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Zand-i Vohuman Yasht (Commentary on the Vohuman Yasn).

This digital edition by Joseph H. Peterson, copyright 1995.

Also referred to A Bahman Yasht or Zand-i Wahman Yasht.

Translation from Anklesaria, Behramgore Tehmurasp. Zand-I Vohuman Yasn and Two Pahlavi Fragments. Bombay: Mrs. B. T. Anklesaria, 1957.

For a more recent translation, see Cereti, Carlo G. The Zand î Wahman Yasn: a Zoroastrian apocalypse. Roma: Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo oriente, 1995.

NOTE: Anklesaria divides the text into chapters differently from West (see below).

 
[101]

COMMENTARY OF THE VOHUMAN YASN.

0. Gratification of the good and beneficent Creator Ohrmazd, the radiant and lustrous benefactor, and of the Beneficent Immortals! Praise of the holy and good religion of Mazda-worship! Health, long life, and weal unto him for whom this book is written!

CHAPTER I.

1. As is manifest from the Sudgar (Nask): Zartosht asked for immortality from Ohrmazd. (2) Then, Ohrmazd showed the wisdom of all-knowledge unto Zartosht. (3) Through it, he saw the trunk of a tree, on which there were four branches: one of gold, one of silver, one of steel, and one of mixed iron. (4) Thereupon he considered that he saw this in a dream.

5. When he arose from sleep, he, Zartosht, spoke: "Lord of the spiritual and material existences! it seems that I saw the trunk of a tree, on which there were four branches."

6. He, Ohrmazd, spoke to Spitaman Zartosht: "The trunk of a tree, which thou sawest, is the material existence, which I, Ohrmazd, created. (7) The four branches are the four periods which will come. (8) That of gold is that [102] when I and thou will hold a conference of religion, king Vishtasp shall accept the religion, the figures of the devs shall totter, and the devs will remain from publicity into distant and concealed movements. (9) That of silver is the reign of king Ardashir the Kayanid. (10) And that of steel is the reign of Khosraw son of Kawad, of immortal soul. (11) And that of mixed iron is the evil sovereignty of the devs, having dishevelled hair, of the seed of Eshm, when thy tenth century will be at an end, O Spitaman Zartosht!"

CHAPTER II.

1. In the Commentary of the Vohuman Yasn, the Hordad Yasn, and the Ashtad Yasn, it is manifest that, at one time, the accursed Mazdak son of Bamdat, the adversary of religion, appeared, in order to make men inimical to the religion of God. (2) He, Khosraw, son of Kobad, of immortal soul, called Khvasruy son of Maevindat, Nivshahpur son of Dat-­Ohrmazd the Dastur of Atarpatakan, Atar-fren-bag the guileless, Atarpat, Atar-mitr and Bakht-afrit to his presence. (3) He demanded of them a promise, saying: "Do not keep these Yasns in concealment; do not teach the commentary to other than your relations." (4) They made the promise unto Khvasruy.

CHAPTER III.

1. In the Commentary of the Vohuman Yasn, it is manifest that Zartosht asked for immortality from Ohrmazd, [103] a serond time. (2) He said, [that is, Zartosht]: "I am very righteous and very useful among these Thy creatures; O Creator! if Thou shalt make me immortal, like the Tree-ex­pelling-pain, Gokpat-sha, Yosht-Fryan, and Chitrok-miyan son of Vishtasp," [know that he is the illustrious Peshyitan;]—"if Thou shalt make me immortal like them,—people will have better faith in Thy religion, reflecting: 'he, the harbinger of religion, who accepted the holy and good religion of Mazda-­worship, from Ohrmazd became immortal,' and even those people will have better faith in Thy religion."

3. He, Ohrmazd, replied: "If I make thee immortal, O Spitaman Zartosht! Tur-i Bratrush the Karp, too, will then become immortal; and if Tur-i Bratrush the Karb becomes immortal, it will not be possible to perform the resurrection and the final-most material existence."

4. Zartosht should feel severely in mind. (5) Ohrmazd knew, through the wisdom of all-knowledge, what he, the Spitaman Zartosht of the holy spirit, thought. (6) He took hold of Zartosht's hand; He, Ohrmazd, is the bene­ficent spirit, Creator of the material existence, and holy; He laid the wisdom of all knowledge, in the form of water, on the hand of Zartosht; and He said, [He Ohrmazd]: "Drink forth."

7. And forth Zartosht drank it; thereupon, the wisdom of all-knowledge intermingled into Zartosht. (8) For seven days and nights, Zartosht was in the wisdom of Ohrmazd. (9) Thereupon, Zartosht beheld men and animals in the seven regions of the earth, [that is, how many hair each one had on the back, and whither each individual held his head,] (10) He beheld the trees and the shrubs, [what and [104] which they were;] how many fibres of plants there were on Spandarmad earth, [that is, how they had grown or interm­ingled].

11. On the seventh day and night, He took away the wisdom of all-knowledge from Zartosht. (12) Zar­tosht imagined: "I saw this in a merry dream produced by Ohrmazd and I have not restored myself from the dream." (13) He stretched both his hands, rubbed his body over, thinking: "I have slept a long time, and I have not restored mysslf from this merry dream produced by Ohrmazd."

14. He, Ohrmazd, asked Spitaman Zartosht: "What didst thou see in the merry dream produced by Ohrmazd?"

15. He, Zartosht, replied: "O spiritual and benefi­cent Ohrmazd! Creator of the material existence! I saw a prosperous person having immense wealth, who was infamous in the material life, of a foul and feeble soul, and he was in the wicked existence; he did not seem welcome to me. (16) I saw a helpless poor man having no possession, his soul thriving in the Best Existence; he seemed welcome to me. (17) I saw an able person, having no children; he did not seem welcome to me. (18) I saw a person broken down, having many children; he seemed welcome to me. (19) I saw a tree on which there were seven branches: one of gold, one of silver, one of brass, one of copper, one of lead, one of steel, and one of mixed iron."

20. He, Ohrmazd said: "O SpitamAn Zartosht! this is what I foretell. (21) The trunk of a tree, which thou [105] sawest, is the material existence which I, Ohrmazd, created. (22) The seven branches, which thou sawest, are the seven periods which will come.

23. "That of gold is the reign of king Vishtasp, when I and thou will hold a conference of Religion, king Vishtasp shall accept the Religion, the figures of the devs shall totter and the devs will remain from publicity into distant and concealed movements, and Ahriman, the devs and their wicked issue will rush back to the darkness and the gloom of the wicked existence, and the preservation of water, fire, plants and the Spandarmad earth will become manifest.

24. "That of silver is the reign of Ardashir the Kayanid, who is called Vohuman son of Spend-dat, who will separate the devs from men, adorn the whole world and propagate the Religion.

25. "That of brass is the reign of Ardashir the adorner and decorator of the world, and that of king Shahpuhr, who will adorn the world which I, Ohrmazd, created, propagate salvation to the ends of the world, and goodness shall become manifest, and Atarpat of victorious nativity, the true decorator of the Religion, will, by means of the prepared brass, controvert this Religion with those of the alien path, and will bring it back to truthfulness.

26. "That of copper is the reign of the Ashkanian (Arsacid) king Valkhas, who will remove from the world the schisms1 which exist; and the wicked Akvan son of Gar, of the Karesyak clan, will perish owing to the alien religion, and will go away unseen and unnoticed from the world.

1. Cereti: the heresy of the Buddha and [by whom] the evil Alexander....

27. "That of lead is the reign of king Vaharam-i Gur, who will make the spirit of delight visible, and [106] Ahriman will rush back with the sorcerers to the darkness and the gloom of the wicked existence.

28. "That of steel is the reign of king Khosraw son of Kobad, who will keep back from this Religion the accursed Mazdak son of Bamdat, the adversary of Religion, who will rise with those of the alien path.

29. "That of mixed iron is the evil sovereignty of the devs having dishevelled hair of the seed of Eshm, O Spitaman Zartosht! the end of thy millenium, when thy tenth century will be at an end, O Spitaman Zartosht!"

CHAPTER IV.

1. He, Zartosht, asked: "O spiritual and beneficent Creator of the material existence! What will be the tokens f the tenth century?"

2. He, Ohrmazd, replied: "O Spitaman Zartosht! I will explain the tokens that will be at the end of thy millenium.

3. "During that basest of periods, a hundred kinds, a thousand kinds and ten thousand kinds of devs having dishe­velled hair, of the seed of Eshm, will arrive. (4) Those men of the basest origin will rush from the direction of Khvarasan to Airan-sahr; they will have up-lifted banners, bear black weapons, keep the hair dishevelled on the back and will be mostly low-born basest slaves, reapers, 'zavishes', and labourers.

5. "O Spitaman Zartosht! the offspring of Eshm will be ill-born, their lineage will not be manifest. (6) They [107] will rush, with sorcery, on to these Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created. (7) Since they will burn and damage many things, the houses of the house-owners and the villages of the village-chiefs: prosperity, nobility, husbandry, fidelity to Religion, faith, security, joy and all the productions which I, Ohrmazd, created, this holy Religion of Mazda-wor­ship and the Varahram fire, which is established worthily, will all come to nought; and the 'zangs' and vagrants will come into prominence. (8) The great country will become a town, the great town a village, the great village a family and the great family a skeleton.

9. "O Spitaman Zartosht! they will raze these Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created, with harmful desires and despotism" [misgovernment]. (10) "These devs having dishevelled hair are deceivers," [that is, they will not do what they say,] "and are of a vile religion," [that is, they will do what they do not say.] (11) "They have no contract, faith, truth, and ordinance; they preserve no security and do not remain firm on the contract they make. (12) They will raze these Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created, with deceit, avarice and misgovernment.

