therefore,
the creator Ohrmazd has granted unto men that, if there be any
one to whom sickness from heaven may occur, and there be no provision
of a child for him, he has commanded him that he should make some
one a son of his own, as a friend of his soul, and should receive
a child, because every duty can be delegated. 12. That person
is in place of a child, and every duty and good work that he performs
shall be just like that which is performed by one's own hand.
- And, finally, if any one departs from the world (dunya) and
possesses no adopted child, it is incumbent on the priests and
high-priests and his relations to appoint his adopted son, and
it is necessary to bring some one in sight on that account, so
that his soul may spring away from the torment of hell. 14. Because,
every time that his relations do not pay attention to this, when
they proceed to that other world, the soul of that person hangs
about them and speaks thus: 'I left with you something that I
had collected and borne trouble for in many years, and you seized
upon it, and put it into your own expenditure ('harj), and did
not seek for mercy (safqat) on my soul. 15. In the same manner
as I have remained, delayed (mauquf) in this place, I will not
let you pass; so that you will make no passage over the Chinwad
bridge till the sacred being takes my rights away from you.' 16.
Then the angel Rashn and the angel Mihr make up their reckoning,
and, as to whatever those persons have seized upon from the other's
property, for every single dinar the account makes four, and they
take away the equivalent. 17. And, as in that world there are
no gold and silver, they take away from their souls the good works
that they have done, and they give them to the soul of this other.
18. Still, while others do not appoint the adopted son, they are
not able to pass over the Chinwad bridge, nor to arrive at their
- There is no duty whatever more incumbent on relations than
this duty, and every time that they appoint an adopted son for
any one it is just as though they have made the deceased alive;
and there are no limit ('hadd) and end (nihayat) of their good
- The nineteenth subject is this, that the performance of agriculture
is like that when some one is performing the ceremonial of the
sacred beings, and it is necessary to maintain much respect for
agriculturists; it is also necessary to keep trouble and strife
far from them.
- For it is declared in revelation, that, as to every one who
replants a shrub, while that shrub or tree exists at the place,
every good work that every one, who eats of that shrub, does in
that state of repletion becomes the agriculturist's, just like
those which are done by his own hand. 3. If any one orders it,
just as that good work occurs much new repose (ra'hat) and comfort
reach his soul. 4. As to corn and grain ('hubub) and whatever
they sow, it is just like this, because, as regards every one
who eats wheat, barley, and other grains, and performs duty and
good works, they become those of the sower of those grains, just
as those which are performed by his own hand. 5. Because, for
the life of mankind a crop was necessary, the creation of a creator
after the sacred being, the most high, owing to the work of the
agriculturist. 6. For everyone who eats anything dies, therefore,
as regards that person by whose work the life of mankind is established,
it is necessary to consider him valuable and precious.
- The twentieth subject is this, that it is incumbent on those
of the good religion that they continually give something to the
worthy to eat, on account (jihat) of that which it says in revelation
thus: 'When thou givest things to some one that he may eat, every
duty and good work that he performs in that state of repletion
become those of that person, who has given that bread or food
to him, just like those which he has performed with his own hand.'
2. And if he commits a sin, he who may have given food to him
is innocent. 3. But it is necessary that he be of the good religion
and worthy; they should give something to one of a different religion
only in case of extreme necessity (zarurat), lest it become as
- The twenty-first subject is this, that, when they eat bread,
it is necessary that one should recite the Itha-at-yazamaide and
three Ashem-vohus, especially (ba-'hazzatam) in the benediction-ceremonies
- For it is declared in the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers,
that, when they wish to celebrate the sacred feast (myazd) and
benediction-ceremonies, it is necessary that all persons who are
seated at the feast should take up the inward prayer. 3. For each
man an angel is stationed, on the right-hand side, and two angels
for the priests 4. But when they eat chatteringly, or relate the
news ('hadiTH), the angels depart from them, and a demon seizes
on the place of each angel.
- And in former times the custom ('hadat) of the people would
have been in this manner, that, if any one should have come to
the door in the middle of the feast, that person whose Afrinagan-precinct
it might have been, or whoever should have gone to the expense
of that Afrinagan, would have had words with that intruding person,
and would have also spoken thus: 'As thou hast brought my feast
to harm, give me back whatever has been the cost.'
- And in one place in revelation it is declared that from eating
chatteringly itself is the sin, for every one who is chattering
during the eating of bread is just like him who is smiting and
harassing the angels of the spiritual existences.
- Therefore, if there be any one who is not able to consecrate
a sacred cake, it is necessary to eat bread with the inward prayer
of Ohrmazd, that is, the archangels. 8. And, if he does not altogether
know it, he recites the Itha-at-yazamaide and three Ashem-vohus,
and eats up the bread. 9. Afterwards he makes his mouth clean,
and, four Ashem-vohus and two Yatha-ahu-vairyos being spoken out,
he is then to utter words.
- For, every time that this custom (qa'hidat) is carried on
in a place, through the first Ashem-vohu so much good work has
arisen that it has propitiated the sacred being, the good and
propitious; through the second Ashem-vohu so much good work has
arisen that it has reverenced and propitiated Srosh, the righteous;
through the third Ashem-vohu so much good work has arisen that
it has reverenced and propitiated Hordad and Amurdad, the archangels;
and through the fourth Ashem-vohu so much good work has arisen
that whatever the creator Ohrmazd has created becomes reverenced
and propitiated. 11. And with each mouthful (luqmah) that is eaten,
while the inward prayer subsists, they proclaim a blessing for
Hordad and Amurdad, the archangels. 12. But, if it be eaten without
the inward prayer, as demons are in that place, they say, 'Thou
mightest have eaten the poison of a serpent.' 13. Therefore, take
notice as to which is the better of these two.
- The twenty-second subject is this, that the performance of
Jadangoi ('intercession') is like that when some one is occasioning
the ceremonial of the sacred beings. 2. Therefore, it should be
expedient that it be continuous, and that they perform Jadangoi
as regards the priests and high-priests and the worthy.
- For, in the commentary of the Hadokht Nask, it says that every
one who performs Jadangoi, and extracts anything from a person
on their account, and conveys it to them, is as much without dishonesty
('hiyanat), towards them, as he who may have given to them out
of his own property. 4. And in the spiritual existence they take
account of that profit for him, and just as they make out the
account of the good work of that person who may have given it,
even so much is his good work.
- The twenty-third subject is this, that it is requisite to
restrain a tethered animal from misbehavior, and to keep watch
over one's own creatures, especially at the time when they have
- Therefore, if they have eaten meat and they commit an assault,
every offense that the animal ('haivan) commits may be that person's
whose meat may be eaten. 3. For example, if a horse lashes out
a kick (lakad) at any one, the offense may be that person's whose
food may be eaten and caused the offense.
- Therefore it is necessary to make an endeavor that they shall
commit no offense whatever, especially at a time when they have
- The twenty-fourth subject is this, that when an infant is
born from its mother it is necessary that they give it the consecrated
Haoma juice, on this account, that understanding ('haql), wisdom,
and knowledge may more abundantly get to it, and the want (ablat)
of them may come more scantily upon it.
- If, at that time, they do not perform the consecration, they
should take forth a little Haoma for it, and recite a Yatha-ahu-vairyo,
and put a trifle of water into it, and make Haoma-juice of that,
and give it to the infant, and afterwards milk.
- The twenty-fifth subject is this, that any agreement and promise
(qaul) they make with any one it is necessary so far to perform
and bring to pass. 2. Although many things may go to harm by means
(sabab) of it, it is not desirable to perform that agreement with
- Because, in our religion, they call this a Mihr-druj ('breach
of promise'), and in revelation it decrees, as to any one who
commits a Mihr-druj, that the way to heaven becomes closed for
him, and that person himself goes discomforted out of this world,
so that a warning ('halamat) becomes quite manifest unto him.
- And a Mihr-druj is attached in such a manner that, if fortune
(tali'h) may have befallen any one happily, or an insufficient
quantity of his life ('humr) may have remained, the Mihr-druj
extends to his children without opposition ('hilaf). 5. And every
household that becomes extinct, or race whose issue fails, or
any of the great misfortunes that happen to mankind -- from which
misfortune one obtains release with difficulty -- may all be owing
to the fact that they have committed a Mihr-druj.
- If committed by oneself, it is declared, in one place in revelation,
that the glorified Zartosht, the Spitaman, inquired of Ohrmazd,
the good and propitious, thus: 'Of any of the sins that mankind
commit which is the worst?' 7. Ohrmazd, the good and propitious,
decreed thus: 'No sin whatever is worse than this, that two persons
make a covenant with one another in such a manner that no one
whatever is between them, except me who am Ohrmazd; and, afterwards
one of those two persons deviates from it, and says, "I have
no knowledge ('habar) of it," and no one whatever is a witness,
for that other person, except me.' 8. No sin whatever is worse
than that, and that person himself will not go out of this world
until retribution overtakes him, and in that other world his punishment
is more severe than all; so that person becomes unfortunate in
both worlds. 9. And it is the same if this covenant be with a
righteous person or a wicked one.
- The twenty-sixth subject is this, that the wise and the ancients
say that when a man becomes fifteen years of age it is necessary
that he takes one of the angels as his own protection, that he
takes one of the wise as his own sage, and that he takes one of
the high-priests and officiating priests as his own high-priest.
2. So that, if, any time, a bereavement (astanah) approaches,
he may beg a favor from the archangels, in order that it may furnish
an escape from that bereavement. 3. And, any time any affair comes
forward, and he has to have opinion (rai) and advice (masvarat),
he holds a consultation with that sage, while the sage tells him
his opinion (tadbir). 4. And, if any question as to proper and
improper comes forward, he speaks with that high-priest, so that
he may tell him in reply.
