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DENKARD (Acts of Religion), Book 3

This digital edition copyright © 1997 by Joseph H. Peterson. All rights reserved.

Edited by Peshotun Dastoor Behramjee Sanjana, 1881, vol. 8.

Exposition in the good religion as to what thing is endowed with life and has relation with life; and why He is the giver of life and of this relation with life. (362)

Be it known that all existence in this world is because of the invisible strength-giving and foresight-inducing faculty. And this (existence) is (received) from the Creator, bestowing life unseen. All material bodies in this world subsist in mutual relation with their souls because of the life-bestowing Creator who keeps them in union.

That kind (i.e. creation) which in every action fights a battle with the kind in which the blemish-giving enemy (i.e. Ahriman) shows himself is making for righteousness. And this kind is destructive of the work of Ahriman immediately it uses the powerful eyes of this world (i.e. the eyes of the faith). And by always thwarting Ahriman with the greater force of the spiritual understanding it meets with the original source (of Spenamino). Because the work of reforming all from (the effects of) the work of the Blemish-giver, on the occasion of the last reformation, will be done by the kinds which obediently serve the Creator. And every man in this world, by reason of the soul-faculty (received) from the source of this world and (by reason) of the strength of divine inspiration generally prefers the Law (i.e. religion). It is noted in the good religion that because of the purity of the soul (men) acquire a body in inward communion with the original source (i.e. Spenamino) and because of this communion the soul becomes immortal and adorned with the ample light of eternity in the second life*. (On the occasion of the last day) they will by no means side with the destructive (Ahriman), but (they) will be able (at least) to keep off the destroyer, because Ahriman cannot be bound in fetters by any substance, nor can he acquire existence in communion with the life-bestowing, wise Creator, who is self-existent and endows others with life. Those substances which in their very nature (are given to) destroy and do harm as much as possible -- how can these substances be law-abiding (in themselves) and worthy to exist in conjunction with the law-abiding soul (i.e. with the religious man)? Earth, water, and grass are without law (i.e. have nothing in common) -- how can these be bound together? The existence of those without the law is akin to that of Ahriman. No creation with a bodily organism is without the connection of the soul from God; but by reason of the perverse nature of Ahriman every such (creation) becomes harmful. The soul and those others which hold kinship with it (i.e. Urvan, Boi, Akho, Farohar) are not such (i.e. harmful) but generally they become perverse owing to their contact with Ahriman.

[* i.e. Spenamino dwelling in the conscience of man keeps him from sin and vice whereby he enjoys eternal happiness in heaven and thus his second life is on that account replete with honor and splendor.]

The priests who are of the nature of Ahriman assuredly take themselves bound before the destructive (Ahriman). And without doubt they lead a life (in the next world) in the woeful abode of Ahriman along with harmful objects. How can the harm-doer be of the religion of that life-giving Creator? He who is of God is as he should be; everything belonging to him has nothing in it of the principle of that destructive (Ahriman), and he keeps aloof from doing work like unto that of Ahriman. Moreover he who is unfit (i.e. as he should not be) exists as it were for doing the work of Ahriman. The man who is become unfit is without any charity owing to his destructive work. The man who is become unfit is, because of his destructive actions, like that destructive (Ahriman) and in every matter uniformly takes his (i.e. Ahriman's) place and becomes his instrument on every occasion. Moreover he who is unfit does everything, like the destructive (Ahriman), through base strength (i.e. his actions are always on a low moral plane). The man who is become unfit calls every object created through wisdom of a superior order an object of evil creation and its creator an evil creator. Those who live deep in hell describe the creation of the destroyer as being full of wisdom. In these days (i.e. of the good religion), to confound the wealth (i.e. creation) of the possessor of life (i.e. God) with (that of) the destructive Ahriman is not a little to be wondered at. Evil people perversely say that the commandments of the objectionable and destructive Ahriman have been given by the life-bestower (God). Likewise they say about the soul brought into being by God that it (is not created but) exists of itself. So also through enmity with God they call Him the Destroyer.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the source creating the soul regarding the helper of its good qualities, regarding those that pave the way for it into the seed of this world, nourish and protect its source in the seed of the body and direct its (soul's) distribution; and regarding the fact that (the soul) by its actions gets its reward from its kin Ohrmazd and meets again (with the original source). (363)

Be it known that Ohrmazd is the Creator of the soul. The soul has been sent by the Creator (into this world) from within the resplendent light of Garothman [paradise]. The fire, water, and earth belonging to the spiritual world (i.e. the invisible substances in the body) help on the good qualities of the invisible soul. And the fire, water, and earth belonging to this world help on the material bodies of this world. It is the invisible Yazads that by the lawful commandments of God pave the way for the soul into the seed (i.e. the fetus) belonging to this (material) world. It is by the grace of God that the source of the body (i.e. the soul) enters into it (i.e. the body). The soul does its appointed work by making the body work in harmony with its own (i.e. the soul's) original source.