13. "During that period, O Spitaman Zartosht! all men will become deceivers," [that is, they will wish ill to one another;] "and great friendship will be of a different hue. (14) And reverence, love and regard for the soul will depart from the world. (15) The affection of the father will depart from the son, and that of the brother from his brother; the son-in-law will be severed (?) from the father-in-law; and the mother will be separated from the daughter and of a different will. [108]

16. "When thy tenth century will be at an end, O Spitaman Zartosht! the Sun's rays will be very level and much concealed; and the year, month and day will be shorter. (17) And the Spendarmat earth will be very narrow, and the roads will be very intricate. (18) And the crops will not yield the seed; out of ten crops of corn eight will fail and two will thrive, and that which thrives will not become ripe. (19) And the plants, trees, and shrubs will diminish; if one shall hold a hundred, ninety will diminish and ten will thrive; those which thrive will not be wholeso­me and tasteful. (20) And men will be born much stunted; they will have little skill and energy, and they will be very deceitful and very immoral; they will have no gratitude and reverence for bread and salt, and they will not inquire after the welfare of one another.

21. "During that most evil period, a bird will have more reverence than the Iranian religious man. (22) They will receive little wages for work; works and duties will proceed but little from their hands, and all kinds of men alien creed will be desirous of injury unto them.

23. "And all over the world, there will be burial of the dead and clothing of the dead. (24) And they will hold it lawful to bury the dead, to wash the dead, to burn the dead, to carry the dead to water and fire, and to eat the dead matter, and will not abstain from it.

25. "They will think of great works and duties and prepare wickedness and the way to the wicked existence; and they will hie towards the wicked existence on account of impiety, parsimony, and the distractions of anger and avarice.

[109] 26. "During that perverse period, O Spitaman Zartosht!" [during the preponderance of Eshm having the infuriate spear and the devs having dishevelled hair of the seed of Eshm,] "the basest slaves will advance forward to the mastery of the Iranian villages.

27. "And the religious who shall wear the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, will not then be able to preserve their ablutions. (28) For, at that basest period, dead matter and dry impure matter will be so abundant that when a man shall lay step after step, he will be walking on dead matter. (29) Or, when he shall wash himself with the 'barashnom' ablution, as soon as he shall lay the foot out of the holes which are for purification, he will be walking on dead matter. (30) Or, when he shall consecrate the 'darun' in their dead-house, without spreading forth the sacred 'barsom' twigs, it will be proper. (31) Or, when, at that basest of periods, it will be proper to perform the 'Yazishn' ritual by means of two men, so that this religion may not attain to nothingness and weakness, when there will be only one out of a hundred, out of a thousand, out of ten thousand, who will believe this religion, and even he who believes will not act according to it, when the fire Warharan will attain to no­thingness and weakness, they will preserve that one fire out of a thousand and they will not supply that, too, properly with fuel and fragrance. (32) Or, when a man, who has taken the holy orders and does not understand the 'Nirangistan' code of rituals, will kindle the fire with good meditativeness, it will be proper.

kusti

Atash Behram fire.

33. "Wealth and respectability will all come to those of alien creed and of alien path. (34) And virtuous doers [110] meritorious deeds, of the families of patricians and sages, will be addicted to the sin of running about uncovered. (35) The inferiors shall take the daughters of patricians, nobles, and sages to wife. (36) The patricians, nobles and sages will come to destitution and servitude; the 'zoishes' and the inferiors will attain to greatness and power, and the vagrants and inferiors will come to the lead and management of affairs. (37) The utterance of the religious, the seal and the judicature ­of the upright judge, the utterance of the truthful, and even that of the righteous will be considered to be instigation; they will consider, as true and credible, the utterances of the inferiors and slanderers, of the impious and mockers and of those of false judgments. (38) And they will take oaths with falsehood, and give false evidence thereby, and will speak falsehood and untruth about me Ohrmazd.

39. "Those who will be famed for preceptorship and pupilage will wish evil unto one another and mention the faults of and find faults with one another; Ahriman and the devs shall have carried much affliction unto them. (40) And of the sins which men shall commit, out of five sins the preceptors and pupils will commit three sins, they will be the enemies of the good," [that is, they will thereby speak evil and mention the faults of one another;] "and they will not perform the 'yazishn' ceremonies they undertake, and have no fear of the wicked existence.

41. " And in that tenth century, which will be at the end of thy millenium, O Spitaman Zartosht! all men will be worshipping avarice and of the false religion. (42) And it will not be possible for a fortunate cloud and the holy wind to produce rain at the proper time and season. (43) A gloomy [111] cloud shall benight the whole sky. (44) The hot wind and the cold wind will arrive and carry away the crops and the seeds of corn. (45) The rain, too, will not rain at the proper season; it will rain the noxious creatures more than water. (46) And the water of rivers and springs will diminish and it will have no inerease. (47) And quadrupeds, bullocks, and sheep will be born very stunted and less skilful, they will lift up less load, they will have very little hair and very slender skin, their milk will not increase and they will have little fat. (48) And the ploughing ox wilt have little strength; the swift horse will have little skil, and it will bear but little of splendour.

49. "And, in that perverse period, O Spitaman Zaratuhsy! men, who will have the sacred thread-girdle on their waist, will desire death as a boon, on account of the hurtful demands of the evil rule and many a false regulation which they have come up to, whereby their life will not be worth living. (50) And young men and children will have a fearful (?) mood; adherent sport and mirth will not proceed from their hearts.

51. "And they will perform the feasts and the institutes oE the ancients, the votive offerings to God, the worship, the ritual, the season festivals [gahambars] and the ceremonies of remembering the Fravasis, in various places, and they will not believe, without dOllbt, in that which they do perform. (52) And they will not lawfully give the recompense; they will bestow no gifts and alms, and will bestow again even that which they once give.

53. "And even those men of the good faith, who will have professed this good Religion of Mazda-worship, will proceed [112] to their ways and customs in disguised movements; they will not believe in their own Religion. (54) And the patrician, the noble, and the good village chief will go, in banishment, from their village and locality, from their original abode and family, and they will beg something from the inferiors and the wicked owing to want, and come to poverty and banish­ment. (55) Nine out of ten of these men will perish, in the direction of the North.

56. "Owing to their evil rule, everything will come to nothingness, banishment, levity, and defilement. (57) The Spandarmad earth will gape her mouth; all jewels and metals, such as gold, silver, brass, copper, and lead will come into view. (58) And dominion and sovereignty will come to the non-Iranian slaves, such as the army of the Turk, the A-tur and the Topit, such as the Audrak, the Mountaineer, the Chinese, the Kawulik, the Sughdian and the Aruman; and the white army apparelled in red (?) will have sovereignty over my Iranian villages; their mandate and will will spread over the world.

59. "The sovereignty will come unto them from those leathern-belted ones, Arabs and Arumans. (60) They will be so misgoverning that when they will kill a righteous good man or a fly, both the actions will be the same in their eyes. (61) And preservation, freshness, prosperity, territory, family, wealth and handiwork, the streams, rivers and springs of the Iranian faithful will come to those non-Ira­nians; the army, the land, and the standard will come to them; and they will walk over the world with the dominion of wrathful desires. (62) And their greedy eyes will not be sated with wealth; and they will accumulate the wealth of the [113] world, and conceal it underneath the earth. (63) And through wickedness they will commit many unnatural practices and much intercourse with menstruous women, and practise many impious vices.

64. "And in that perverse period, the night will be brighter, and the year, month and day will diminish one-third; the Spandarmad earth will swell up, and suffering, death, and indigence will be very severe in the world."

65. He, Ohrmazd, spoke to Spitaman Zartosht: "This is what I foretell. (66) That wicked ganak-minoe will be very oppressive and tyrannical, when it shall be necessary to destroy him."

67. Thus, He, Ohrmazd spoke to Spitaman Zartosht: "Recite and learn by heart, teach by means of the commen­tary, the commentary-on-the-commentary and the interpre­tation, speak to the preceptors and the pupils and they will proclaim to the world:" [they will speak to those that will not be aware of the century] "that for the hope of the final-most material existence and for the sake of the salvation of their souls, they must bear and suffer the trouble, evil, and oppression of those alien div-worshippers.

68. "This, too, I tell thee, O Spitaman Zartosht! thatt he who, at that period, will desire the body, cannot save the soul; for, his body will be fat and the soul foul and feeble in the wicked existence; he who will desire the soul, his body will be foul and feeble, he will be destitute and poor on earth, and his soul will be fat in the Best Existence."
[114]

CHAPTER V.

1. Zartosht asked Ohrmazd: "O spiritual and beneficent Ohrmazd! holy Creator of the material existence!" [know that the attributes 'Ohrmazd' and 'holy' are for invocation, and the other attributes are for praise; there is some one who says 'holy' and 'Creator' are the attributes.] "O Creator! in that perverse period, will there be holy persons and will there be religious persons who will wear the sacred thread-girdle on their waist, and celebrate the religious rites with the sacred 'barsom' twigs? will the Religion of self-sacrifice continue in their families?"

2. He, Ohrmazd, replied to Spitaman Zartosht: "The best of men will be that one, who, in that perverse period, will wear the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, and celebrate the religious rites with the sacred 'barsom' twigs, though not just as in the reign of king Vishtasp. (3) He who will recite and will have learnt by heart the 'Itha-at-yazamaide' and the 'Ashem vohu,' in that perverse period, will be such as though he had celebrated a 'duwazdah homast' with the votive offering, in the reign of king Vishtasp. (4) And whoever shall have performed the worship at the initiation and chanted the holy 'Gasan' hymns, will be such as though he had been one who had celebrated the 'vaj' ritual and chanted the holy 'Gasan' hymns, in the reign of king Vishtasp.

Itha-at-yazamaide: The first verse of Yasna 37, which is used as a "baj" before meals. -JHP

duwazdah homast: A very elaborate ceremony, a high liturgy consisting of 12 sections, where Vendidad and Yasna is recited. see Modi, RCC, p. 174. -JHP

5. "The best of holy men will be that one, who will remain in the good Religion of Mazda-worship; the Reli­gion of self-sacrifice will continue in his family." [115] (6) He Ohrmazd said: "O Spitaman Zartosht! in these nine thousand years which I, Ohrmazd, created, men, in that perverse period, will become the more perverse. (7) For, in the evil reigns of Az-i dahak and the Turanian Frasyaw, men, who were in that perverse period, had better life and longer life, they had less affliction from Ahriman and the devs. (8) For, in their evil reigns, there were not five desolate districts in Airan-sahr such as those which will be, when thy millenium will end, O Spitaman Zartosht! (9) For, all the Iranian villages will be razed with their horses' hoofs; their banner will reach into Patash­khvar-gar; the tyrannical rule will remove the seat of Reli­gion from thence; their attack will come from that place.

