Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East,
volume 24, Clarendon Press, 1885.
- The forty-first subject is this, that it is greatly requisite
to avoid a menstruous woman, while they give her bread and food
moderately. 2. As soon as she is not able to eat they should not
give her more, and in the same manner as regards water, on this
account, that whatever remnant comes from that menstruous woman
does not come to any use.
- When they wish to provide bread they put the hand into the
sleeve, or they place something on the top of the sleeve, and
it is necessary that her bare hand should not come forth again
in any place. 4. Because every drop of water that trickles on
to a limb of a menstruous woman becomes a sin of three hundred
stirs. 5. And it is requisite for a menstruous woman to avoid
everything that is washed with ceremony by fifteen steps. 6. It
is also necessary for her to be at least three steps distant from
a righteous man, and on whatever her eye casts a look it diminishes
the glory of that thing.
- And on every woman the twelve ceremonials, atoning for the
offense of menstruation, are incumbent. 8. One on account of the
offense that has occurred as regards the spiritual existence.
9. The second on account of the offense that has occurred as regards
the stars. 10. The third on account of that which has occurred
as regards the sun. 11. The fourth on account of that which has
occurred as regards the moon. 12. The fifth on account of that
which has occurred as regards the spirit of fire. 13. The sixth
on account of that which has occurred as regards the spirit of
water. 14. The seventh on account of that which has occurred as
regards the spirit of earth. 15. The eighth on account of that
which has occurred as regards the spirit of the wind. 16. The
ninth on account of that which has occurred as regards Hordad.
17. The tenth on account of the offense that has occurred as regards
Amurdad. 18. The eleventh on account of the offense that has occurred
as regards meal-time ('hurdak gah). 19. The twelfth on account
of the offense that has occurred as regards bodily refuse and
dead matter. 20. Therefore it is incumbent on every one in this
manner; if any one be more opulent eighteen ceremonials are indispensable,
and if she has silver in excess (ba-ghayat) there should be twenty-one,
and in one place I have read that twenty-four are indispensable;
but, for lesser people, this that I have noted is necessary.
- That which they provide in their lifetime is better; and,
just as would occur when any one plants a tree anew, and is eating
the fruit of it every year, even so much is that good work increasing
every year. 22. If she shall live ten years, or if a hundred years,
even so long it is becoming every year much more. 23. If they
provide it after her lifetime , that which would be the increase
departs; and in her lifetime, also, that occurs which every one,
who has done a duty on his own account, has seen, that the thing
itself which others accomplish after his lifetime is very different;
so that she should provide it with her own hands, not after her
- The forty-second subject is this, that it is necessary to
practice strict abstinence from that sin which affects accusers.
2. That would be when any one slanders (buhtanad), or any one
commits a rape on the wife of some one, or causes a woman to occupy
a separate bed from her own husband.
- These are sins for which there is no retribution, except when
thou beggest forgiveness of that person whom thy sin has assailed.
4. Afterwards, they keep back the soul, at the Chinwad bridge,
till the time when its antagonist arrives and exacts justice from
it; then it obtains release.
- Every time that any one applies a falsehood or a slander to
some person, so that people are afterwards telling that falsehood
again, and it vexes the heart of that person, they are bringing
punishment ever anew on the soul of that former one. 6. The sin
does not depart through the performance of duties and good works,
so long as he does not make his antagonist satisfied.
- This is a grave sin, and it is requisite to be careful that
they do not commit it.
- The forty-third subject is this, that it is necessary to make
an endeavor to kill noxious creatures and reptiles ('hasharat)
of the earth; because, in revelation, it is put forth as a great
- Especially these five things: One is the frog in the water,
the second is the snake and scorpion, the third is the ant (marchish)
that flies, the fourth is the common ant (morchah), and; the fifth
is the mouse. 3. Therefore, every time that they bring a frog
up, out of the water, and make it dry, and, after (ba'hd) that,
kill it, it is a good work of a thousand and two hundred dirhams
in weight. 4. And every time that they kill a snake, and recite
the Avesta that is appointed for that occasion, it is just as
though they have slain an apostate (ashmogh). 5. For every one
who kills a flying ant (marchish) it is as much good work as for
any one who is reciting inward prayer for ten days. 6. Among the
creatures of Ahriman nothing whatever is more harmful than this;
for, if it dies in the air (hava) it becomes a gnat, if it dies
in the dust it becomes a worm, if it dies in the water it becomes
a leech, if it dies among the excavators of flesh it becomes a
venomous snake (mar-i af'hai), and if it dies in dung it becomes
creeping things. 7. For every one who kills a corn-dragging ant
it is as much good work as for any one who recites the Ohrmazd
Yasht. 8. And for every one who kills many noxious creatures it
is as much good work as for a priest who performs the ceremonial
of the sacred beings; both good works are equal. 9. For every
one who kills a mouse it is as much good work as if four lions
are killed. 10. Therefore, it is incumbent on every one to make
an effort to kill a noxious creature.