- When the instructions of these three persons are brought to
pass, carrying out the commands of the sacred being is accomplished.
6. Especially the instructions of the high-priests, because their
satisfaction is connected with the satisfaction of the sacred
being; and the high-priests possess so much dignity (martabat)
in the presence of the sacred being, the good and propitious,
that they are quite able to forgive any trivial one of the sins
of mankind, and Ohrmazd, the good and propitious, quickly forgives
that sin for the high-priest. 7. Therefore, carrying out the commands
of the high-priests becomes incumbent on every one; and the fulfillment
of this maxim is better than that of a whole assemblage of maxims.
- The twenty-seventh subject is this, that is, if any affair
comes forward, that they should thoroughly understand whether
it be a good work, or a sin. 2. In that manner it becomes better
that they make an evasion on the spot, until a time when they
make it known with accuracy that that affair is a sin or a reward.
3. If they perform any affair without knowing this, although it
be a good work, it becomes a sin for them.
- For it is declared in revelation, that, except that which
they inquire of the high-priests, no affair whatever is proper
to perform. 5. Whatever wisdom there be for any one from his own
head is only one; then, as two wisdoms are more than one, it therefore
makes it expedient to inquire of the high-priests.
- The twenty-eighth subject is this, that, when they teach the
Avesta, it is in like manner necessary that they teach it properly
and truly, and recite it with deliberation and composure (sakini).
2. And it is necessary for those who are taught to recite it connectedly,
and to keep it ever in remembrance.
- For it is declared in revelation, that the sacred being has
decreed thus: 'As to every one who puts the Avesta away from his
memory, I will put his soul as far from heaven as the width of
the earth.' 4. And in the commentary of the Avesta it is related
that, in former times, as to any one who had been taught the Avesta
and had put it away from his memory, until the time he had again
made it easy, they would have given him bread like that which
they give to the dogs. 5. And in another place I have read that
they would have given bread to him on the point of a spear.
- The twenty-ninth subject is this, that, when they provide
any munificence (sa'havat) or liberality, it is necessary that
they provide it for the worthy; and one is to consider thus: 'Is
this person, to whom I am giving this thing, worthy or not?'
- Therefore it is necessary to make an effort, so that they
may not give to the unworthy. 3. For in revelation, as regards
that person who provides any munificence for the unworthy, they
call it a vain work and a gift without advantage; and day by day
it is the punishment and torment of that person. 4. And, whatever
they give to the unworthy, they have made that thing extinct.
- The thirtieth subject is this, that it is not proper to pour
away water at night, especially from the northern side (janib)
which would be the worst. 2. Therefore, if it become a necessity
in the end (ba-'hatam), it is requisite to recite one Yatha-ahu-vairyo,
and, when they make a light ready ('hazir), to pour away the water
- In like manner it is not proper to swallow water at night,
because it is a sin. 4. But, if a necessity arises, it is necessary
to make a light ready, and one first eats some morsels of food
(ta'ham) so that the sin may be less.
- The thirty-first subject is this, that, every time they eat
bread, it is necessary to withhold three morsels from their own
bodies, and to give them to a dog. 2. And it is not desirable
to beat a dog. 3. For, of the poor no one whatever is poorer than
a dog, and it is necessary to give a tethered animal bread, because
the good work is great.
- And in revelation it is declared in this manner, that, if
a dog is asleep upon the road, it is not proper that they put
a foot violently on the ground, so that he becomes awake. 5. And,
in former times, an allowance (raitib) of bread would have been
made every day for the sake of the dogs, three times in summer
and twice in winter, on this account, that one wishes them to
come to the assistance of his soul at the Chinwad bridge.
- In the worldly existence they are the guard of men and cattle.
7. If there had not been a dog they would not have been able to
keep a single sheep. 8. Every time that he barks, just as his
bark goes forth, the demons and fiends run away from the place.
- The thirty-second subject is this, that, when a hen utters
a crow in a house, or the cock crows unseasonably, it is desirable
that they do not kill it, and do not consider it a bad habit (fa'hl).
2. Because it is uttering that crow for the reason that a fiend
has found a way into that house, and the hen or the cock, alone,
does not possess the power (taqat) that would keep the fiend away
from that house, and the hen is going to give the cock assistance,
and utters the crow. 3. Therefore, if any time the chance (ittifaq)
happens in that manner, it is requisite to bring another cock,
so that they may drive away that fiend through the assistance
of one another. 4. And if a cock crows unseasonably it is likewise
not desirable to kill it, because the reason may be this which
I have stated.
- For it is declared in the good religion, that there is a fiend
whom they call Sej [Av. ithyejo], and, in every house where an
infant exists, that fiend strives that she may cause some misfortune
to come upon that house. 6. So it is necessary that they should
keep a cock on the watch for her, so that it may smite that fiend
and force her to the road away from that house.
- The thirty-third subject is this, that, when there is a place
and any risk or fear exists that a corpse is concealed beneath
the ground, one is to make it apparent and visible, because it
is a great good work.
- For it is declared in the good religion, that, when they conceal
a corpse beneath the ground, Spandarmad, the archangel, shudders;
it is just as severe as a serpent or scorpion would be to any
one in private sleep, and it is also just like that to the ground.
3. When thou makest a corpse beneath the ground as it were apparent,
thou makest the ground liberated from that affliction.
- The thirty-fourth subject is this, that it is greatly necessary
to refrain from much slaughter of animals and the cattle species.
2. Because it says in revelation that, for every one who slaughters
many animals and cattle, every fiber of the hair of a goat becomes,
in that other world, like a sharp sword, and adheres in the soul
of that person.
- And there are several things the slaughter of which is very
bad, and the sin very abundant, as the lamb, the kid, the ploughing
ox, the war horse, the swallow bird that catches the locust, and
the cock; and of the whole of these the sin is most as regards
the cock. 4. If it becomes a necessity, it is proper to kill a
cock that does not crow, and it is necessary to consecrate their
heads. 5. Any head of an animal, not consecrated, it is not desirable
to eat, so that it becomes so far a righteous gift. 6. If one
be not able to consecrate the head, it is requisite to consecrate
one kidney as a substitute (badal) for it.
- The thirty-fifth subject is this, that, when they wish to
wash the face, they should recite one Ashem-vohu, and set the
mouth firmly closed, so that the water, not staying away from
it, shall not go into the mouth. 2. And, as one washes over the
face, they should recite the Kem-na-mazda, so that the fiend Nasrusht
may become smitten.
- The thirty-sixth subject is this, that it is strictly incumbent
on mankind, on man and woman, to perform the Barashnom ceremony,
because mankind feed on menstruous matter in the womb of the mother.
2. For that reason it is necessary to perform the Barashnom once,
so that one may become pure from that pollution. 3. For if one
becomes fifteen years of age, and does not perform the Barashnom,
whatever he puts a hand on, the glory and purity of that thing
will diminish; and it is not proper that they put hand on a sacred
cake or any thing washed with ceremony.
- In revelation it says, if any one who has not performed the
Barashnom shall die, the demons make him as though he were a corpse
kept one month in the hot season. 5. And, when the soul arrives
at the head of the Chinwad bridge, the archangels and angels complain
of the stench of that soul, and are not able to make up its account
and reckoning. 6. It remains at the Chinwad bridge and is not
able to pass; it experiences much repentance and has no advantage
- If it be necessary for any one to perform the Barashnom of
the head, and he be able to do it, but does not do it, if he performs
the ceremonial ablution of the head a thousand times, it does
not become pure from that pollution, and that is the pollution
of Nasrusht, which is amid the veins and sinews, and the flesh
and bones; it does not become pure through any other thing except
through the liquid consecrated by the religious formula [nirang].
- And as to that person, also, who performs the Barashnom for
mankind, it is necessary that he be a man, a friend of the soul,
a truthful speaker, and an abstainer, because through chastity
and modesty (masturi) he becomes employed. 9. If complaint of
any perfidy in him is publicly diffused, in that disgrace (malamat)
it is necessary that the high-priests should dislocate his joints
one by one, and it is requisite that they give him as food to
the dogs. 10. So that by this action they may make a man observe
more chastely and continently, that this result ('hazil) of sin
may not occur.
- The thirty-seventh subject is this, that, when the days of
the guardian spirits come on, it is necessary that all persons,
among their own food and devotion, should order and provide the
sacred cakes and ceremonial, the sacred feast and benedictions
(Afrinagan). 2. For these ten days it is incumbent on every one;
and those are better which they prepare in their own houses, because
the souls go every one to its own house. 3. And they should have
an ear for them, so that they may prepare the sacred cakes and
feast and benedictions.
- Those ten days any one of all the souls -- that are in this
way in every house where they provide the feast more abundantly
-- proclaims, as to that master of the house, that family, and
the whole who are in that house, and the year's affairs of every
kind, that they are very good, and their entry (da'hl) and coming
in are very good. 5. And every single good work, on account of
which we have spoken of the souls of the departed, becomes just
like those we have done for our own souls. 6. And, when they pass
away from this worldly existence, those souls come again, meeting
them, and cause gladness, maintain their courage, and also render
them honor in the presence of the creator Ohrmazd, and speak thus:
'These righteous souls did not put us away from remembrance while
they were in the world, and we have been satisfied with them;
now we are unanimous that thou shouldest provide them equal shares
of those good works of ours, and make their souls attain to the
position of the righteous.' 7. They utter these words, and give
those souls confidence, while they make out their account. 8.