10. "O Spitaman Zartosht! this is what I foretell."

11. Be who, of existing beings, is thus in the worship, is supremely good; [that is, the worship of him is good who performs much worship for Ohrmazd;] Ohrmazd is cognisant, through the help of holiness, of any­thing whatsoever; [that is, Ohrmazd, cognisant through holiness, gives the wages and recompense of any duty and good deed whatsoever;] and I worship [those of the con­gregation] males and females, [the Beneficent Immortals, who are even males and females too; they are good.]

CHAPTER VI.

1. Zartosht asked Ohrmazd: "O spiritual and bene­ficent Ohrmazd! holy Creator of the material existence! from whence will they restore this good Religion of Mazda-worship? [116] and by what means will they smite tbese devs having dishevelled hair of the seed of 'Eshm'? (2) O Creator I give me death, and give my grandsons death," [that is, let them not live in that preverse period;] "give them holy life," [that is, they may not prepare wickedness and the way to the wicked existence.]

3. He Ohrmazd replied; "O Spitaman Zartosht! After the black token, the rule will come, from those of the seed of 'Eshm,' to the Shitaspan Karasyakian 'drujs' of the Salman districts;" [know that Mahvindat said that they would be the Arumans; and Roshan said that they would have red helmets, red weapons, and red banner; know that these will be their signs.]

4. "O Spltaman Zartosht! when they will come, the Sun will show a melancholy sign, the Moon will change her colour, and there will be melancholy, darkness, and gloom on earth; various signs will become manifest in the sky: there will be many earthquakes; the wind will blow very furiously; much indigence, want, and unhappiness will appear on earth; and Mercury and Jupiter will determine the sovereignty to the wicked.

5. "The Shitaspan Karasyakian 'drujs' will be in hundreds and thousands and myriads; they will have the red banner; their progress will be immense; they will pour into these Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created, upto the bank of the Arvand," [know that there was some one who said that it was the Frat river,] "upto Duvan the capital of Assyria," [know that it is Duvan of strict justice; its being the Assyrian capital means this that the Assyrian people [117] reside therein and it is their native country; know that there was some one who called it the burrow of the devs.]

6. "In this way they will slay those of the seed of Eshm in hundreds and the mands and myriads; and the banner, the ensign, and the innumerable soldiers of these devs having dishevelled hair will retire; the army having the wide front of the Turk and the Kalmir enemy will come to these Iranian villages which I Ohrmazd created;" [know that they will have a high banner, for they will hold the banner aloft; know that they will remain in immense number like the hair in the horse's mane in the Iranian villages which I Ohrmazd created;] "the leathern-­belted Turk and the Shitaspan Karasyakian Aruman will arrive together.

7. "And great battles shall have happened three times, in three places, in internecine dispute, O Spitaman Zartosht!

8. "One was in the reign of Kae-us, when it was with the Beneficent Immortals with the help of the devs.

9. "And the second will be when thou, O Spitaman Zartosht, wilt have accepted the Religion and wilt have thy conference, when king Vishtasp and Arjasp ill-born-of-Eshm will be engaged in the war of Religion, in internecine dispute, on the Sapit-razur;" [know that there was some one who said that it was in Pars.]

10. "And the third will take place when thy millenium will end, O Spitaman Zartosht! when all the three, the Turk, the Tazik, and the Aruman will arrive at one place;" [know that there was some one who said that it was the field [118] of Nihavandak;] "all men of the Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created, will come to Patash-khvar-gar, from their own place"; [know that there was some one who said that it was Atar-gushnasp on the deep lake Chechast of warm water which is opposed to the devs; know that even thither Religion became manifest; know that there was some one who said that it was in the month of Pisces; Atrok said that it was in the month of Cancer;] "they will be so assailing those from amongst those of the seed of Eshm, over these Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created, O Spitaman Zartosht! that out of these men towards Patash-Khvar-gar and Pars, and those animals residing in burrows, residing on the mountain and residing in the sea, only the whale will then remain.

11. "For, when the husband will be able to save himself, he will not remember his wife, children, and wealth."

12. Thereupon Zartosht said: "O Creator! give me and give my grandsons death," [that is, let them not live in that perverse period.]

13. He, Ohrmazd, replied: "Do not be afraid, O Spitaman Zartosht! for the day when the tenth century of thy millenium, the Zartoshtian, will end, no wicked person will pass from this millenium into that millenium."

CHAPTER VII.

1. Zartosht asked Ohrmazd: "O spiritual and beneficent Ohrmazd! holy Creator of the material existence! [119] O Creator! as they will be so immense in number, by what means ought they to be destroyed?"

2. He, Ohrmazd, replied: "O Spitaman Zartosht! when the devs having dishevelled hair of the seed of Eshm will appear, first a black token will become manifest in the direction of the East, Ushedar the Zartoshtian will be born on the Lake Frazdan;" [know that there was some one who said that it was on the Sea Kyansih; know ,that there was some one who said that it was in Kawulistan.]

3. "At thirty years of age, he will come to a conference with me Ohrmazd, O Spitaman Zartosht!" [know that there was some one who said that it was in the direction of Chinistan; know that there was some one who said that it was in India.]

4. "Kaye will be born;" [Know that the father of the Kaye will be of the Kayan race, he will go to Ushedar to India for help. (5) At the hundredth year of age, he will have a desire for women; he will, thereupon, beget the Kaye, whom they call Vaharam-i Varzavand by name in the religious texts; know that there was some one who called him Shapur.]

6. "On the night when the Kaye will be born, a token will come to the earth, a shower of stars will rain from the sky;" [when that Kaye will be born, the stars will denote the token; know that Dat-Ohrmazd said that it was in the month Awan and on the day Vat;] "the life of the father of that Kaye will come to an end; they will bring him up with the damsels of the king, and a woman will be the ruler. [120] 7. " When that Kaye will be thirty years of age," [know that there was some one who mentioned the time,] "the armies with innumerable banners, the Indian and Chinese armies having up-raised banners" [for they will raise the banners aloft,] "having erect banners, having erect weapons, will assail onw­ard with onset upto the Veh-rut," [there was some one who said that it was the Bume village,] "upto the interior of the shere 'Of the sea of Baharan, O Spitaman Zartosht!

8. "When the planet Jupiter will came up to its exaltation and cast Venus down, there will come quite innumerable armed heroes having erect banners to the Kaye for sovereignty."

[9. Know that there was some one who said that it was from Sigistan, Pars, and Khvarasan; know that there was some one wha said that it was from the circuit of Patash-­khvar-gar; know that there was some one who said that it was from Herat and Kohistan; know that there was some one who said that it was from Tawristan.]

10. "And from that direction, there will appear those in search of a babe," [Know that it will be the erect banner and the innumerable soldiers of Patash-khvar-gar, the armed men, heroes and soldiers from Airan-shahr; there was some one who said that it is manifestly as regards those whom they call the Kurts and the Kermaniks.]

11. "So that with mutual help and under the same banner they will come to these Iranian villages and will slay an immense number of thase Shetaspans of the seed of Eshm, the terrible army with the wide front 'Of the two-leg­ged wolves and the leathern-belted devs. [121]

12. "They will wage three battles on the bank of the Arvand, one on ........., one on the Sapit-Razur, and one on the field, of Nihavandak."

[13. Know that there was some one who said that it was on the Lake Se-tokhmak; there was some one who said that it was in the resplendent Marv; know that there was some one who said that it was in Pars.]

14. "For the support of the Iranian districts, there will be the innumerable soldiers of Khvarasan having erect banners;" [that is, they will have the banner of leopard's skin; their wind banner and muskets will be white.] (15) "And on will the innumerable soldiers advance upto the burrows of the devs; they will so slay that they will see a thousand women after one man and will weep.

16. "When the cycle will end, O SpitAmAn Zartosht! these enemies will perish just like the trunk of a tree, which, on a night when the cold winter arrives, sheds its leaves within one night.

17. "They will restore these Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created. (18) With an on-rush Ganak-minoe will rush with the devs, thase of the wicked seed and Eshm having the infuriate spear, and he will come to the support and help of those div-worshippers of the seed of Eshm, O Spitaman Zartosht!

19. "And I, the Creator Ohrmazd, will send Neriyosang Yazad and the holy Srosh to Kang-diz which the illustrious Siyavakhsh prepared, to Chitro-miyan son of Vishtasp, the true restorer of the Kayan Light of Religian, to say: 'O illustrious [122] Peshyotan! walk forth to these Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created, and consecrate the Hadokht and the Duwazdah-Homast by means of the fire and the waters,'" [that is, consecrate with the fire and the waters that which is manifest by means of the fire and the waters.]

20. "And Neriyosang Yazad and the holy Srosh will advance from the good Summit of the Daitik to Kang-diz which the illustrious Siyavakhs prepared; they vociferate to him: 'walk forth, O illustrious Peshyotan Chitro-miyan son of Vishtasp, true restorer of the Kayan Light of Religion! walk forth to these Iranian villages which I, Auhr­mazd, created, restore the throne of Religion and the State.'

21. "They will walk up invisibly; they will consecrate the Duwazdah-Homast with the votive offering. (22) And forth will the illustrious Peshyotan advance, with a hundred and fifty holy men, who are disciples of Peshyotan, who will be well-clad in spiritual sable robes; on will they advance with good thoughts, gond words, and good deeds; they will consecrate the Hadokht and the Bagan-Yasn with the fire and the waters; and they will praise me, Ohrmazd, with the Beneficent Immortals. 23 After that one-third of the opposition will break.