- The forty-fourth subject is this, that it is not desirable
for those of the good religion, so far as they are able to manage
it, to put a bare foot upon the ground, because it is a sin, and
injury occurs to Spandarmad, the archangel. 2. And they call that
the sin of running about uncovered.
- The forty-fifth subject is this, that it is continually necessary
that people should keep in remembrance the accomplishment of repentance
(taubat). 2. Every time that a sin leaps from control it is necessary
to act so that they go before the priests, high-priests, and spiritual
chiefs, and accomplish repentance.
- And in accordance with the sin should be the good work, just
as though the good work were due to that occasion when they accomplish
it. 4. While mankind are living, it becomes every year a further
benefit. 5. Sin is also, in like manner, going on to a head every
year; and when they accomplish repentance, so that it may not
increase further, it is just like a tree that becomes withered,
and they extirpate its further growth.
- And that repentance is better which they accomplish before
high-priests and spiritual chiefs, and when they accomplish the
retribution that the high-priest orders every sin that exists
departs from them. 7. The repentance that high-priests accomplish
they likewise call repentance. 8. If there be no high-priest it
is necessary to go before some persons who are commissioned by
high-priests; and if those, also, do not exist, it is necessary
to go to a man who is a friend of the soul, and to accomplish
- At the time when one shall depart from the world it is incumbent
on sons and daughters and relations, that they give repentance
into the mouth of the afflicted one, and that they give the Ashem-vohu
into his mouth. 10. For the high-priests have said that, when
they have accomplished repentance because they have committed
many sins, they do not arrive in hell, but they administer punishment
to them at the head of the Chinwad bridge, and afterwards conduct
them to their own place.
- Repentance is that when they accomplish repentance of the
sin which they have committed, and do not commit that sin a second
time; if they do commit it, that first sin then comes back.
- The forty-sixth subject is this, that, when people become
fourteen years of age, it is necessary to tie on the sacred thread-girdle
[kusti], because the high-priests have said that it is likewise
necessary to take into account those nine months that they have
been in the womb of the mother.
- For in our religion there is no duty better than wearing the
sacred thread-girdle [[kusti]], and it is incumbent on man and woman. 3.
And, in former days, if any one should have become completely
fifteen years of age, and should not have worn the sacred thread-girdle,
they would have done for him by stoning, as bread and water are
forbidden ('haram) for him.
- The forty-seventh subject is this, that, when a child of seven
years shall die, an order is necessary that it is requisite to
perform a ceremony (yasht) for Srosh on account of it, and to
consecrate the sacred cake of the fourth night.
- For it says in revelation that the souls of children go with
the souls of their fathers and mothers; if the father is fit for
heaven the child goes to heaven with him, if he be fit for hell
it arrives in hell; if the mother be fit for heaven it reaches
heaven with her, if she be fit for hell it reaches hell with her.
- Therefore, every time that they accomplish the ceremony for
Srosh, the soul of that child becomes separated from the souls
of its father and mother, and goes to heaven, and is imploring
intercession (shifa'hat) for its father and mother in the presence
of the sacred beings in that other world.
- The forty-eighth subject is this, that, when they boil a cooking-pot,
it is necessary to make the water two parts of one-third each,
that one-third of the pot may be empty; so that, if at any time
the pot shall boil, the water shall not go to the top. 2. For
if they do not act so, and the water, owing to not stopping, goes
into the fire, it is a sin of a thousand and two hundred dirhams
in weight; therefore it is necessary to keep watch that this sin
does not arise.