Afterwards, with them, they make the passage of the Chinwad bridge,
till they arrive at their own position, and then they return.
- Therefore it is necessary to make an effort, so that they
may maintain the guardian spirits properly, and the souls of their
fathers and mothers and relations may exist with honor from them.
10. For if they retire with dissatisfaction they utter a curse,
and, as the soul departs from this world, they administer reproaches
to it, and speak thus: 'Thou thinkest that they wish continually
to make a way for thee to that place, but it is not necessary
for thee to come into this world. 11. Now, hadst thou performed
duty and good works on our behalf, and hadst thou recollected
us, we would also have come to thy assistance, and would have
released thee from this fearful position.' 12. And that soul experiences
much repentance, and has no advantage whatever from it.
- The thirty-eighth subject is this, that, so far as effort
and endeavor prevail, it is requisite to abstain from the same
cup as those of a different religion, and it is not desirable
to drink the water of any goblet of theirs. 2. And if the goblet
be of copper or of tin, it is requisite to wash it with water,
so that it may be proper to drink the water. 3. If the goblet
be of earthenware or wooden, it is altogether improper.
- Because, when any one drinks with a stranger, it makes his
heart inclined (mail) towards him, for it would be a sin; and,
on account of the sin committed, he becomes bold, and his soul
has an inclination for wickedness.
- The thirty-ninth subject is this, that it is necessary to
properly maintain the sacred fire which they have established
in a town or village. 2. And at night it is necessary to make
it blaze up once, and by day twice.
- For it is declared in revelation, that, if there had been
no sacred fire, no one would have been able to go from town to
town; because it is owing to the glory of the sacred fire that
no one on the roads is able to commit an excess upon any one else.
- It is necessary that they should present the whole of the
firewood; and, as to the person who makes it blaze, they should
give him bread and a salary (nafaqah). 5. For, every time that
that fire is satisfied, and they maintain it properly, every fire
that may exist in the earth of seven regions becomes satisfied
with that person.
- The fortieth subject is this, that it is not desirable to
distress one's priest, or father, or mother; and, if people perceive
much trouble, disquietude, and harm arising from them, it is certainly
not desirable that they should give them back a reply with any
aggravation. 2. Because their satisfaction is connected with the
satisfaction of the sacred being, and every time that people distress
them they have distressed Ohrmazd, the good and propitious. 3.
It is not possible for any duty or good work to extend to the
spiritual existences while one does not make those guardians satisfied,
and it is not possible (mumkin) that any one should repay these
three persons all their dues.
- In the commentary of the Hadokht Nask it says: -- Ma azarayoish,
Zarathushtra! ma Pourushaspem, ma Dughdhovam, ma aethrapaitish,
'it is not desirable that thou, O Zartosht! shouldest distress
thy father, or mother, or priest.'
- Therefore, three times every day it is indispensable for one
to fold his arms in the presence of these three persons, and to
say: 'What is your will (murad)? So that I may think and speak
and do it. 6. If what was not proper has come from me of itself,
it is necessary that you make a righteous gift on our behalf.'
- The forty-first subject is this, that it is greatly requisite
to avoid a menstruous woman, while they give her bread and food
moderately. 2. As soon as she is not able to eat they should not
give her more, and in the same manner as regards water, on this
account, that whatever remnant comes from that menstruous woman
does not come to any use.
- When they wish to provide bread they put the hand into the
sleeve, or they place something on the top of the sleeve, and
it is necessary that her bare hand should not come forth again
in any place. 4. Because every drop of water that trickles on
to a limb of a menstruous woman becomes a sin of three hundred
stirs. 5. And it is requisite for a menstruous woman to avoid
everything that is washed with ceremony by fifteen steps. 6. It
is also necessary for her to be at least three steps distant from
a righteous man, and on whatever her eye casts a look it diminishes
the glory of that thing.
- And on every woman the twelve ceremonials, atoning for the
offense of menstruation, are incumbent. 8. One on account of the
offense that has occurred as regards the spiritual existence.
9. The second on account of the offense that has occurred as regards
the stars. 10. The third on account of that which has occurred
as regards the sun. 11. The fourth on account of that which has
occurred as regards the moon. 12. The fifth on account of that
which has occurred as regards the spirit of fire. 13. The sixth
on account of that which has occurred as regards the spirit of
water. 14. The seventh on account of that which has occurred as
regards the spirit of earth. 15. The eighth on account of that
which has occurred as regards the spirit of the wind. 16. The
ninth on account of that which has occurred as regards Hordad.
17. The tenth on account of the offense that has occurred as regards
Amurdad. 18. The eleventh on account of the offense that has occurred
as regards meal-time ('hurdak gah). 19. The twelfth on account
of the offense that has occurred as regards bodily refuse and
dead matter. 20. Therefore it is incumbent on every one in this
manner; if any one be more opulent eighteen ceremonials are indispensable,
and if she has silver in excess (ba-ghayat) there should be twenty-one,
and in one place I have read that twenty-four are indispensable;
but, for lesser people, this that I have noted is necessary.
- That which they provide in their lifetime is better; and,
just as would occur when any one plants a tree anew, and is eating
the fruit of it every year, even so much is that good work increasing
every year. 22. If she shall live ten years, or if a hundred years,
even so long it is becoming every year much more. 23. If they
provide it after her lifetime , that which would be the increase
departs; and in her lifetime, also, that occurs which every one,
who has done a duty on his own account, has seen, that the thing
itself which others accomplish after his lifetime is very different;
so that she should provide it with her own hands, not after her
- The forty-second subject is this, that it is necessary to
practice strict abstinence from that sin which affects accusers.
2. That would be when any one slanders (buhtanad), or any one
commits a rape on the wife of some one, or causes a woman to occupy
a separate bed from her own husband.
- These are sins for which there is no retribution, except when
thou beggest forgiveness of that person whom thy sin has assailed.
4. Afterwards, they keep back the soul, at the Chinwad bridge,
till the time when its antagonist arrives and exacts justice from
it; then it obtains release.
- Every time that any one applies a falsehood or a slander to
some person, so that people are afterwards telling that falsehood
again, and it vexes the heart of that person, they are bringing
punishment ever anew on the soul of that former one. 6. The sin
does not depart through the performance of duties and good works,
so long as he does not make his antagonist satisfied.
- This is a grave sin, and it is requisite to be careful that
they do not commit it.
- The forty-third subject is this, that it is necessary to make
an endeavor to kill noxious creatures and reptiles ('hasharat)
of the earth; because, in revelation, it is put forth as a great
- Especially these five things: One is the frog in the water,
the second is the snake and scorpion, the third is the ant (marchish)
that flies, the fourth is the common ant (morchah), and; the fifth
is the mouse. 3. Therefore, every time that they bring a frog
up, out of the water, and make it dry, and, after (ba'hd) that,
kill it, it is a good work of a thousand and two hundred dirhams
in weight. 4. And every time that they kill a snake, and recite
the Avesta that is appointed for that occasion, it is just as
though they have slain an apostate (ashmogh). 5. For every one
who kills a flying ant (marchish) it is as much good work as for
any one who is reciting inward prayer for ten days. 6. Among the
creatures of Ahriman nothing whatever is more harmful than this;
for, if it dies in the air (hava) it becomes a gnat, if it dies
in the dust it becomes a worm, if it dies in the water it becomes
a leech, if it dies among the excavators of flesh it becomes a
venomous snake (mar-i af'hai), and if it dies in dung it becomes
creeping things. 7. For every one who kills a corn-dragging ant
it is as much good work as for any one who recites the Ohrmazd
Yasht. 8. And for every one who kills many noxious creatures it
is as much good work as for a priest who performs the ceremonial
of the sacred beings; both good works are equal. 9. For every
one who kills a mouse it is as much good work as if four lions
are killed. 10. Therefore, it is incumbent on every one to make
an effort to kill a noxious creature.
- The forty-fourth subject is this, that it is not desirable
for those of the good religion, so far as they are able to manage
it, to put a bare foot upon the ground, because it is a sin, and
injury occurs to Spandarmad, the archangel. 2. And they call that
the sin of running about uncovered.
- The forty-fifth subject is this, that it is continually necessary
that people should keep in remembrance the accomplishment of repentance
(taubat). 2. Every time that a sin leaps from control it is necessary
to act so that they go before the priests, high-priests, and spiritual
chiefs, and accomplish repentance.
- And in accordance with the sin should be the good work, just
as though the good work were due to that occasion when they accomplish
it. 4. While mankind are living, it becomes every year a further
benefit. 5. Sin is also, in like manner, going on to a head every
year; and when they accomplish repentance, so that it may not
increase further, it is just like a tree that becomes withered,
and they extirpate its further growth.
- And that repentance is better which they accomplish before
high-priests and spiritual chiefs, and when they accomplish the
retribution that the high-priest orders every sin that exists
departs from them. 7. The repentance that high-priests accomplish
they likewise call repentance. 8. If there be no high-priest it
is necessary to go before some persons who are commissioned by
high-priests; and if those, also, do not exist, it is necessary
to go to a man who is a friend of the soul, and to accomplish
- At the time when one shall depart from the world it is incumbent
on sons and daughters and relations, that they give repentance
into the mouth of the afflicted one, and that they give the Ashem-vohu
into his mouth. 10. For the high-priests have said that, when
they have accomplished repentance because they have committed
many sins, they do not arrive in hell, but they administer punishment
to them at the head of the Chinwad bridge, and afterwards conduct
them to their own place.
- Repentance is that when they accomplish repentance of the
sin which they have committed, and do not commit that sin a second
time; if they do commit it, that first sin then comes back.