24. "Forth will the illustrious Pesyotan advance, with a hundred and fifty men who will be clad in sables, to the Fire Khvareh-aumand which they call Roshan-karp, establish­ed on its throne, which is the life of the victorious Fire Frena-bag; with his joint invocation they will prepare for the Yazishn ceremony, spread forth the sacred barsom twigs, [123] and celebrate the Khordad and Amurdad Yasns with religious incantations and the Nirangistan code of rituals. (25) And one-third of the opposition will break.

26. "Forth will the illustrious Peshyotan son of Vishtasp advance; with the joint help of the Fire Frena-bag, the Fire Goshosp, and the Fire Burzin-Mihr, to the site of the idol ­temples, which is the great seat of the wicked Ganak-minoe, of Eshm having the infuriate spear, of all the devs and 'drujs' of evil seed and of the sorcerers; they will come to the deepest of the wicked existence; they will raze the site of the idol-temples with the joint endeavours of the illustrious Peshyotan.

27. "And I, the Creator Ohrmazd, will come to the Mount Hu-kiryat with the Beneficent Immortals, and I will address the Beneficent Immortals that they may speak to all the invisible Worshipful Ones: 'Advance and come to the help of the illustrious Pesyotan.'

28. "Mihr having a wide domain, the valiant Srosh, the true Rashn, the powerful Warharan, the victorions Ashtad, the Light (khwarrah) of the Religion of Mazda-worship, that is, the arranger of the ritual of the government of the world, will come at the command of me, who am the Creator.

29. "I, the Creator, will come for support, to the help of the illustrious Peshyotan.

30. "They will smite the devs having the seed of darkness.

31. "The wicked Ganak-minoe will exclaim to Mihr having a wide domain: 'Rise up for truth, thou Mihr having a wide domain'!

[124] 32. "Then Mihr having a wide domain will exclaim: 'According to this nine thousand years' compact which was made, till now Dahak of evil religion, the Turanian Frasyaw, the Aruman Alexander, and those leathern-belted devs having dishevelled hair, ruled for a period of one thousand years more than the compact.'

33. "The wicked Ganak-minoe will be confounded when he has heard this.

34. "Mihr having a wide domain will smite Eshm having the infuriate spear, who will flee with stupefaction. (35) The wicked Ganak-minoe will rush back, with his ill-born evil progeny, to the gloom and the darkness of the wicked existence.

36. "And Mihr having a wide domain will exclaim to the illustrious Peshyotan: 'Extirpate and destroy the site of the idol temples, the seat of the devs; proceed to these Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created, restore the throne of Religion and the State; for the wicked will totter when they see thee.'

37. "And the illustrious Peshyotan, the Fire Frena-bag, ­the Fire Goshosp, and the triumphant Fire Burzin-Mihr will arrive, they will smite that deceiver of immense strength, extirpate the site of the idol-temples, that is, the seat of the devs, and they will forthwith prepare for the yazishn ceremony­, spread forth the sacred barsom twigs, celebrate the Duwazah-Homast, and praise me, Ohrmazd, with the Beneficent Immortals. (38) This is what I foretell.

39. "Forth will the illustrious Peshyotan arrive to Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created, to the [125] Arvand and the Veh rivers; when the wicked, those of the seed of darkness, the unworthy ones, see him, they will totter."

CHAPTER VIII.

1. As regards the Vaharam-i Varzavand it is manifest that he will come forth with full radiance (khwarrah), appoint Vandit-him (Wistaxm) to the rank of primacy (mobedan mobed), and having settled the adjudged and true position of Religion, he will restore these Iranian villages which I, Ohrmazd, created. (2) Avarice, indigence, revenge, anger, lust, envy, and wickedness will wane from the world (3) The wolf age will pass away and the lamb age will enter.' (4) And they will re-establish the Fire Frena-bag, the Fire Goshosp and the Fire Burzin-Mihr on their thrones, and will justly give them firewood and incense. (5) And the wicked Ganak-minoe will be confounded and unconscious with the devs and those of the seed of darkness.

6. The illustrious Peshyotan will speak thus: "May the dev be smitten and the 'parik' be smitten! May the deceitfulness and vileness of the devs be smitten! May the devs who are of the seed of darkness be smitten! May Ohrmazd the Lord, the greatest in knowledge prosper with the Beneficent Immortals who are the good lords and of good wisdom, and with the Light of the Religion of Mazda-­worship! And may the family of the liberal and truthful doers of good deeds prosper! May it be the good restorer of the throne of Religion and the State!"

7. Forth will the illustrious Peshyotan arrive, forth will he arrive with a hundred and fifty male disciples who will be [126] clad in sables, and will assume the throne of their Religion and State.

8. He, Ohrmazd, spoke to Spitaman Zartosht: "This is what I predict, when the Zartoshtian millenium will end and Ushedar's will begin.

CHAPTER IX.

1. As regards Ausedar it is manifest that he will be born in the year one thousand and eight hundred; at thirty years of age he will come to a conference with me, Ohrmazd, and accept the Religion. (2) When he will come out of the conference, he will exclaim to the swift-horsed Sun: "Stand thou still!"

3. The swift-horsed Sun will stand still for ten days­ and nights. (4) When this will happen, all the people of the world will remain in the good Religion of Mazda-worship.

5. Mihr having a wide domain will exclaim to Ushedar the Zartoshtian: "O Ushedar, true restorer of Religion! claim to the swift-horsed Sun: 'go down'! for it is dark in the regions Arzah, Voru-barishn, Voru-jarishn, and a half of shining Khwanias."

6. And Ushedar the Zartoshtian exclaims to the swift-horsed Sun: 'Go down!'

7. The swift-horsed glorious Sun will go down, and all mankind will believe in the good Religion of Mazda-worship.

[124] 8. He, Ohrmazd, said: "O Spitaman Zartosht! this is what I foretell that this event will bring the creatures back to their life. (9) And when it will be near the milleni­um's end, Peshyotan son of Vishtasp will appear; the victorious Kayanian Light will approach him. (10) Those enemies who will be set upon deceitfulness, such as the Turk, the Arab, the Aruman, and the vile ones of the Iranian sovereign will advance with preponderance, oppression, and enmity to the State, will extinguish the fire and weaken the Religion, and carry strength and victory away from it; and all those who will willingly accept or unwillingly accept the Code and Religion, will be smiting the Code and Reli­gion, till when it is the millenium's end.

11. And then, when the millenium of Ushedarmah will come, the creatures will be more progressive and more power­ful on account of Ushedarmah, and he will smite the deceiver of the Az origin, and Peshyotan son of Vishtasp will, in the same manner be the arch-priest and primate of the world.

12. And in that millenium of Ushedarmah's, mankind will be so versed in medicine, will so utilize medicine and cures that they will not die, even when there is decisiveness towards death, nor too when they will smite and slay with the sword and the knife.

13. Then an apostate will ask for a kind of share and reward, they will not give it on account of his wickedness and apostacy. (14) And the apostate, owing to that spite, will have access to that mountain Demavand, that is in the direction of Bivarasp and exclaim: "It is now nine thousand years that Faridoon is not living; for what reason is it that thou dost not break these fetters and rise up, when this [128] world is full of people, who are brought over from the enclosure which Jam (i.e. Jamshed or Yima) prepared?"

15. After the apostate will exclaim thus in this wise, since Azi Dahak will not first break those fetters, owing to the fear of that Faridoon of the clan, who will stand up before him in the 'karp'-body of Faridoon, until the apo­state will break those fetters and stake from their root; (16) then Dahak's vigour will increase, he will break the fetters from their root, will be in the act of rushing and will devour the apostate on the spot; he will be rushing in the world in order to perpetrate sin, and he will commit innumerable heinous sins; he will devour one-third of men, oxen, sheep, and other creatures of Ohrmazd; and he will smite the Water, the Fire, and the Vegetation and commit heinous sins.

17. Then, the Water, the Fire, and the Vegetation will be complaining before Ohrmazd the Lord. (18) They will make this lament: "Make Faridoon alive again so that he may slay Azi Dahak, for if Thou, O Ohrmazd I wilt not do this, we cannot remain on earth." (19) The Fire says: "I will not spread", and the Water says: "I will not flow."

20. And then I, Ohrmazd the Creator, will speak to Srosh and Neryosang Yazad: 'Shake the body of Kersasp the son of Sam, that he may rise up." [129] 23. Then deceit and adversity will depart from this world, till I complete the millenium. (24) And then Soshyos will make the creatures pure again, and resurrection and the final-most material existence will occur.

POSTSCRIPT.

Completed with rejoinings, pleasure and joy. May it be according to the will of God! So may it be! Even the more so may it be!









Translation by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, volume 5, Oxford University Press, 1897.

The manuscripts mentioned in the notes are:-

CONTENTS

1.Introduction
2.Revelation of the religion's near extinction
3.How the religion is to be restored, and the renovation of the universe





CHAPTER 1.

NOTES:

0. May the gratification of the creator Ohrmazd, the beneficent, the developer, the splendid, and glorious, and the benediction of the archangels, which constitute the pure, good religion of the Mazdayasnians, be vigor of body, long life, and prosperous wealth for him whose writing I am.1

1. Or, possibly, 'for whom I am written,' the meaning of mûn yektîbûnîhêm being not quite clear. In fact, the construction of the whole of this initial benediction is rather obscure.

1. As2 it is declared by the Sudgar Nask3 that Zartosht asked for immortality from Ohrmazd, then Ohrmazd displayed the omniscient wisdom to Zartosht, and through it he beheld the root of a tree, on which were four branches, one golden, one of silver, one of steel, and one was mixed up with iron. (2) Thereupon he reflected in this way, that this was seen in a dream, and when he arose from sleep Zartosht spoke thus: 'Lord of the spirits and earthly existences! it appears that I saw the root of a tree, on which were four branches.'