- The forty-ninth subject is this, that, when one gathers up
a fire, it is requisite to leave it for a time, so that the ash-bed
(bum) of the fire may become cold; afterwards, one is to take
it up and carry it to the precinct of fire. 2. It is not proper
that they carry the ash-bed (zamin) of a hot fire to the precinct
of fire; so far is notorious.
- The fiftieth subject is this, that, every day at dawn, when
they rise up from sleep, it is not proper to wash the hands first
- The ceremonial ablution is to wash the hands, face, nose,
eyes, and feet thoroughly, either with fruit (mivah) or some grass
upon which no water has come; afterwards, to make them dry, and
to wash them three times with water in such a manner that it becomes
wet from the face as far as the ear. 3. It is necessary to keep
the mouth closed, so that the water shall not go into the mouth;
for if a drop, owing to not stopping, goes into the mouth, it
is a sin of three hundred stirs. 4. Afterwards, one is to wash
the hands three times with water, as far as the upper arms; first
the right hand, and afterwards the left hand; and, in like manner,
he is to wash the right foot and left foot.
- Then they recite the Kem-na-mazda, for, every time that they
wish to recite anything as an inward prayer, it is necessary that
the hands be washed with ceremonial ablution, and, if they are
not, the Avesta is not accepted, and the fiend of corruption (nasa)
does not rush away, and it becomes a tanapuhr sin.
- The fifty-first subject is this, that it is incumbent on every
one to send a child to school, and to teach it something. 2. Because
every duty and good work that a child performs is just as though
the father and mother had performed it with their own hands. 3.
Therefore it is necessary to make an effort, so that they may
teach them something good, and make them aware of good works and
sin; for they are doing that on account of their own souls, so
that those children may be courageous in doing good works.
- If they are not taught, they then perform less duty and good
works, and less reaches the souls of the father and mother. 5.
And it also happens that if they do not deliver children to school,
and do not teach them anything, and they become bold in committing
sin, that sin becomes fixed on the necks of the father and mother.
- Therefore they have decided rightly who teach them something,
especially what is proper and improper according to revelation;
because the chief principle is this, whether, through the duty
of this world, a good or bad result is coming hereafter.
- The fifty-second subject is this, that it is incumbent on
every one that, every year when the month Frawardin comes on,
he is to provide a sacred cake on the day Hordad, and whatever
they are able to bring to hand, a little of everything, they are
to place by that sacred cake, and to consecrate it with the dedicatory
formula Ayaranamcha, so that the affairs of that year may be better
through that day's provision and the entry and coming in of guests.
- For it is declared in revelation, that, every year, when the
day Hordad of the month Frawardin comes on, they allot a daily
provision for mankind, and whatever one wishes to pass to the
lot of mankind in that year they write down that day. 3. Therefore,
when they shall consecrate this sacred cake, the archangel Hordad
is making intercession for that person.
- The fifty-third subject is this, that, when, in former times,
any one wished to go on a journey (safar) that might have been
at least twelve leagues (parasang), they would have consecrated
a sacred cake, so that no affliction might happen in that journey,
and affairs might be according to their wish, and employments
(sughl) cheerful. 2. And it is still incumbent on every one that,
when they wish to go on a journey, they are to consecrate this
- And, while the person is on the journey, he should order the
consecration of this sacred cake, in his house, every Warharan
day, so that that person may arrive in safety (salamat) at his
house. 4. The dedicatory formula is this -- Amahe hutashtahe --
and is known to the priest himself.
- The fifty-fourth subject is this, that if any one has a serving
wife, and if the acquisition of a male child results from her,
it is suitable for adoption by that person, and the bridge is
not severed for that person. 2. But if it be a female child it
is necessary that the man should not be negligent (ghafil) in
appointing an adopted son for his own sake. 3. He should himself
appoint a son of some relation, who is a friend of the soul, so
that the bridge may not be severed for his soul.
- The fifty-fifth subject is this, that when a Navazud ceremony
is performed, and it happens that it is not possible to consecrate
a sacred cake, it is necessary that one should eat bread with
the Ohrmazd inward prayer; and, afterwards, he should complete
the prayer Just as when they complete it as regards the sacred
cake, so that the sin may be less.
- The fifty-sixth subject is this, that, when any one wishes
to make an evacuation of water, it is necessary that he should
not make the evacuation of water while standing on his feet. 2.
Because, in the commentary of the Vendidad, it is said, concerning
that, that it is a serious sin.