- The forty-sixth subject is this, that, when people become
fourteen years of age, it is necessary to tie on the sacred thread-girdle
[kusti], because the high-priests have said that it is likewise
necessary to take into account those nine months that they have
been in the womb of the mother.
- For in our religion there is no duty better than wearing the
sacred thread-girdle [[kusti]], and it is incumbent on man and woman. 3.
And, in former days, if any one should have become completely
fifteen years of age, and should not have worn the sacred thread-girdle,
they would have done for him by stoning, as bread and water are
forbidden ('haram) for him.
- The forty-seventh subject is this, that, when a child of seven
years shall die, an order is necessary that it is requisite to
perform a ceremony (yasht) for Srosh on account of it, and to
consecrate the sacred cake of the fourth night.
- For it says in revelation that the souls of children go with
the souls of their fathers and mothers; if the father is fit for
heaven the child goes to heaven with him, if he be fit for hell
it arrives in hell; if the mother be fit for heaven it reaches
heaven with her, if she be fit for hell it reaches hell with her.
- Therefore, every time that they accomplish the ceremony for
Srosh, the soul of that child becomes separated from the souls
of its father and mother, and goes to heaven, and is imploring
intercession (shifa'hat) for its father and mother in the presence
of the sacred beings in that other world.
- The forty-eighth subject is this, that, when they boil a cooking-pot,
it is necessary to make the water two parts of one-third each,
that one-third of the pot may be empty; so that, if at any time
the pot shall boil, the water shall not go to the top. 2. For
if they do not act so, and the water, owing to not stopping, goes
into the fire, it is a sin of a thousand and two hundred dirhams
in weight; therefore it is necessary to keep watch that this sin
does not arise.
- The forty-ninth subject is this, that, when one gathers up
a fire, it is requisite to leave it for a time, so that the ash-bed
(bum) of the fire may become cold; afterwards, one is to take
it up and carry it to the precinct of fire. 2. It is not proper
that they carry the ash-bed (zamin) of a hot fire to the precinct
of fire; so far is notorious.
- The fiftieth subject is this, that, every day at dawn, when
they rise up from sleep, it is not proper to wash the hands first
- The ceremonial ablution is to wash the hands, face, nose,
eyes, and feet thoroughly, either with fruit (mivah) or some grass
upon which no water has come; afterwards, to make them dry, and
to wash them three times with water in such a manner that it becomes
wet from the face as far as the ear. 3. It is necessary to keep
the mouth closed, so that the water shall not go into the mouth;
for if a drop, owing to not stopping, goes into the mouth, it
is a sin of three hundred stirs. 4. Afterwards, one is to wash
the hands three times with water, as far as the upper arms; first
the right hand, and afterwards the left hand; and, in like manner,
he is to wash the right foot and left foot.
- Then they recite the Kem-na-mazda, for, every time that they
wish to recite anything as an inward prayer, it is necessary that
the hands be washed with ceremonial ablution, and, if they are
not, the Avesta is not accepted, and the fiend of corruption (nasa)
does not rush away, and it becomes a tanapuhr sin.
- The fifty-first subject is this, that it is incumbent on every
one to send a child to school, and to teach it something. 2. Because
every duty and good work that a child performs is just as though
the father and mother had performed it with their own hands. 3.
Therefore it is necessary to make an effort, so that they may
teach them something good, and make them aware of good works and
sin; for they are doing that on account of their own souls, so
that those children may be courageous in doing good works.
- If they are not taught, they then perform less duty and good
works, and less reaches the souls of the father and mother. 5.
And it also happens that if they do not deliver children to school,
and do not teach them anything, and they become bold in committing
sin, that sin becomes fixed on the necks of the father and mother.
- Therefore they have decided rightly who teach them something,
especially what is proper and improper according to revelation;
because the chief principle is this, whether, through the duty
of this world, a good or bad result is coming hereafter.
- The fifty-second subject is this, that it is incumbent on
every one that, every year when the month Frawardin comes on,
he is to provide a sacred cake on the day Hordad, and whatever
they are able to bring to hand, a little of everything, they are
to place by that sacred cake, and to consecrate it with the dedicatory
formula Ayaranamcha, so that the affairs of that year may be better
through that day's provision and the entry and coming in of guests.
- For it is declared in revelation, that, every year, when the
day Hordad of the month Frawardin comes on, they allot a daily
provision for mankind, and whatever one wishes to pass to the
lot of mankind in that year they write down that day. 3. Therefore,
when they shall consecrate this sacred cake, the archangel Hordad
is making intercession for that person.
- The fifty-third subject is this, that, when, in former times,
any one wished to go on a journey (safar) that might have been
at least twelve leagues (parasang), they would have consecrated
a sacred cake, so that no affliction might happen in that journey,
and affairs might be according to their wish, and employments
(sughl) cheerful. 2. And it is still incumbent on every one that,
when they wish to go on a journey, they are to consecrate this
- And, while the person is on the journey, he should order the
consecration of this sacred cake, in his house, every Warharan
day, so that that person may arrive in safety (salamat) at his
house. 4. The dedicatory formula is this -- Amahe hutashtahe --
and is known to the priest himself.
- The fifty-fourth subject is this, that if any one has a serving
wife, and if the acquisition of a male child results from her,
it is suitable for adoption by that person, and the bridge is
not severed for that person. 2. But if it be a female child it
is necessary that the man should not be negligent (ghafil) in
appointing an adopted son for his own sake. 3. He should himself
appoint a son of some relation, who is a friend of the soul, so
that the bridge may not be severed for his soul.
- The fifty-fifth subject is this, that when a Navazud ceremony
is performed, and it happens that it is not possible to consecrate
a sacred cake, it is necessary that one should eat bread with
the Ohrmazd inward prayer; and, afterwards, he should complete
the prayer Just as when they complete it as regards the sacred
cake, so that the sin may be less.
- The fifty-sixth subject is this, that, when any one wishes
to make an evacuation of water, it is necessary that he should
not make the evacuation of water while standing on his feet. 2.
Because, in the commentary of the Vendidad, it is said, concerning
that, that it is a serious sin.
- When they squat for evacuating water it is necessary that
it extend only from the heel as far as the end of the toes; for,
if it be more, every drop is a Tanapuhr sin. 4. And, when they
wish to squat for the evacuation of water, they are to utter one
Yatha-ahu-vairyo; and, when the action is over, they are to recite
the Ashem-vohu three times, the Humatanam twice, the Hukhshathrotemai
three times, the Yatha-ahu-vairyo four times, and the Ahunem-vairim
to the end. 5. Because, every time that they act like this, they
are pleasant in the eyes and hearts of mankind, and their words
are more approved in the vicinity of kings.
- The fifty-seventh subject is this, that it is not proper to
kill a hedgehog; and, everywhere that they see it, it is necessary
to take it up and carry it into the wilderness (sa'hra), so that
it may go into a hole, which is ever considered a great good work.
2. Because, when a hedgehog is in their nest, some ants will die;
it will also catch and eat thousands of snakes and other harmful
creatures, and it eats all noxious creatures. 3. Therefore, owing
to the whole of this, these words are expedient.
- The fifty-eighth subject is this, that it is ever necessary
that those of the good religion should make an effort that they
may celebrate a ceremony for their living souls. 2. For the soul,
for which they have celebrated a ceremony, just as much good work
as it then becomes each year, it is twice as much good work the
second year. 3. So that, in this manner, the merit of the ceremony
for the living soul is increasing just so much every year, while
the man is living. 4. And, after that, this also occurs, that,
if at the time when that person becomes an immortal soul there
be no one at hand -- Srosh being the angel when the ceremony for
the living soul is celebrated -- Srosh, the righteous, receives
the soul by himself, and is keeping watch over it during the three
days, and does not forsake it, so that no danger or harm happens
to it. 5. And the fourth night he is a helper, with the angel
Rashn, at the Chinwad bridge, while they make up its account and
reckoning, and it goes to its own place.
- And this ceremony for the living soul is appointed for the
reason that, just in the manner that, when an infant becomes separated
from the mother, a midwife (qabilat) is necessary for it, so that
they may keep watch over it, and just in the manner that she takes
up the infant from the ground -- and, at the time when it is born
it is ever necessary that there be a woman present ('hazirat),
or they may perform work for the infant at a time fit for the
demon -- in this same manner, when the soul is becoming separated
from the body it is like an infant (tifl), and does not know any
way to its place. 7. When they celebrate a ceremony for the living
soul, and have propitiated the righteous Srosh, the righteous
Srosh becomes like the midwife, so that he receives that soul
by himself and keeps watch that it is out of the hands of Ahriman
and the demons. 8. When they do not celebrate a ceremony for the
soul when living, but, after that, the priests perform it before
Srosh, it is like that which occurs when a woman brings forth
a child, and after that they set her before the midwife. 9. And
it happens that while some one is coming in, who takes up that
child and wraps it up, it has perished.
- Therefore, as she does the needful which they should do earlier
by the hand of some one, in this same manner it makes it incumbent
on every one to celebrate a ceremony for his own living soul,
so that it may be free (iman) from these misfortunes. 11. And
that, if his decease occurs in any place where there may be no
one who will celebrate a ceremony for his soul, since a ceremony
for the living soul is celebrated, there are no arrears for him,
and he is free. 12. And, in many things, it is that ceremony for
the living soul which is expedient, especially in these times
when the priests have remained few in number; and, when it is
celebrated by one's own hands, it is a great duty.
- The fifty-ninth subject is this, that, in the good and pure
religion of the Mazda-worshippers, they have not commanded the
women to perform the Niyayeshes. 2. And their Niyayeshes are these,
that three times every day, at dawn, mid-day prayer, and evening
prayer, they stand back in the presence of their own husbands,
and fold their arms and speak thus: 'What are thy thoughts, so
that I may think them; what is necessary for thee, so that I may
speak it; and what is necessary for thee, so that I may do it?'