2. It is possible that this is to be read in connection with Chap. 2.1, with the meaning that 'as it is declared by the Sudgar Nask that Zartosht asked for immortality from Ohrmazd, so in the Vohuman Yasht commentary it is declared that he asked for it a second time.' This introductory chapter is altogether omitted in both the Paz. MSS. which have been examined, but it is given in thy Pers. version. It is also omitted in the epitome of the Bahman Yasht contained in the Dabistan {see Shea's translation, vol. i. pp. 264-271).

3. This was the first nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Denkard (Dk9), which calls it Sudkar; but according to the Dini-vajarkard and the Rivayats it was the second nask, called Studgar or Istudgar. For its contents, as given by the Dini-vajarkard (which agrees with the account in the Rivayats), see Haug's Essays, p. 126. In the Denkard, besides a short description of this Nask, given in the eighth book, there is also a detailed account of the contents, of each of its fargards, or chapters, occupying twenty-five quarto pages of twenty-two lines each, in the ninth book. From this detailed statement it appears that the passage mentioned here, in the text, constituted the seventh fargard of the Nask, the contents of which are detailed as follows:-

"The seventh fargard, Tâ-ve-rato (Av. tâ ve urvata, Y31.1), is about the exhibition to Zartosht of the nature of the four periods in the Zoroastrian millennium (hazangrok zim, "thousand winters"). First, the golden, that in which Ohrmazd displayed the religion to Zartosht. Second, the silver, that in which Vishtasp received the religion from Zartosht. Third, the steel, the period within which the organizer of righteousness, Adurbad Mahraspandan, was born. Fourth, the period mingled with iron is this, in which is much propagation of the authority of the apostate and other villains {sarîtarâno), along with destruction of the reign of religion, the weakening of every kind of goodness and virtue, and the departure of honour and wisdom from the countries of Iran. In the same period is a recital of the many perplexities and torments of the period for that desire (girâyîh) of the life of the good which consists in seemliness. Perfect is the excellence of Righteousness (Av. ashem vohu vahistem asti, Y27.14)."

If this be a correct account of the contents or this fargard, the writer was evidently consulting a Pahlavi version of the Nask, composed during the later Sasanian times.

3. Ohrmazd spoke to Zartosht the Spitaman4 thus: 'That root of a tree which thou sawest, and those four branches, are the four periods which will come. (4) That of gold is when I and thou converse, and King Vishtasp shall accept the religion, and shall demolish the figures of the demons, but they themselves remain for5 . . . concealed proceedings. (5) And that of silver is the reign of Ardashir6 the Kayanian king (Kai shah), and that of steel is the reign of the glorified (anoshak-ruban) Khosraw son of Kobad7, and that which was mixed with iron is the evil sovereignty of the demons with disheveled hair8 of the race of Wrath9, and when it is the end of the tenth hundredth winter (sato zim) of thy millennium, O Zartosht the Spitaman!'

4. Generally understood to mean "descendant of Spitama," who was his ancestor in the ninth generation {see Bd32.1).

5. A word is lost here in K20 and does not occur in the other copies and versions, nor can it be supplied from the similar phrase in Chap. 2.16. The meaning of the sentence appears to be that Vishtasp destroyed the idols, but the demons they represented still remained, in a spiritual state, to produce evil.

6. See Chap. 2.17.

7. Khosraw Noshirvan son of Qubad, in modern Persian, who reigned in A.D. 531-579. Kovad is usually written Kavad.

8. The epithet vijard-vars may also mean 'dressed-hair,' but the term in the text is the more probable, as the Persian version, translates it by kushâdah muî, 'uncovered hair.' That it is not a name, as assumed by Spiegel, appears clearly from the further details given in Chap. 2.25.

9. Or, "the progeny of Aeshma [Eshm]," the demon. Wrath [or rage] is not to be understood here in its abstract sense, but is personified as a demon. If is uncertain whether the remainder of this sentence belongs to this paragraph or the next.

6. It is declared in the commentary (zand)10 of the Vohuman Yasht, Hordad Yasht, and Ashtad Yasht that, during this time, the accursed Mazdak son of Bamdad, who is opposed to the religion, comes into notice, and is to cause disturbance among those in the religion of God (yazdan). (7) And he, the glorified one11, summoned Khosraw son of Mah-dad and Dad-Ohrmazd of Nishapur, who were high-priests of Ataro-patakan, and Ataro-frobag the undeceitful (akadba), Ataro-pad, Ataro-Mitra, and Bakht-afrid to his presence, and he demanded of them a promise12, thus: 'Do not keep these Yashts in concealment, and do not teach the commentary except among your relations13.' (8) And they made the promise unto Khosraw.

10. If there were any doubt about zand meaning the Pahlavi translation, this passage would be important, as the Avesta of the Hordad (Haurvatat) and Ashtad Yashts is still extant, but contains nothing about the heretic Mazdik or Mazdak (see Chap. 2.21). No Avesta of the Vohuman Yashts now known.

11. That is, Khusro Noshirvan. As the names of his priests and councillors stand in K20 they can hardly be otherwise distributed than they are in the text, but the correctness of the MS. is open to suspicion. Dat-Ohrmazd was a commentator who is quoted in Chap. 3.16, and in the Pahl. Yas. XI, 22; Ataro-frobag was another commentator mentioned in Sls. 1.3; and Ataro-pad and Bakht-afrit are names well known in Pahlavi literature, the former having been borne by more than one individual (see Sls. 1.3, 4).

12. The Pers. version says nothing about this promise, but states that Khosraw sent a message to the accursed Mazdak, requiring him to reply to the questions of this priestly assembly on pain of death, to which he assented, and he was asked ten religious questions, but was unable to answer one; so the king put him to death immediately.

13. A similar prohibition, addressed to Zartosht, as regards the Avesta text, is actually found in the Hordad Yt, 10.

CHAPTER 2

1. In the Vohuman Yasht commentary (zand) it is declared14 that Zartosht asked for immortality from Ohrmazd a second time, and spoke thus: 'I am Zartosht, more righteous and more efficient among these thy creatures, O creator! when thou shalt make me15 immortal, as the tree opposed to harm16, and Gopatshah, Yavisht-i Friyan, and Chitrok-miyan son of Vishtasp, who is Peshotan, were made17. (2) When thou shalt make me immortal they in thy good religion will believe that the upholder of religion, who receives from Ohrmazd his pure and good religion of the Mazdayasnians, will become immortal; then those men will believe in thy good religion.'

14. This seems to imply that this text is not the commentary itself, but merely an epitome of it. The Paz. MSS. which have been examined, begin with this chapter.

15. Or, "when I shall become," the verb is omitted by mistake in K20.

16. Three of these immortals are mentioned in Bund. 29.5, and Yavisht-i Friyan is included in a similar enumeration in Dad. (Reply 89). The tale of Yavisht i Friyan (Av. Yoisht yo Fryananam, of Aban Yt. 81 and Fravardin Yt. 120) has been published with The Book of Arda Viraf, ed. Hoshangji and Haug.

17. Or "became;" most of this verb is torn off in K20.

3. Ohrmazd spoke18 thus: 'When I shall make thee immortal, O Zartosht the Spitaman! then Tur-i Bradrok-resh the Karb will become immortal, and when Tur-i Bradrok-resh the Karb shall become immortal the resurrection and future existence are not possible.'

18. The verb is placed before its nominative in the Pahlavi text, both here and in most similar sentences, which is an imitation of the Avesta, due probably to the text being originally translated from an Avesta book now lost, or, at any rate, to its author's wish that it might appear to be so translated. In such cases of inverted construction, when the verb is in a past tense, the Pahlavi idiom often requires a pronominal suffix, corresponding to the nominative, to be added to the first word in the sentence; thus, gûftosh Aûharmazd, or afash gûft Aûharmazd, does not mean "Ohrmazd spoke to him (or said it)," but merely "Ohrmazd spoke" (lit. "it was said by him, Ohrmazd").

4. Zartosht seemed uneasy about it in his mind; and Ohrmazd, through the wisdom of omniscience, knew what was thought by Zartosht the Spitaman with the righteous spirit, and he took hold of Zartosht's hand. (5) And he, Ohrmazd the propitious spirit, creator of the material world, the righteous one, even he put the omniscient wisdom, in the shape of water, on the hand of Zartosht, and said to him thus: 'Devour it.'

6. And Zartosht devoured some of it; thereby the omniscient wisdom was intermingled with Zartosht, and seven days and nights Zartosht was in the wisdom of Ohrmazd. (7) And Zartosht beheld the men and cattle in the seven regions of the earth, where the many fibers of hair of every one are, and whereunto the end of each fiber holds on the back. (8) And he beheld whatever trees and shrubs there were, and how many roots of plants were in the earth of Spandarmad, where and how they had grown, and where they were mingled.

9. And the seventh day and night he (Ohrmazd) took back the omniscient wisdom from Zartosht and Zartosht reflected in this way, that I have seen it in a pleasant dream produced by Ohrmazd, and I am not surfeited with the dream. (10) And he took both hands, rubbed his body (kerp) again, and spoke thus: 'I have slept a long time, and am not surfeited with this pleasant dream produced by Ohrmazd.

11. Ohrmazd said to the righteous Zartosht thus: 'What was seen in the pleasant dream produced by Ohrmazd?'

12. Zartosht spoke thus: 'O Ohrmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world, righteous creator! I have seen a celebrity (khunid) with much wealth, whose soul, infamous in the body, was hungry (gurs) and jaundiced and in hell, and he did not seem to me exalted; and I saw a beggar with no wealth and helpless, and his soul was thriving (farpih) in paradise, and he seemed to me exalted. (13) [And I saw a wealthy man without children, and he did not seem to me exalted;] and I saw a pauper with many children, and he seemed to me exalted. (14) And I saw a tree on which were seven branches, one golden, one of silver, one brazen, one of copper, [one of tin], one of steel, and one was mixed up with iron.'

15. Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'O Zartosht the Spitaman! this is what I say beforehand, the one tree which thou sawest is the world which I, Ohrmazd, created; and those seven branches thou sawest are the seven periods which will come. (16) And that which was golden is the reign of King Vishtasp, when I and thou converse about religion, and Vishtasp shall accept that religion and shall demolish the figures of the demons, and the demons desist from demonstration into concealed proceedings; Ahriman and the demons rush back to darkness, and care for water, fire, plants, and the earth of Spandarmad becomes apparent. (17) And that which was of silver is the reign of Ardashir the Kayanian (Kai), whom they call Vohuman son of Spend-dad, who is he who separates the demons from men, scatters them about, and makes the religion current in the whole world. (18) And that which was brazen is the reign of Ardashir, the arranger and restorer of the world, and that of King Shahpur, when he arranges the world which I, Ohrmazd, created; he makes happiness (bukhtakih) prevalent in the boundaries of the world, and goodness shall become manifest; and Adarbad of triumphant destiny, the restorer of the true religion, with the prepared brass, brings this religion, together with the transgressors, back to the truth. (19) And that which was of copper is the reign of the Ashkanian king, who removes from the world the heterodoxy (javid-rastakih) which existed, and the wicked Akandgar-i Kilisyakih is utterly destroyed by this religion, and goes unseen and unknown from the world. (20) And that which was of tin is the reign of King Vahram Gor, when he makes the sight of the spirit of pleasure manifest, and Ahriman with the wizards rushes back to darkness and gloom. (21) And that which was of steel is the reign of King Khosraw son of Kobad, when he keeps away from this religion the accursed Mazdak, son of Bamdad, who remains opposed to the religion along with the heterodox. (22) And that which was mixed with iron [is the reign of the demons with disheveled hair of the race of Wrath, when it is the end of the tenth hundredth winter of thy millennium], O Zartosht the Spitaman!'

23. Zartosht said thus: 'Creator of the material world! O propitious spirit! what token would you give of the tenth-hundredth winter?'

24. Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Righteous Zartosht! I will make it clear: the token that it is the end of thy millennium, and the most evil period is coming, is that a hundred kinds, a thousand kinds, a myriad of kinds of demons with disheveled hair, of the race of Wrath, rush into the country of Iran (Airan shatro) from the direction of the east, which has an inferior race and race of Wrath. (25) They have uplifted banners, they slay those living in the world, they have their hair disheveled on the back, and they are mostly a small and inferior (nitum) race, forward in destroying the strong doer; O Zartosht the Spitaman! the race of Wrath is miscreated (vishud) and its origin is not manifest. (26) Through witchcraft they rush into these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created, since they burn and damage many things; and the house of the house owner, the land of the land-digger, prosperity, nobility, sovereignty, religion, truth, agreement, security, enjoyment, and every characteristic which I, Ohrmazd, created, this pure religion of the Mazdayasnians, and the fire of Warharan, which is set in the appointed place, encounter annihilation, and the direst destruction and trouble will come into notice. (27) And that which is a great district will become a town; that which is a great town, a village; that which is a great village, a family; and that which is a [great] family, a single threshold. (28) O Zartosht the Spitaman! they will lead these Iranian countries of Ohrmazd into a desire for evil, into tyranny and misgovernment, those demons with disheveled hair who are deceivers, so that what they say they do not do, and they are of a vile religion, so that what they do not say they do. (29) And their assistance and promise have no sincerity, there is no law, they preserve no security, and on the support they provide no one relies; with deceit, rapacity, and misgovernment they will devastate these my Iranian countries, who am Ohrmazd.

30. And at that time, O Zartosht the Spitaman! all men will become deceivers, great friends will become of different parties, and respect, affection, hope, and regard for the soul will depart from the world; the affection of the father will depart from the son; and that of the brother from his brother; the son-in-law will become a beggar (kidyak or kasik) from his father-in-law, and the mother will be parted and estranged from the daughter.

31. 'When it is the end of thy tenth hundredth winter, O Zartosht the Spitaman! the sun is more unseen and more spotted (vasangtar); the year, month, and day are shorter; and the earth of Spandarmad is more barren, and fuller of highwaymen; and the crop will not yield the seed, so that of the crop of the corn-fields in ten cases seven will diminish and three will increase, and that which increases does not become ripe; and vegetation, trees, and shrubs will diminish; when one shall take a hundred, ninety will diminish and ten will increase, and that which increases gives no pleasure and flavor. (32) And men are born smaller, and their skill and strength are less; they become more deceitful and more given to vile practices; they have no gratitude and respect for bread and salt, and they have no affection for their country (desak).

33. 'And in that most evil time a boundary has most disrespect where it is the property of a suffering man of religion; gifts are few among their deeds, and duties and good works proceed but little from their hands; and sectarians of all kinds are seeking mischief for them. (34) And all the world will be burying and clothing the dead, and burying the dead and washing the dead will be by law; the burning, bringing to water and fire, and eating of dead matter they practice by law and do not abstain from. (35) They recount largely about duties and good works, and pursue wickedness and the road to hell; and through the iniquity, cajolery, and craving of wrath and avarice they rush to hell.

36. 'And in that perplexing time, O Zartosht the Spitaman! -- the reign of Wrath with infuriate spear and the demon with disheveled hair, of the race of Wrath, --- the meanest slaves walk forth with the authority of nobles of the land; and the religious, who wear sacred thread-girdles on the waist, are then not able to perform their ablution (padiyavih), for in those last times dead matter and bodily refuse become so abundant, that one who shall set step to step walks upon dead matter; or when he washes in the Barashnom ceremony, and puts down a foot from the stone seat (magh), he walks on dead matter; or when he arranges the sacred twigs (Barsom) and consecrates the sacred cakes (Dron) in their corpse-chamber (nasai katak) it is allowable. (37) Or, in those last times, it becomes allowable to perform a ceremonial (yazishn) with two men, so that this religion may not come to nothing and collapse; there will be only one in a hundred, in a thousand, in a myriad, who believes in this religion, and even he does nothing of it though it be a duty; and the fire of Warharan, which will come to nothing and collapse, falls off from a thousand to one care-taker, and even he does not supply it properly with firewood and incense; or when a man, who has performed worship and does not know the Nirangistan ('code of religious formulas'), shall kindle it with good intentions, it is allowable.

38. 'Honorable wealth will all proceed to those of perverted faith (kevid-keshan); it comes to the transgressors, and virtuous doers of good works, from the families of noblemen even unto the priests (mog-mardan), remain running about uncovered; the lower orders take in marriage the daughters of nobles, grandees, and priests; and the nobles, grandees, and priests come to destitution and bondage. (39) The misfortunes of the ignoble will overtake greatness and authority, and the helpless and ignoble will come to the foremost place and advancement; the words of the upholders of religion, and the seal and decision of a just judge will become the words of random speakers (andezo-gokan) among the just and even the righteous; and the words of the ignoble and slanderers, of the disreputable and mockers, and of those of divers opinions they consider true and credible, about which they take an oath, although with falsehood, and thereby give false evidence, and speak falsely and irreverently about me, Ohrmazd. (40) They who bear the title of priest and disciples wish evil concerning one another; he speaks vice and they look upon vice; and the antagonism of Ahriman and the demons is much brought on by them; of the sin which men commit, out of five sins the priests and disciples commit three sins, and they become enemies of the good, so that they may thereby speak of bad faults relating to one another; the ceremonies they undertake they do not perform, and they have no fear of hell.

41. 'And in that tenth hundredth winter, which is the end of thy millennium, O righteous Zartosht! all mankind will bind torn hair, disregarding revelation, so that a willingly-disposed cloud and a righteous wind are not able to produce rain in its proper time and season. (42) And a dark cloud makes the whole sky night, and the hot wind and the cold wind arrive, and bring along fruit and seed of corn, even the rain in its proper time; and it does not rain, and that which rains also rains more noxious creatures than water; and the water of rivers and springs will diminish, and there will be no increase. (43) And the beast of burden and ox and sheep bring forth more painfully and awkwardly, and acquire less fruitfulness; and their hair is coarser and skin thinner; the milk does not increase and has less cream (charbisht); the strength of the laboring ox is less, and the agility of the swift horse is less, and it carries less in a race.

44. 'And on the men in that perplexing time, O Zartosht the Spitaman! who wear the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, the evil-seeking of mis-government and much of its false judgment have come as a wind in which their living is not possible, and they seek death as a boon; and youths and children will be apprehensive, and gossiping chitchat and gladness of heart do not arise among them. (45) And they practice the appointed feasts (gashno) of their ancestors, the propitiation (ausofrid) of angels, and the prayers and ceremonies of the season festivals and guardian spirits, in various places, yet that which they practice they do not believe in unhesitatingly; they do not give rewards lawfully, and bestow no gifts and alms, and even those [they bestow] they repent of again. (46) And even those men of the good religion, who have reverenced the good religion of the Mazdayasnians, proceed in conformity with (bar-hamako rubishn) those ways and customs, and do not believe their own religion. (47) And the noble, great, and charitable, who are the virtuous of their own country and locality, will depart from their own original place and family as idolatrous; through want they beg something from the ignoble and vile, and come to poverty and helplessness; through them nine in ten of these men will perish in the northern quarter.

48. 'Through their way of misrule everything comes to nothingness and destitution, levity and infirmity; and the earth of Spandarmad opens its mouth wide, and every jewel and metal becomes exposed, such as gold and silver, brass, tin, and lead. (49) And rule and sovereignty come to slaves, such as the Turk and non-Turanian (Atur) of the army, and are turbulent as among the mountaineers; and the Chini, the Kavuli, the Softi, the Ruman (Arumayak), and the white-clothed Karmak then attain sovereignty in my countries of Iran, and their will and pleasure will become current in the world. (50) The sovereignty will come from those leather-belted ones and Arabs (Tazhigan) and Rumans to them, and they will be so misgoverning that when they kill a righteous man who is virtuous and a fly, it is all one in their eyes. (51) And the security, fame, and prosperity, the country and families, the wealth and handiwork, the streams, rivers, and springs of Iran, and of those of the good religion, come to those non-Iranians; and the army and standards of the frontiers come to them, and a rule with a craving for wrath advances in the world. (52) And their eyes of avarice are not sated with wealth, and they form hoards of the world's wealth, and conceal them underground; and through wickedness they commit sodomy, hold much intercourse with menstruous women, and practice many unnatural lusts.