- When they squat for evacuating water it is necessary that
it extend only from the heel as far as the end of the toes; for,
if it be more, every drop is a Tanapuhr sin. 4. And, when they
wish to squat for the evacuation of water, they are to utter one
Yatha-ahu-vairyo; and, when the action is over, they are to recite
the Ashem-vohu three times, the Humatanam twice, the Hukhshathrotemai
three times, the Yatha-ahu-vairyo four times, and the Ahunem-vairim
to the end. 5. Because, every time that they act like this, they
are pleasant in the eyes and hearts of mankind, and their words
are more approved in the vicinity of kings.
- The fifty-seventh subject is this, that it is not proper to
kill a hedgehog; and, everywhere that they see it, it is necessary
to take it up and carry it into the wilderness (sa'hra), so that
it may go into a hole, which is ever considered a great good work.
2. Because, when a hedgehog is in their nest, some ants will die;
it will also catch and eat thousands of snakes and other harmful
creatures, and it eats all noxious creatures. 3. Therefore, owing
to the whole of this, these words are expedient.
- The fifty-eighth subject is this, that it is ever necessary
that those of the good religion should make an effort that they
may celebrate a ceremony for their living souls. 2. For the soul,
for which they have celebrated a ceremony, just as much good work
as it then becomes each year, it is twice as much good work the
second year. 3. So that, in this manner, the merit of the ceremony
for the living soul is increasing just so much every year, while
the man is living. 4. And, after that, this also occurs, that,
if at the time when that person becomes an immortal soul there
be no one at hand -- Srosh being the angel when the ceremony for
the living soul is celebrated -- Srosh, the righteous, receives
the soul by himself, and is keeping watch over it during the three
days, and does not forsake it, so that no danger or harm happens
to it. 5. And the fourth night he is a helper, with the angel
Rashn, at the Chinwad bridge, while they make up its account and
reckoning, and it goes to its own place.
- And this ceremony for the living soul is appointed for the
reason that, just in the manner that, when an infant becomes separated
from the mother, a midwife (qabilat) is necessary for it, so that
they may keep watch over it, and just in the manner that she takes
up the infant from the ground -- and, at the time when it is born
it is ever necessary that there be a woman present ('hazirat),
or they may perform work for the infant at a time fit for the
demon -- in this same manner, when the soul is becoming separated
from the body it is like an infant (tifl), and does not know any
way to its place. 7. When they celebrate a ceremony for the living
soul, and have propitiated the righteous Srosh, the righteous
Srosh becomes like the midwife, so that he receives that soul
by himself and keeps watch that it is out of the hands of Ahriman
and the demons. 8. When they do not celebrate a ceremony for the
soul when living, but, after that, the priests perform it before
Srosh, it is like that which occurs when a woman brings forth
a child, and after that they set her before the midwife. 9. And
it happens that while some one is coming in, who takes up that
child and wraps it up, it has perished.
- Therefore, as she does the needful which they should do earlier
by the hand of some one, in this same manner it makes it incumbent
on every one to celebrate a ceremony for his own living soul,
so that it may be free (iman) from these misfortunes. 11. And
that, if his decease occurs in any place where there may be no
one who will celebrate a ceremony for his soul, since a ceremony
for the living soul is celebrated, there are no arrears for him,
and he is free. 12. And, in many things, it is that ceremony for
the living soul which is expedient, especially in these times
when the priests have remained few in number; and, when it is
celebrated by one's own hands, it is a great duty.
- The fifty-ninth subject is this, that, in the good and pure
religion of the Mazda-worshippers, they have not commanded the
women to perform the Niyayeshes. 2. And their Niyayeshes are these,
that three times every day, at dawn, mid-day prayer, and evening
prayer, they stand back in the presence of their own husbands,
and fold their arms and speak thus: 'What are thy thoughts, so
that I may think them; what is necessary for thee, so that I may
speak it; and what is necessary for thee, so that I may do it?'
- For, any command, and whatever the husband orders, it is requisite
to go about that day. 4. And, certainly, without the leave (riza)
of the husband she is to do no work, so that the Lord may be pleased
with that wife. 5. For the satisfaction of the sacred being is
in a reverence (yasht) for the satisfaction of the husband; so
that every time that they perform work by command of the husband
they call them righteous in the religion; and if not, what do
they call them?
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