- For, any command, and whatever the husband orders, it is requisite
to go about that day. 4. And, certainly, without the leave (riza)
of the husband she is to do no work, so that the Lord may be pleased
with that wife. 5. For the satisfaction of the sacred being is
in a reverence (yasht) for the satisfaction of the husband; so
that every time that they perform work by command of the husband
they call them righteous in the religion; and if not, what do
they call them?
- The sixtieth subject is this, that we are keeping the good
and pure religion of the Mazda-worshippers with us, so that escape
from hell may be possible for our souls. 2. And we are completely
united in hope, and through investigation (ta'hqiq) we fully understand
that, when we are steadfast in the good religion, we arrive in
heaven. 3. And we know that arrival in heaven occurs through virtuous
actions, and through them we are saved; so that we think of good,
speak of good, and do good.
- And no doing of good is better than that which offers itself
when a difficult duty comes before one of the good religion as
his soul wishes to depart. 5. Since it comes to thee, do thou
give help to that which has escaped his hand, so that he may come
out of that hindrance; and do thou not forsake him so that he
relinquishes the religion. 6. For after that, while he is in the
religion, and while his children, after him, are in the religion,
every duty and good work that he does -- and his children -- is
just like those which are done by thine own hand.
- And it is just like that with regard to poll-tax, it is also
indispensable to give it in semblance of help, so that they may
give that person his release ('halaz), and he may stay in his
own place, and the advantage of a good work (THavab) may come
to that other person.
- The sixty-first subject is this, that it is requisite to abstain
strictly from speaking falsehood; so that, every time that mankind
indulge in the speaking of falsehood with fondness, it is not
proper to do so; and falsehood is the chief of all sins.
- Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'Who is a liar like?' 3.
Ohrmazd, the good and propitious, said: 'A liar is a cooperator
- In revelation it says that there is no hereafter (a'hirat)
for the speakers of falsehood, and in the midst of mankind they
are contemptible ('haqir). 5. If such a man be powerful (mu'htashim),
and there be no avoiding ('haDHar) him in the vicinity of mankind,
they do not have any respect for him, and he is clearly (farzam)
an evil liar. 6. Although he possesses much wealth, it will all
depart from his hands, and, finally ('haqibat), begging of mankind
occurs to him, and his progeny also becomes scanty.
- The sixty-second subject is this, that it is necessary to
take early to the speaking of truth and doing of justice, and
to maintain oneself therein, for nothing whatever is better among
mankind than truth.
- Owing to truth Ohrmazd created this world and that other world,
and truth has remained on the spot, and on account of truth it
becomes pure. 3. And the accursed Ahriman, being devoid of anything
good, does not issue from that which is owing to truth. 4. It
is requisite to occasion the resurrection owing to truth; and,
as to every place where truth is not taken up, the glory in that
place has found a way out, and as to every household where much
of this resides, it is on account of truth, and Ahriman does not
find a way into that place.
- It is said in revelation that one truthful man is better than
a whole world ('halam) speaking falsehood; and Gavah of Isfahan
-- when he kept his stand upon the truth, and was speaking words
with truth until the time when Dahak [Zohak], who possessed the
whole realm, and the whole of the demons and mankind have been
afraid of him, through the truth of the words spoken -- was bold
with them in every speech, and became victorious (muthaffar) over
them by reason of the true words that he was speaking.
- The accursed Ahriman, when he perceived the spirit of truth,
had fallen senseless three thousand years. 7. From fear of truth
he never managed to hold up his head, and from fear of truth he
did not manage to come into this world. 8. And everything that
thou settest thy gaze (nathar) upon therein, that has remained
on the spot when thou seekest again an examination of it, has
remained through truth. 9. And the interpretation of the Ashem-vohu
is in truth, and, for that reason, they recite the Ashem-vohu
- The sixty-third subject is this, that it is necessary to practice
strict abstinence from adultery on this account, that through
every one who beguiles the wife of another, and commits iniquity
with her, that woman becomes, in a moment, unlawful as regards
her husband. 2. And, after that, every time her husband comes
round about her, it is just as though she had gone near to a strange
man. 3. The righteous bestowal of herself on her own husband,
in this situation, is always worse than his going with women of
a different religion, on this account, that, if that wife becomes
pregnant, it is just as though one of the good religion had fallen
away into a different religion, and thereby that man becomes worthy
- And it also happens, when that wife becomes pregnant, that
she may effect the slaughter of the infant, from fear of a bad
reputation. 5. Then, for that person whose child it is, it is
just as though he had effected the slaughter of the child with
his own hand; therefore, he is worthy of death. 6. If the infant
be born, and it remains in the religion, every sin that that child
of his commits is, for that person, just as though it were committed
by his own hand.
- And if a woman of those of the good religion commits adultery,
she becomes in a condition unlawful as regards her husband; and
if an infant be born it is illegitimate. 8. And the sin owing
to this will depart at the time when that person goes near to
her husband and shall say: 'What is there in me befitting thy
wife? 9. A calamity (ak) has occurred, and a crime ('hata) has
come into my body; thou knowest if thou wilt exercise forgiveness
('hafu) and if not, when if is not for me, do thou kill me; my
blood is lawful ('halal) unto thee.' 10. If he shall kill her,
her sin will depart owing to this; otherwise, this sin will not
depart from her in any manner (navai).
- And one calls this sin a sin affecting antagonists, and, so
long as the antagonist does not become satisfied, the sin flows
on, and they keep his soul back at the head of the Chinwad bridge,
till the time that its antagonist shall arrive and himself accomplishes
his antagonism, and they give him back a reply.
- The sixty-fourth subject is this, that it is necessary to
practice great abstinence from committing theft and seizing anything
from mankind by force.
- For it is declared in revelation that, as to every one who
steals one dirham away from another, when they really know it,
it is necessary to take two dirhams away from him, one dirham
being that which was carried off, and one dirham as the fine of
him who committed the theft. 3. It is also requisite to cut off
one ear, and it is necessary to strike ten blows with a stick,
and to detain him one period in prison.
- And if he shall steal another dirham, in the same manner one
is to take away two dirhams, to cut off the other ear, to strike
twenty blows with a stick, and to detain him two periods in prison.
5. And if he shall steal three dirhams and two dangs, it is requisite
to cut off his right hand. 6. If he shall steal five hundred dirhams,
it is requisite to hang him.
- On the spot the punishment is this, and among the spirits
it brings punishment on the soul itself. 8. And, if the other
person, does not know it, they take away twice as much good work,
among the spirits, from that thief, and give it to the soul of
this person. 9. If the thief possesses no good works, they give
the compensation from the constantly-beneficial treasury, and
exhibit the punishment on the soul of that thief.
- As to that person who has seized anything from another by
force, among the spirits they seize back four things as compensation
for every single one. 11. And if, on the spot where people capture
him, he makes it convenient to return four things in compensation
for one, when they have fully understood, as they capture that
person who is committing highway-robbery, that he makes it convenient,
they may kill him at once.
- The sixty-fifth subject is this, that every one is to practice
thanksgiving continually, and it is requisite that he maintains
it through good and bad; and he is to keep in view the benefits
of Ohrmazd. 2. Because the creator Ohrmazd demands two things
from mankind, the one is that one should not commit sin, and the
other is that one should practice thanksgiving. 3. And how much
soever more grateful mankind become, through virtue and worthiness
as regards him, they grant more abundant daily provision for the
grateful than that which is for other persons. 4. And as to every
one who is not grateful to him, the bread that he eats becomes
unlawful, and it is not proper for any one to do good in connection
- And it is declared in revelation that when an unthankful person
dies, wherever they deposit his corpse, the archangel Spandarmad
is trembling like a sheep that sees a wolf. 6. And as to a bird
that eats that corpse, on whatever tree it rests and settles,
it makes that tree wither away, and the person who sits down in
the shadow of the tree becomes ill.
- There are different things that it is necessary for those
of the good religion to make predominant over themselves. 8. One
is to exercise liberality in connection with the worthy; the second
is to do justice; the third is to be friendly unto every one;
and the fourth is to be sincere and true, and to keep falsehood
far from themselves. 9. And these four habits ('hazlat) are the
principles (azl) of the religion of Zartosht, and it is necessary,
when thou listenest to them thyself, that thou dost not listen
to any one else. 10. Because the creator Ohrmazd says, 'O Zartosht!
if thou wilt that thou become pure and saved, and that thou arrive
at the place of the pure, do thou accomplish these two duties:
-- 11. One is this, that thou prefer the friendship of the spiritual
existence to that of the worldly one, and consider the things
of the world as contemptible and those of the spirit precious;
on this account the glory of the world is sought with scorn, and
do not thou let the spirit escape. 12. The second is this, that
thou speak truly with every one and act justly with me, that is,
whatever thou dost not approve for thyself do not approve for
any one else; when thou hast acted in this manner thou art righteous.'
- The sixty-sixth subject is this, that it is incumbent on all
women to order the days (ayyam) of the duwazdah homast (Dvazdah-homast), because
the whole of any sin that may have arisen during menstruation,
and at other times, becomes cleared away thereby.
- And in the commentary of the Vendidad it says that every one
becomes sanctified in the days of the duwazdah homast, and all
sins become cleared away from her, like that which occurs at harvest
time, when a great wind comes on and carries it off; just like
this the sin departs from her, and the person becomes clean and
- And, for women, there is no duty more indispensable than this;
for it is declared in revelation that, when they celebrate a duwazdah homast,
it is a good work of a hundred thousand tanapuhrs, and if it be
the days of the duwazdah homast it is a good work of a thousand
thousand tanapuhrs, and when they celebrate it by day it is a
good work just like this.