53. 'And in that perplexing time the night is brighter, and the year, month, and day will diminish one-third; the earth of Spandarmad arises, and suffering, death, and destitution become more severe in the world.'

54. Ohrmazd said to Zartosht the Spitaman: 'This is what I foretell: that wicked evil spirit, when it shall be necessary for him to perish, becomes more oppressive and more tyrannical.'

55. So Ohrmazd spoke to Zartosht the Spitaman thus: ' Inquire fully and learn by heart thoroughly! teach it by Zand, Pazand, and explanation! tell it to the priests and disciples who speak forth in the world, and those who are not aware of the hundred winters, tell it then to them! so that, for the hope of a future existence, and for the preservation of their own souls, they may remove the trouble, evil, and oppression which those of other religions cause in the ceremonies of religion (dino yesnan). (56) And, moreover, I tell thee this, O Zartosht the Spitaman! that whoever, in that time, appeals for the body is not able to save the soul, for he is as it were fat, and his soul is hungry and lean in hell; whoever appeals for the soul, his body is hungry and lean through the misery of the world, and destitute, and his soul is fat in heaven.'

57. Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'O Ohrmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world who art righteous!' -- He is Ohrmazd through righteous invocation, and the rest through praise; some say 'righteous creator!' -- 'O creator! in that perplexing time are they righteous? and are there religious people who wear the sacred thread-girdle (kusti) on the waist, and celebrate religious rites (dino) with the sacred twigs (Barsom)? and does the religious practice of khwetodas continue in their families?'

58. Ohrmazd said to Zartosht thus: 'Of the best men is he who, in that perplexing time, wears the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, and celebrates religious rites with the sacred twigs, though not as in the reign of King Vishtasp. (59) Whoever in that perplexing time recites Ita-ad-yazam (Av. itha ad yazamaide, Yas.5 and 37) and one Ashem-vohu, and has learned it by heart, is as though, in the reign of King Vishtasp, it were a duwazdah homast with holy-water (zohr). (60) And by whomever prayer is offered up, and the Gatha-hymns are chanted, it is as though the whole ritual had been recited, and the Gatha-hymns consecrated by him in the reign of King Vishtasp. (61) The most perfectly righteous of the righteous is he who remains in the good religion of the Mazdayasnians, and continues the religious practice of khwetodas in his family.'

62. Ohrmazd said to the righteous Zartosht: 'In these nine thousand years which I, Ohrmazd, created, mankind become most perplexed in that perplexing time; for in the evil reigns of Az-i Dahak [Zohak] and Frasiyav of Tur mankind, in those perplexing times, were living better and living more numerously, and their disturbance by Ahriman and the demons was less. (63) For in their evil reigns, within the countries of Iran, there were not seven1 towns which were desolate as they will be when it is the end of thy millennium, O Zartosht the Spitaman! for all the towns of Iran will be ploughed up by their horses' hoofs, and their banners will reach unto Padashkhvargar2, and they will carry away the sovereignty of the seat of the religion I approve from there; and their destruction comes from that place, O Zartosht the Spitaman! this is what I foretell.'

1. So in the Pazand, but 'seventeen' in Persian; in K20 the word is partly illegible, but can be no other number than shibâ, 'seven.'

2. The mountainous region south of the Caspian (see Bund. XII, 2, 17).

64. Whoever of those existing, thus, with reverence unto the good, performs much worship for Ohrmazd, Ohrmazd, aware of it through righteousness, gives him whatsoever Ohrmazd is aware of through righteousness, as remuneration and reward of duty and good works, and such members of the congregation, males and females, I reverence; and the archangels, who are also male and female, they are good.

CHAPTER 3

1. Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'O Ohrmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world, righteous one! whence do they restore this good religion of the Mazdayasnians? and by what means will they destroy these demons with disheveled hair, of the race of Wrath? (2) O creator! grant me death! and grant my favored ones death! that they may not live in that perplexing time; grant them exemplary living! that they may not prepare wickedness and the way to hell.'

3. Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'O Zartosht the Spitaman! after the ill-omened sovereignty of those of the race of Wrath there is a fiend, Shedaspih of the Kilisyakih, from the countries of Salman;' Mah- vand-dad said that these people are Ruman (Arumayak), and Roshan said that they have red weapons, red banners, and red hats (kulah). (4) 'It is when a symptom of them appears, as they advance, O Zartosht the Spitaman! the sun and the dark show signs, and the moon becomes manifest of various colors; earthquakes (bum-guzhand), too, become numerous, and the wind comes more violently; in the world want, distress, and discomfort come more into view; and Mercury and Jupiter advance the sovereignty for the vile, and they are in hundreds and thousands and myriads. (5) They have the red banner of the fiend Shedaspih of Kilisyakih, and they hasten much their progress to these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created, up to the bank of the Arvand,' some have said the Frat river, 'unto the Greeks (Yunan) dwelling in Asuristan;' they are Greeks by strict reckoning, and their Assyrian dwelling is this, that they slay the Assyrian people therein, and thus they will destroy their abode, some have said the lurking-holes (grestak) of the demons.

6. 'They turn back those of the race of Wrath in hundreds and thousands and myriads; and the banners, standards, and an innumerable army of those demons with disheveled hair will come to these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created. (7) And the army of the invader is an extending enemy of the Turk and even the Karm, be it with banners aloft when he shall set up a banner, be it through the excessive multitude which will remain -- like hairs in the mane of a horse -- in the countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created.

8. 'The leather-belted Turk and the Ruman Shedaspih of Kilisyakih come forth with simultaneous movement, and in three places, with similar strife, there was and will be three times a great contest (ardih), O Zartosht the Spitaman! (9) One in the reign of Kay Kaus, when through the assistance of demons it was with the archangels, and the second when thou, O Zartosht the Spitaman! receivedst the religion and hadst thy conference, and King Vishtasp and Arjasp, miscreated by wrath, were, through the war of the religion, in the combat of Sped-razur ("the hoary forest"),' some have said it was in Pars; 'and the third when it is the end of thy millennium, O Zartosht the Spitaman! when all the three, Turk, Arab, and Ruman, come to this place,' some have said the plain of Nishanak. (10) 'And all those of the countries of Iran, which I, Ohrmazd, created, come from their own place unto Padashkhvargar, owing to those of the race of Wrath, O Zartosht the Spitaman! so that a report of something of the cave dwellings, mountain dwellings, and river dwellings of these people will remain at Padashkhvargar and Pars; some have said the fire Gushnasp, on the deep Lake Chechast which has medicinal water opposed to the demons, is there (in Padashkhvargar?) as it were conspicuous,' some have said 'originating,' 'so that they may use it anew, and the fire may become shining in these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created. (11) For when one shall be able to save his own life, he has then no recollection of wife, child, and wealth, that they may not live, in that perplexing time, O Zartosht! yet the day when the hundredth winter becomes the end of thy millennium, which is that of Zartosht, is so that nothing wicked may go from this millennium into that millennium.'

12. Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'O Ohrmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world, righteous one! when they are so many in number, by what means will they be able to perish?'

13. Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'O Zartosht the Spitaman! when the demon with disheveled hair of the race of Wrath comes into notice in the eastern quarter, first a black token becomes manifest, and Ushedar son of Zartosht is born on Lake Frazdan. (14) It is when he comes to his conference with, me, Ohrmazd, O Zartosht the Spitaman!' that in the direction of Chinistan, it is said -- some have said among the Hindus -- 'is born a prince (kai); it is his father, a prince of the Kayanian race, approaches the women, and a religious prince is born to him; he calls his name Warharan the Varjavand,' some have said Shahpur. (15) 'That a sign may come to the earth, the night when that prince is born, a star falls from the sky; when that prince is born the star shows a signal.' (16) It is Dad-Ohrmazd who said that the month Aban and day Vad is his father's end; 'they rear him with the damsels of the king, and a woman becomes ruler.

17. 'That prince when he is thirty years old' -- some have told the time -- 'comes with innumerable banners and divers armies, Hindu and Chini, having uplifted banners for they set up their banners -- having exalted banners, and having exalted weapons; they hasten up with speed as far as the Veh river' -- some have said the country of Bambo -- 'as far as Bukhar and the Bukharans within its bank, O Zartosht the Spitaman! (18) When the star Jupiter comes up to its culminating point (balist) and casts Venus down, the sovereignty comes to the prince. (19) Quite innumerable are the champions, furnished with arms and with banners displayed,' some have said from Sagastan, Pars, and Khurasan, some have said from the lake of Padashkhvargar, some have said from the Hiratis and Kohistan, some have said from Taparistan; and from those directions 'every supplicant for a child comes into view. (20) It is concerning the displayed banners and very numerous army, which were the armed men, champions, and soldiers from the countries of Iran at Padashkhvargar -- whom I told thee that they call both Kurd and Karman -- it is declared that they will slay an excessive number, in companionship and under the same banner, for these countries of Iran.

21. 'Those of the race of Wrath and the extensive army of Shedaspih, whose names are the two-legged wolf and the leather-belted demon on the bank of the Arvand, wage three battles, one in Sped-razhur and one in the plain of Nishanak;' some have said that it was on the lake of the three races, some have said that it was in Maruv the brilliant, and some have said in Pars. (22) 'For the support of the countries of Iran is the innumerable army of the east; its having exalted banners is that they have a banner of tiger skin (bopar post), and their wind banner is white cotton; innumerable are the mounted troops, and they ride up to the lurking-holes of the demons; they will slay so that a thousand women can afterwards see and kiss but one man.

23. 'When it is the end of the time, O Zartosht the Spitaman those enemies will be as much destroyed as the root of a shrub when it is in the night on which a cold winter arrives, and in this night it sheds its leaves; and they will reinstate these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created.