- The sixty-seventh subject is this, that it is necessary for
women to practice great abstinence from committing adultery. 2.
For it is declared in revelation, as to every woman who has lain
with a strange man, thus: 'What is it necessary to call her, and
why is the explanation that she is of one nature with all wizards
- And in the commentary of the Vendidad it says '"every
woman who consorts with two strange men is the first down upon
me, who am Ohrmazd. 4. For if she takes a look into a river of
water it will make it diminish, if she takes a look at a tree
or shrub the fruit of the trees becomes scanty, and if she speaks
a word with a righteous man it will make the glory of the man
diminish." 5. Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd, "What occurs
on her account?" 6. The creator Ohrmazd spoke thus: "It
is necessary to kill her sooner than a biting serpent and similar
creatures and wild beasts, because she is more harmful to my creatures."'
- Therefore, since she is like this, it is necessary for women
to keep themselves with great effort, so that they may not become
unlawful unto their own husbands. 8. For, every time that one
of them gives herself four times to another person, she is, after
that, unlawful as long as she may be in the house of her husband,
and new sin is increasing in connection with her soul.
- The sixty-eighth subject is this, that for a menstruous woman
who casts an eye upon a fire it is a sin of twelve dirhams in
weight; and if she goes within three steps of the fire it is a
sin of a thousand and two hundred dirhams in weight for her; and
when she puts her hand to the fire it is a sin of fifteen tanapuhrs
- In like manner, if she takes a look at running water it is
a sin of twelve dirhams in weight for her; if she goes within
fifteen steps of running water it is a sin of fifteen dirhams
in weight for her; and when she sits down in running water it
is a sin of fifteen tanapuhrs for her. 3. And when she walks in
the rain, through every drop that drops upon her limbs there arises
a sin of one tanapuhr for her.
- If she comes to a Khwarshed Niyayesh, to observe it, it is
not proper for her to speak a word with a righteous man. 5. It
is not proper for her to put a bare foot on the ground. 6. It
is not proper for her to eat any food with a bare hand; it is
not proper for her to eat bread when satisfied. 7. It is not proper
for two menstruous women to eat together; it is not proper for
them to sleep so.
- And so long as three days have not elapsed it is not proper
to wash the hands, and three days after that, if she has perceived
herself clean, it is requisite to remain another day, and so until
the lapse of nine days, when, if she has perceived herself clean,
it is not necessary to remain to the end of another interval of
time. 9. If menstruation occurs for twenty-nine days, it is necessary
to consider that she is menstruous a second time, and during three
other days it is not proper to wash again, and it is necessary
to exercise care, just like that which I first wrote about.
- If she be doubtful whether menstruation is come to her, it
is requisite for her to strip off her dress, and then to take
notice if she has become menstruous, or if the dress that is stripped
off be clean. 11. If she has an infant to feed with her milk,
one puts away the dress from the infant, and gives it to the mother
till it has fed on the milk, and then it is proper to give it
to other persons. 12. It is pure, but when the mother washes her
head she also washes the head of the infant.
- And it is necessary for a menstruous woman that she should
not pass by the end of anything ceremonially washed, for, if it
be a thousand cubits (gaz) in length, she makes the whole of it
polluted, and it becomes unclean. 14. With any one who holds a
sacred-twig stand she should not speak a word; and if a priest
holds the sacred twigs in his hand, and a menstruous woman speaks
some (ba'hze) words from afar, or he walks within three steps
of a menstruous woman, she makes it unclean.
- The sixty-ninth subject is this, that it is not proper that
sunshine should fall on a fire, for, every time that sunshine
falls upon a fire, it is a sin. 2. If thou expose a fire to the
sun it is a sin of three stirs; and, if thou set down anything
on the top of the fire, it is necessary that it should not have
any hole -- so that the light (nur) ;and strength of the fire
might become less -- so far as thou knowest.
- The seventieth subject is this, that, as to any persons, when
they carry a corpse to the appointed place, it is necessary that
two suits of clothes be put on, on account of this work. 2. It
is requisite for those clothes to be on, and it is necessary to
make a dog gaze at the corpse twice, once at the time when life
becomes separated from it, and once at the time when they wish
to take it up.
- Then it is necessary that both those persons be connected,
and each of them is to tie a cord on one of his own hands, so
that the hand may go away from that of the other one. 4. And,
when they are moving, it is necessary for him to be prepared and
not to speak a word with any one. 5. And if it be a pregnant woman
they are to take her up by four persons, because there are two
- When, avoiding dead matter, one comes again upon it, he has,
in the end, to wash with ceremonial ablution, and that is requisite
for the reason that he may not thereby be rapidly a cause of wickedness
or death for any one.
- And if one does not show a dog to the corpse, and they take
it up, how many soever there be, the whole of them become polluted.
8. In the commentary of the Vendidad it is asserted, that every
one who takes up a corpse that a dog has not seen is polluted
and worthy of death, and never becomes clean; his soul also would
- The seventy-first subject is this, that, forasmuch as it is
not desirable for any one to eat dead matter for the sake of medicine
and remedy, let them beware (zinhar) when they eat it.
- For it asserts, in the commentary of the Vendidad, that it
is requisite to demolish the habitation, house, and abode of any
one who has eaten dead matter, and to fetch his heart out of his
body, and it is necessary to scoop out his eyes. 3. And along
with these torments, which they accomplish on him, his soul is
in hell till the resurrection.
- The seventy-second subject is this, that when any one carries
dead matter to water, or to fire, he is worthy of death. 2. And
it asserts in revelation, that any year when the locust comes
profusely, it comes for the reason that dead matter is brought
to water and fire. 3. And, in like manner, the winter is colder,
and the summer is hotter.
- The seventy-third subject is this, that, when a cow or a goat
has eaten dead matter, in any place, nothing whatever of its flesh,
or milk, or hair, should come into use for one year. 2. After
that one year it is clean: and, if it be pregnant, its young one
is likewise not clean for one year.
- And if a domestic fowl has eaten dead matter, its flesh and
eggs are, in like manner, not clean for one year.
- The seventy-fourth subject is this, that at dawn, when they
rise up from sleep, it is first necessary to throw something on
the hands, that is the hand-cleansing. 2. Afterwards, they are
to wash the hands quite clean with water, in such manner that
they are to wash the hands three times from the forearm (sa'hid)
to the end of the hand; and the face is washed from behind the
ears to below the chin and up to the crown of the head; and one
washes the feet three times thoroughly, as far as the leg (saq);
then one recites the Kem-na-mazda.
- If it be a place where there is no water, and the risk be
that the time for the Niyayesh should pass by, it is requisite
to cleanse the hands three times with dust, and to perform the
Niyayesh. 4. Afterwards, when one arrives at water, he is to wash
the hands and face a second time, and to accomplish the Niyayesh.
- Before the time when one throws something on the hands it
is not proper to wash the hands and face, and it is a tanapuhr
sin; it is also not possible to work at anything whatever with
the hands and face not washed.
- The seventy-sixth subject is this, when a woman brings forth,
it is necessary that she should not wash her head for twenty-one
days, nor put her hand again on anything, nor walk on a terrace-roof,
nor put her foot on a threshold in her habitation. 2. And after
the twenty-one days, if she sees herself in such a state that
she is able to wash her head, she washes her head. 3. And, after
that, until the coming on of the fortieth day, it is requisite
to abstain from the vicinity of a fire and anything that is wooden
or earthen; it is also requisite to abstain from everything of
her cooking and pot-boiling. 4. Afterwards, when it is forty days,
she is to wash her head, and it is proper for her to do every
kind of work.
- Till the lapse of a second forty days it is not proper for
her husband to make an approach to her, for it is a great sin,
and it is possible that she may become pregnant a second time,
as within a period of forty days women become very quickly pregnant.
- And if after the first forty days she sees herself impure,
unless she knows with accuracy that it has come from the infant,
it is necessary to consider if she be menstruous.
- The seventy-seventh subject is this, that, when a woman's
infant is still-born, it is necessary to give her first something
washed with ceremony and brought with fire-ashes, so that it may
make the heart within her pure. 2. After that, for three days,
it is altogether improper to give her water, or anything in which
there is water or salt. 3. And these three days are from period
to period, in such a manner that, if the duty of mid-day prayer
has occurred, they extend till the mid-day prayer itself, and
she is to pass over one other hour and it is then proper to swallow
water. 4. After that, till the lapse of forty days, she is to
sit apart again, and, afterwards, to undergo the Barashnom ceremony.
- On the infant's becoming a four-months' child, whenever it
is still-born it is a dead body, for the reason that so long as
it does not reach the fourth month life does not come to it. 6.
And if after three months this affair occurs, one is to exercise
great caution (i'htiyat) and to insist strictly on this matter.
- For our religion has reiterated on this matter that, if one
be polluted and do not keep himself pure so long as he is living
he never becomes clean from that pollution. 8. That, if he wash
his head ten thousand times in ceremonial ablution, he certainly
does not any way become pure from it. 9. Because this pollution
is not from without; it is from within every bone and vein and
tendon; and water makes clean only anything that is on the skin.
10. Impurity which is in the bones, except through the liquid
consecrated by the religious formula, does not otherwise become
- The seventy-eighth subject is this, that in every habitation
where any one departs, passing away from the world, it is necessary
to endeavor that they may not eat and not consecrate fresh meat
for three days therein. 2. Because the danger is that some one
else may depart, passing away; so the relations of that former
person should not eat meat for three days.
- The seventy-ninth subject is this, that it is necessary to
make an effort that they may exercise munificence and liberality
towards the good and the worthy. 2. For the exercise of liberality
is grand, in such manner as it is better and pleasanter, in like
manner, for the ground on which a liberal man walks, better for
the wind that blows upon a liberal man, better for the horse on
which a liberal man sits, better, in like manner, for the cow
and goat that a liberal man eats, and pleasanter for the sun and
moon and stars that shine upon a liberal man.
- To such an extent is a liberal and munificent man precious
('haziz), that Ohrmazd speaks thus: 'I have wished that I might
give a recompense to a munificent man, if it be suitable for him,
but I have not found any recompense and happiness that are suitable
for him, except a blessing.' 4. And virtuous men and the united
archangels are perpetually uttering blessings on account of the
liberal man who maintains no refusal of his own things to a stranger.
- For it is declared in revelation, that the creator Ohrmazd
spoke to Zartosht, the Spitaman, thus: 'I have created the supreme
heaven of heavens for the sake of any of the liberal who provide
for the worthy and give them something; and gloomy hell is for
all those persons who give anything to the unworthy.'
- In like manner it is declared in revelation, that there are
thirty-three ways to heaven, besides that of the souls of the
liberal. 7. If the soul be of any one else, it is not able to
arrive in heaven by that way. 8. Besides this happy way, a soul
of the liberal is able to arrive in heaven by means of the thirty-three
ways. 9. For no one is it easier to arrive in heaven than for
- The eightieth subject is this, that there is a time when thou
recitest one Ashem-vohu, and the merit of it may be as much as
that of ten. 2. There is a time when thou recitest one Ashem-vohu,
and the merit of it may be as much as that of a hundred. 3. A
time may be when thou recitest one, and the merit of it may be
as much as that of a thousand. 4. A time may be when the merit
of one Ashem-vohu may be as much as that of ten thousand. 5. A
time may be when the merit of one Ashem-vohu is as much as the
value (qimat) of this world and that other world.
- As for that Ashem-vohu whose nature is as much as ten, that
is when they recite it as they eat bread. 7. That which is, from
nature, as much as a hundred is when they recite it after eating.
8. That which is so much by nature that, having turned side over
side, they recite it correctly may be a merit of a thousand. 9.
That which is of the nature of ten thousand is that which thou
recitest when thou risest up from sleep. 10. And that whose nature
is as much as this world and that other world is when they recite
it at the time of the dissolution of life; for, if he be not able
to recite it himself, friends and relations give it into his mouth.
11. If he be fit for hell he becomes fit for the ever-stationary,
if he be fit for the ever-stationary he becomes fit for heaven,
and if he be fit for heaven he becomes fit for the supreme heaven.
- The eighty-first subject is this, that every duty and good
work, which it is requisite to perform, they should accomplish
while within that day, and not postpone for the morrow.
- For it is declared in revelation, that the creator Ohrmazd
spoke to Zartosht thus: 'O Zartosht! I have created no one better
than thee in the world, and after thee I shall likewise not create
one; thou art my chosen one, and I have made this world apparent
on account of thee. 3. And all these people ('halaiq) whom I have
created, and the whole of these monarchs who have existed and
do exist, have always maintained the hope that I should create
thee in their days, so that they should accept (qabul kunand)
the religion, and their souls should attain to the supreme heaven.
- 'Nevertheless I have created thee at the present time, in
the middle period; for it is three thousand years from the days
of Gayomard till now, and from now till the resurrection are the
three thousand years that remain; therefore, I have created thee
in the middle. 5. For whatever is in the middle is more precious
and better and more valuable, in the same manner as the heart
is in the middle of the whole body and is unquestionably (la-jarm)
very precious, in the same manner as the land of Eran [Iran] is
more valuable than other lands, for the reason that it is in the
middle. 6. And the country of Eran, which is in the fourth climate
(iqlim), is better than other places, for the reason that it is
in the middle. 7. Therefore, I have created thee in the middle,
in the manner of what is precious, and I have given thee the apostleship,
and have sent thee to a monarch, a friend of knowledge and a friend
- 'Afterwards, I have sent thee, with thus much preciousness,
to the people; and the knowledge of the good works that mankind
perform in life, and have not been able to bring to hand without
trouble (mi'hnat), I have made clear and plain unto thee; and
I have made thee aware of the whole of knowledge. 9. I have taught
it to thee in the Avesta, in a language that no one in the world
considers plain and easy; and I have told thee its interpretation
(zand) in a language that is more current among mankind, and thou
likewise hast more eloquence (faz'h) therein.
- 'While thou hast all this greatness that I have given to thee,
O Zartosht! I enact a precept for thee, that " every good
work which thou art able to do today do not postpone for tomorrow,
and accomplish with thine own hand the counsel of thine own soul."
11. Do not be proud (gharrah) on the score that it is still the
time of youth, and it is quite possible to do it hereafter, while
thou thinkest thus: "I will do it after this." 12. For
there have been many people whose remaining life was one day,
and they have been taken away in the presence of fifty years'
- Therefore, make an effort, so that thou mayest not postpone
today's duty for tomorrow. 14. Because Ahriman, the evil wicked
one, has entrusted two fiends with this matter, the name of one
is Tardy (der) and the name of the other is Afterwards (pas).
15. Both these fiends are united, and they make an effort and
exertion with man, so that his duty falls back behindhand. 16.
For, as to every duty and good work which comes forward, that
fiend whose name is Tardy speaks thus: 'Thou wilt live long, and
it is possible to perform this duty at all times;' and that fiend
whose name is Afterwards says: 'Pass on now; it is possible to
perform it afterwards.' 17. And these two fiends united keep the
soul away from its own duty, till the end arrives; all duties
have fallen back behindhand, and it has to experience regret ('hasarat)
and penitence. 18. It has no benefit through duty and good works,
and departs from this world.
- The eighty-second subject is this, that, when thou risest
up from the bed-clothes, it is necessary to tie the sacred thread-girdle
[kusti] again at that same place, and it is not desirable to put
forth a step without the girdle.
- For it is declared in revelation, that every single step which
one puts forth without the sacred thread-girdle [[kusti]] is a Farman sin,
and through four steps it becomes a tanapuhr sin which would be
a weight of a thousand and two hundred dirhams. 3. Therefore,
it is necessary to keep watch over oneself, as regards this sin,
and to tie on the sacred thread-girdle [[kusti]].
- The eighty-third subject is this, that it is requisite to
abstain from the keeping of fasts. 2. For, in our religion, it
is not proper that they should not eat every day or anything,
because it would be a sin not to do so.
- With us the keeping of fast is this, that we keep fast from
committing sin with our eyes and tongue and ears and hands and
feet. 4. Some people are striving about it, so that they may not
eat anything all day, and they practice abstinence from eating
anything. 5. For us it is also necessary to make an effort, so
that we may not think, or speak, or commit any sin; and it is
necessary that no bad action should proceed from our hands, or
tongue, or ears, or feet, which would be a sin owing to them.
- Since I have spoken in this manner, and have brought forward
the fasting of the seven members of the body, that which, in other
religions, is fasting owing to not eating is, in our religion,
fasting owing to not committing sin.
- The eighty-fourth subject is this, when they wish to sleep,
it is requisite to utter one Yatha-ahu-vairyo and one Ashem-vohu,
and to accomplish repentance one is to speak thus: 'I am sorrowing
for, and repentant and in renunciation of all that sin which I
have spoken and was imagined by me, and has assailed me; of these
actions I am in renunciation.'
- Afterwards one is to lie down; and every time that one acts
in the manner that I have mentioned, and wears the sacred thread-girdle
[[kusti]] on the waist -- while he is equally sharing the whole of the good
works which they are performing in all the world during that night,
and he is of similar merit -- every single breath that he inhales
and exhales is a good work of a weight of three dirhams. 3. And
when he turns from side to side he should, in like manner recite
- The eighty-fifth subject is this, that, in every matter that
comes forward, it is necessary to inquire of the wise and relations,
so as to have their advice, and not to transact any business according
to one's own idea and opinion.
- For it is declared in revelation, that the sacred good and
propitious, spoke to Zartosht thus: 'As to every business that
thou wishest to transact, do thou receive wisdom and knowledge
at one place with the wise who reply, and cast away what is unconsidered,
so that Ahriman may not reach it midway, and injury ('halal) may
not occur to that business.'
- In like manner the archangel Spandarmad, at the time when
her gaze passed on to Minachihar, issued to him this admonition
and precept (vaziyat), and said: 'O Minochihar! although there
be deliberation in an affair, this may be no reason for it as
regards the spirits; although a horse may be good, there may be
no resource except a whip for it; and although one may be a wise
man, there should be no retreat on his part from having advice,
so that his business may become complete.'
- The eighty-sixth subject is this, that it is not proper to
kill a beaver [lit. 'water dog']; but, if they see it in any place,
it is necessary to take it up and carry it to running water. 2.
For, in the commentary of the Vendidad it is ranked as a great
sin for the killer; and, as to every one who kills a beaver, the
source of his seed becomes exhausted.
- The eighty-seventh subject is this, that, when any one departs
from the world, it is necessary to make an effort, in those three
days, so that they may continuously perform the ceremonial of
Srosh and make the fire blaze, and may recite the Avesta; because
the soul is three days in this world.
- The fourth night it is requisite to consecrate three sacred
cakes; one with a dedication to Rashn and Ashtad, one with a dedication
to the spirit Ram, and one with a dedication to the righteous
guardian spirit; and one is to consecrate a dress and something
as a righteous gift for that soul.