24. 'And with speed rushes the evil spirit, with the vilest races of demons and Wrath with infuriate spear, and comes on to the support and assistance of those demon-worshippers and miscreations of wrath, O Zartosht the Spitaman! (25) And I, the creator Ohrmazd, send Neryosang the angel and Srosh the righteous unto Kangdezh, which the illustrious Siyavarshan formed, and to Chitro-miyan son of Vishtasp, the glory of the Kayanians, the just restorer of the religion, to speak thus: "Walk forth, O illustrious Peshotan! to these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created; consecrate the fire and waters for the Hadhokht and duwazdah homast! that is, celebrate them with the fire and waters, and such as is appointed about the fire and waters!"

26. 'And Neryosang proceeds, with Srosh the righteous, from the good Chakad-i-Daitik to Kangdez, which the illustrious Siyavarshan formed, and cries out from it thus: "Walk forth, O illustrious Peshotan! O Chitro-miyan son of Vishtasp, glory of the Kayanians, just restorer of the religion! walk forth to these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created! restore again the throne of sovereignty of the religion!"

27. 'Those spirits move on, and they propitiate them; with holy-water the illustrious Peshotan celebrates the duwazdah homast, with a hundred and fifty righteous who are disciples of Peshotan, in black marten fur, and they have garments as it were of the good spirit. (28) They walk up with the words: "Humat, hukht, huvarsht," and consecrate the fire of the waters; with the illustrious Hadokht they bless me, Ohrmazd, with the archangels; and after that it demolishes one-third of the opposition. (29) And the illustrious Peshotan walks forth, with the hundred and fifty men who wear black marten fur, and they celebrate the rituals (yasnan) of the Gadman-homand ("glorious") fire, which they call the Roshano-kerp ("luminous form"), which is established at the appointed place (dato-gas), the triumphant ritual of the Farnbag fire, Hordad, and Amurdad, and the ceremonial (yazishn) with his priestly cooperation; they arrange and pray over the sacred twigs; and the ritual of Hordad and Amurdad, in the chapter of the code of religious formulas (Nirangistan) demolishes three-thirds of the opposition. (30) Peshotan son of Vishtasp walks forth, with the assistance of the Farnbag fire, the fire Gushnasp, and the fire Burzhin-Mihr, to the great idol-temples, the abode of the demons; and the wicked evil spirit, Wrath with infuriate spear, and all demons and fiends, evil races and wizards, arrive at the deepest abyss of hell; and those idol-temples are extirpated by the exertions of the illustrious Peshotan.

31. 'And I, the creator Ohrmazd, come to Mount Hukairya with the archangels, and I issue orders to the archangels that they should speak to the angels of the spiritual existences thus: "Proceed to the assistance of the illustrious Peshotan!" (32) Mihr of the vast cattle-pastures, Srosh the vigorous, Rashn the just, Warharan the mighty, Ashtad the victorious, and the glory of the religion of the Mazdayasnians, the stimulator of religious formulas (nirang), the arranger of the world, proceed to the assistance of the illustrious Peshotan, through the order of which I, the creator, have just written.

33. 'Out of the demons of gloomy race the evil spirit cries to Mihr of the vast cattle-pastures thus: "Stay above in truth, thou Mihr of the vast cattle-pastures!"

34. 'And then Mihr of the vast cattle-pastures cries thus: "Of these nine thousand years' support, which during its beginning produced Dahak [Zohak] of evil religion, Frasiyav of Tur, and Alexander the Ruman, the period of one thousand years of those leather-belted demons with disheveled hair is a more than moderate reign to produce."

35. 'The wicked evil spirit becomes confounded when he heard this; Mihr of the vast cattle-pastures will smite Wrath of the infuriate spear with stupefaction; and the wicked evil spirit flees, with the miscreations and evil progeny he flees back to the darkest recess of hell. (36) And Mihr of the vast cattle-pastures cries to the illustrious Peshotan thus: "Extirpate and utterly destroy the idol-temples, the abode of the demons! proceed to these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created! restore again the throne of sovereignty of the religion over the wicked! when they see thee they will be terrified."

37. 'And the illustrious Peshotan advances, and the fire Farnbag, the fire Gushnasp, and the triumphant fire Burzin-Mihr will smite the fiend of excessive strength; he will extirpate the idol-temples that are the abode of demons; and they celebrate the ceremonial (yazishn), arrange the sacred twigs, solemnize the duwazdah homast, and praise me, Ohrmazd, with the archangels; this is what I foretell. (38) The illustrious Peshotan walks forth to these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created, to the Arvand and Veh river; when the wicked see him they will be terrified, those of the progeny of gloom and those not worthy.

39. 'And regarding that Warharan the Varjavand it is declared that he comes forth in full glory, fixes upon Vandid-khim ("a curbed temper"), and having entrusted him with the seat of mobadship of the mobads, and the seat of true explanation of the religion, he restores again these countries of Iran which I, Ohrmazd, created; and he drives away from the world covetousness, want, hatred, wrath, lust, envy, and wickedness. (40) And the wolf period goes away, and the sheep period comes on; they establish the fire Farnbag, the fire Gushnasp, and the fire Burzin-Mihr again at their proper places, and they will properly supply the firewood and incense; and the wicked evil spirit becomes confounded and unconscious, with the demons and the progeny of gloom. (41) And so the illustrious Peshotan speaks thus: "Let the demon be destroyed, and the witch be destroyed! let the fiendishness and vileness of the demons be destroyed! and let the gloomy progeny of the demons be destroyed! The glory of the religion of the Mazdayasnians prospers, and let it prosper! let the family of the liberal and just, who are doers of good deeds, prosper! and let the throne of the religion and sovereignty have a good restorer!" (42) Forth comes the illustrious Peshotan, forth he comes with a hundred and fifty men of the disciples who wear black marten fur, and they take the throne of their own religion and sovereignty.'

43. Ohrmazd said to Zartosht the Spitaman: 'This is what I foretell, when it is the end of thy millennium it is the beginning of that of Ushedar. (44) Regarding Ushedar it is declared that he will be born in 1600, and at thirty years of age he comes to a conference with me, Ohrmazd, and receives the religion. (45) When he comes away from the conference he cries to the sun with the swift horse, thus: "Stand still!"

46. 'The sun with the swift horse stands still ten days and nights; and when this happens all the people of the world abide by the good religion of the Mazdayasnians. (47) Mihr of the vast cattle-pastures cries to Ushedar, son of Zartosht, thus: "O Ushedar, restorer of the true religion! cry to the sun with the swift horse thus: 'Move on!' for it is dark in the regions of Arezahi and Sawahi, Fradadhafshu and Widadhafshu, Wouru-bareshti and Wourujareshti, and the illustrious Xwaniratha."

48. 'Ushedar son of Zartosht cries, to the sun he cries, thus: "Move on!" (49) The sun with the swift horse moves on, and Varjavand and all mankind fully believe in the good religion of the Mazdayasnians.

50. Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'O Zartosht the Spitaman! this is what I foretell, that this one brings the creatures back to their proper state. (51) When it is near the end of the millennium Peshotan son of Vishtasp comes into notice, who is a Kayanian that advances triumphantly; and those enemies who relied upon fiendishness, such as the Turk, Arab, and Ruman, and the vile ones who control the Iranian sovereign with insolence and oppression and enmity to the sovereignty, destroy the fire and make the religion weak; and they convey their power and success to him and every one who accepts the law and religion willingly; if he accept it unwillingly the law and religion ever destroy him till it is the end of the whole millennium.

52. 'And, afterwards, when the millennium of Ushedarmah comes, through Ushedarmah the creatures become more progressive, and he utterly destroys the fiend of serpent origin; and Peshotan son of Vishtasp becomes, in like manner, high. priest and primate (rad) of the world. (53) In that millennium of Ushedarmah mankind become so versed in medicine, and keep and bring physic and remedies so much in use, that when they are confessedly at the point of death they do not thereupon die, nor when they smite and slay them with the sword and knife.

54. 'Afterwards, one begs a gift of any description out of the allowance of heretics, and owing to depravity and heresy they do not give it. (55) And Ahriman rises through that spite on to the mountain of Damawand, which is the direction of Bevarasp, and shouts thus: "Now it is nine thousand years, and Faridoon is not living; why do you not rise up, although these thy fetters are not removed, when this world is full of people, and they have brought them from the enclosure which Yim [Jamshed] formed?"

56. 'After that apostate shouts like this, and because of it, Az-i Dahak [Zohak] stands up before him, but, through fear of the likeness of Faridoon in the body of Faridoon, he does not first remove those fetters and stake from his trunk until Ahriman removes them. (57) And the vigor of Az-i Dahak [Zohak] increases, the fetters being removed from his trunk, and his impetuosity remains; he swallows down the apostate on the spot, and rushing into the world to perpetrate sin, he commits innumerable grievous sins; he swallows down one-third of mankind, cattle, sheep, and other creatures of Ohrmazd; he smites the water, fire, and vegetation, and commits grievous sin.

58. 'And, afterwards, the water, fire, and vegetation stand before Ohrmazd the lord in lamentation, and make this complaint: "Make Faridoon alive again! so that he may destroy Az-i Dahak [Zohak]; for if thou, O Ohrmazd! dost not do this, we cannot exist in the world; the fire says thus: I will not heat; and the water says thus: I will not flow."

59. 'And then I, Ohrmazd the creator, say to Srosh and Neryosang the angel: "Shake the body of Kersasp the Saman, till he rises up!"

60. 'Then Srosh and Neryosang the angel go to Kersasp; three times they utter a cry, and the fourth time Sam rises up with triumph, and goes to meet Az-i Dahak [Zohak]. (61) And Sam does not listen to his words, and the triumphant club strikes him on the head, and smites and kills him; afterwards, desolation and adversity depart from this world, while I make a beginning of the millennium. (62) Then Soshyant makes the creatures again pure, and the resurrection and future existence occur.'

63. May the end be in peace, pleasure, and joy, by the will of God (yazdano)! so may it be! even more so may it be!



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