- It is necessary that the dress be new and of uniform quality
(jins), and such as turban, shirt, vest, girdle, trousers, shoes
(pasandil), and mouth-veil. 4. Since they give those among the
spirits a counterpart of those garments, therefore, whatever is
more beautiful, and more surpassing in grandeur for the soul in
that place, is necessary where that place is, because our fathers
and mothers and the whole of our relations are in that place.
5. And since the souls recognize and ask after one another in
that world, they are, therefore, more joyful on account of every
one whose dress and grandeur are more surpassing. 6. In a similar
manner, when the dress is old and ragged, they are ashamed, and
exhibit heaviness of heart.
- They call that dress a righteous gift because they consecrate
it; and it is necessary to give it to the priests and high-priests,
as it is a righteous gift on account of their position. 8. And
it is suitable for them to keep it for the reason that the souls
are nearer to them; people should also make an effort that the
dress may be stitched like the dress of a priest.
- The sacred beings make up the account and reckoning for the
soul when the priest recites frasasti ahurahe mazdau
and removes the Frasast from this side to that side. 10. The soul
passes over the Chinwad bridge when, on the fourth night, it arrives
from the world at the Chinwad bridge. 11. First it goes to the
abode of fire (atash-gah); afterwards, one step reaches to the
star station, the second step reaches to the moon station, the
third step to the sun station, and with the fourth step it reaches
the Chinwad bridge, and they convey it to its own place.
- The eighty-eighth subject is this, that, as to any piece of
wood on which they carry a corpse, or on which they wash it, and
that which may be defiled with blood and impurity, that on which
menstruous defilement, or a bare limb, is deposited by a menstruous
woman, and that on which they impale a human being, it is necessary
to avoid the whole of these pieces of wood, and not to work with
them again, because one's dress becomes impure; and it is not
proper to burn them. 2. It is necessary to put them in a place
where any one, who pulls them up and stirs them, will not bring
them into the use of mankind.
- The eighty-ninth subject is this, that Ohrmazd keeps watch
when any one, through imposition ('hilat) and unawares, eats dead
matter, or gives it to one of the good religion, or throws dead
matter upon one of the good religion. 2. While his will and command
are, that it is necessary that such a person should undergo the
Barashnom ceremony, and accomplish repentance before the spiritual
chiefs and high-priests. 3. So that, after that, one may indicate
to him the sin in these actions, and he may perform the retribution
which the high-priest mentions, in order that, owing to this,
his sin may depart.
- The ninetieth subject is this, that it is not proper that
they should give anything to a sinful person or one worthy of
death, because it is like that they have placed in the jaws of
a destructive serpent (azhdaha). 2. And, if this be food which
he devours and they give, they pass into the committing of sin;
and that person who may have given food to him is a participator
with him. 3. In eating food, if there be no danger and fear of
them, it is not desirable to give anything to them, for it would
be a great sin.
- The ninety-first subject is this, that is, in what mode is
it necessary to wash everything that becomes polluted by dead
- Gold one is to wash over once with ceremonial ablution to
make it dry once with dust, and to wash it over once with water.
3. Silver (nuqrah) one is to do twice; copper, tin, lead, and
brass articles three times; steel four times; stone articles six
times; turquoise, ruby (yaqut), amber, carbuncle, cornelian ('haqiq),
and, like these, whatever is from a mine (ma'hdan) are all to
be washed six times in the manner which I have stated. 4. Afterwards
they are clean in that manner, when every single time one washes
them over with ceremonial ablution, makes them dry with dust,
and washes it off; and just like this on the occasion of the other
times -- up to three times, or four, or six -- as far as whatever
- For pearls two modes are ordered, but the conclusion is this,
that they should wash them six times, just like stone articles.
6. The whole of wooden and earthen ware it is requisite to throw
away. 7. All clothing of the body it is requisite to wash six
times in the manner that I have stated, and, after that, to put
them in a place where the sun and moon must shine on them for
six months; after that they are fit for a menstruous woman.
- The ninety-second subject is this, that it is necessary to
properly maintain the sacred fire and some one who will work with
assiduity (kahdan) to provide maintenance and sympathy for it.
2. And the supply of its firewood is entirely in such a manner
that they burn this year the firewood of last year. 3. At midnight
they make it blaze up, and put incense upon if in such a manner
that the wind carries off its scent.
- The demons and fiends rush away, because there is the glory
of the sacred fire that we are able to make a living existence
in the midst of this people. 5. For, if no fiend and the glory
of the archangels and the day of the sacred fire had not existed,
it would not have been possible to produce the living existence
any day. 6. And, therefore, it makes it expedient that they supply
a fire-attendant to maintain the firewood and fire, so that a
seeking for its safety ('hafiyat) may come into operation, and
they may know a support and protection for it that would be acceptable.
- The ninety-third subject is this, that it is necessary for
all those of the good religion to practice abstinence from uttering
slander (ghaibat) behind one's back.
- In the commentary of the Vendidad it states, that slander
is the greatest of all sins. 3. Every one who perpetrates slander
about any one is like him who has eaten dead matter -- and the
eating of dead matter is a sin that has likewise been mentioned,
before this, in this book -- but the statement is like this, while
they do not indicate any punishment for it in this world, it does
not go without it in that other world. 4. Therefore it is necessary
for those of the good religion to make an effort, so that they
may guard themselves from this slander.
- In order that they may show thy soul, when resigning life,
the satisfaction (ijza) for the sin, it states, in the commentary
of the Vendidad, as to any one by whom slander is perpetrated,
if the injured person goes before him and begs a righteous gift
from him, and he provides a righteous gift for that. person, the
sin departs from him.
- The ninety-fourth subject is this, when a person confers a
benefit or kindness upon any one, it is necessary that that latter
should understand the value of it, and lay the obligation (minnat)
upon himself; and, if he be able, he should provide a benefit
to that amount (miqdar) for that person.
- It is declared in revelation, that, when a person confers
a benefit upon any one, Ohrmazd gives him ten times as much, as
an equivalent. 3. And, if the other be not understanding the justice
of this, it is related in the commentary of the Avesta in this
manner, that it is a great sin for him. 4. And Ahriman speaks
like this, namely: 'That sinner is akin to me; in the end he will
come into my hands; I will not give him into the hands of any
demon, but I will inflict punishment with my own hands.' 5. And
the chief priest says it is necessary for all Zarathushtrians
that they keep themselves far from this sin.
- The ninety-fifth subject is this, that it is necessary that
it be expedient for all those of the good religion to perform
the salutation of the sun [Khwarshed Niyayesh] three times every
- If one performs it once, it is a good work of one tanapuhr;
if he performs it twice, it is twice as much; and if he performs
it three times, it is thrice as much. 3. And if he does not perform
one repetition, it is a sin of thirty stirs; if he does not perform
two repetitions, it is twice as much sin; and if he does not perform
three repetitions, it is thrice as much sin.
- And it is the same as this with regard to the salutations
of the moon and fire [Mah Niyayesh and Atash Niyayesh]. 5. Therefore
it is expedient, in the religion, for every one of the good religion
to bring the salutations into practice.
- The ninety-sixth subject is this, when any one departs to
that other world it is not proper for others that they should
utter an outcry, maintain grief, and make lamentation and weeping.
2. Because every tear that issues from the eyes becomes one drop
of that river before the Chinwad bridge, and then the soul of
that dead person remains at that place; it is difficult for it
to make a passage there, and it is not able to pass over the Chinwad
bridge. 3. It is therefore necessary that they recite the Avesta
and celebrate the ceremonial, so that the passage of that place
may become easy for it.
- The ninety-seventh subject is this, that it is expedient for
those of the good religion, that they converse, according to their
own ability, in the presence of officiating priests, high-priests,
spiritual chiefs, and priests, and hearken cordially to whatever
they say. 2. And they should understand their statements, and,
during them, they should not utter any reply or question (sual).
- For in the commentary of the Avesta it says, as to every one
who brings altercation ('hujjat) into any statement of the elders
of the religion, 'one breaks out his tongue, or he goes out from
this world abortively (mubattala).'
- The ninety-eighth subject is this, that it is necessary for
all those of the good religion, that they learn the Avesta characters
in the presence of priests and teachers, so as to read, and that
no error may continue in the Niyayeshes and Yashts.
- And it is still more expedient for priests and teachers, that
they teach the Avesta characters to all those of the good religion;
and if a priest, while teaching, shows incompetence (taqzir),
it is a great sin for him. 3. For Ohrmazd, the good and propitious,
spoke to Zartosht thus: 'As to every priest and teacher who commits
a blunder in teaching those of the good religion, I make him just
as far from heaven as the width of the earth.
- The ninety-ninth subject is this, 'that it is not proper for
officiating priests, high-priests, spiritual chiefs, and priests,
that they teach Pahlavi to every one.
- For Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'To whom is it proper
to teach Pahlavi?' 3. And Ohrmazd, the good and propitious, gave
a reply thus: 'To every one who is of thy family (nasl), an officiating
priest, a high-priest, a spiritual chief, and every one who is
an intelligent priest. 4. Besides these that I have mentioned,
if one teaches it to others it is a great sin for him; and if
he has performed many duties and good works, the end for him may
still be hell.'
- The hundredth subject is this, when a person molests or smites
any one who is innocent, it is a sin of one tanapuhr every day
for that person, as long as he lives. 2. And, when he departs
from this world, the angel Mihr and the angel Rashn make up his
account and reckoning. 3. He is full of affliction, and experiences
much regret and penitence, and has no advantage from it. 4. It
is therefore necessary to keep oneself far from this sin.