The soul is protected and maintained by its superiors who preside over the understanding within the body (i.e. by the Yazads). Truth, charity, gratefulness, contentment, and energetic effort (are the qualities which) give freedom and salvation to the soul and make it revered and honored in both the worlds. The soul maintains its position through several divine invisible substances. The soul gets its reward for its actions and becomes exalted through its adorning source (the Yazads). (The soul) which possesses good qualities returns to its kin (i.e. its creator Ohrmazd). The bodies of (men of) good birth which are to be rewarded for their good actions at the time of the Frashegird will do glorious deeds at the Frashegird. Those who will lead the van in the work of the Frashegird will at the epoch of the Tanepashin be rendered fortunate by the omniscient and almighty Ohrmazd in all the regenerated world.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the benefit to the soul from speech and regarding the necessity of overcoming all hurt to the soul (by means of speech). (364)

Be it known that (the holy God) has given the tongue as a weapon to man. By its speech, men derive great benefit for themselves. And it is of the greatest advantage (to this world) to keep the tongue away from perverted understanding, greediness, wrath, and other evil passions which (from their place) in the body always endeavor to turn (the soul) from its right course. When this weapon of the soul can be kept from evil intentions, that is to say, when men prevent this weapon of the tongue from speaking ill, they by their good speaking ward off all harm from it (i.e. the tongue) and by their words lead the world aright.

(The holy God) has bestowed on man, in his body, the good-thought-understanding, humility, obedience, and other invisible good qualities for the work of the tongue, in order to protect it from the evil wishes of the Drujs (i.e. evil qualities). Moreover man is like a ruler to rule over his soul-possessing body. Wherefore good invisible powers (i.e. the Yazads) love him as a friend. And thus man prevents his tongue from giving utterance to evil wishes and he carefully considers and ponders over words which he holds in readiness for utterance And he prevents the tongue from giving utterance to evil wishes by the force of his understanding and by the directions of other good invisible powers. If man under the influence of evil thoughts and being incited (thereto) by other (evil)-hopes-inducing invisible powers (nevertheless) pulls in his tongue he benefits his soul by his tongue and overcomes all hurt that might befall the soul. But if he speaks without due deliberation, he is in perpetual fear, keeps off all the superior advantages incident to speech and considerably harms the soul by the contempt into which he falls (among men).

Exposition in the good religion regarding the origin of the soul and this material body. (365)

Be it known that, the power which has been created by God from out of His infinite light in order to deliberate about the good religion is called in the Avesta, Athornan* and (the power) is made up of two kinds. Thinking over (the matter) we find that one of these is a spiritual kind (i.e. the invisible soul) and the other is the body relating to this world (i.e. this perishable body). In its invisible kind (i.e. the soul) is seated the faculty of comprehending the spiritual-knowledge-giving religion. The invisible faculty of the soul which induces knowledge of the faith, dwells in the material body, and so the invisible power has endowed the body with sufficient understanding.

[* Zoroaster is meant here.]

It is due to the proper powers belonging to the soul that the latter is strengthened in its power of fully deliberating about the work relating to its material body. And it is the heavenly Yazads having the knowledge of spiritual things that infuse into this man (i.e. Zoroaster [Zarathushtra]) (the knowledge of the religion) for the good industry of mankind. The strength derived from religion, the yearning after God and the presence (in man) of the power of doing good and wise deeds are due to the powers which induce spiritual knowledge. The soul being in union with the material body makes man full of hot ardor (i.e. very eager to do good deeds).

The name of the religion which expounds the first of these creations (i.e. the soul) is Avestak. The people of the world know it as the tripartite religion. The three parts of the scriptures of the good religion are made up each of a third of the whole (i.e. 21 Nasks) and are separately named (Gatha, Dade, and Manthra). The Scriptures which are divided into these three parts and which are called the Avesta are for teaching the people to do good deeds. People (now-a-days) also call them (i.e. the scriptures) the exposition of the new religion. In this (Avesta) is given spiritual knowledge concerning the work of life. Through the zeal (inspired by) the instruction in good deeds set down in this religion, people learn the mysteries of the new religion and thereby acquire knowledge.

(The scriptures) should be recited in the form of prayers and spread among people by means of sermons. Life is in the body in order to make it attached to religion. He who acquires a name for spreading, by means of sermons, the knowledge of virtue among the people, does (so) owing to the spiritual understanding (in him). The angel who is most specially in communion with him is known in the Avesta as Ras or Khwarrah -- who is said to help the creation in times of affliction. Again (the priest) who relieves the sufferings of men by his sermons is regarded as a reliever of sufferings. Those sprung from his loins are full of light like the sun, the moon, and the stars; all the world is at their feet and among successful men they are naturally the most successful. Moreover, by the grace of the spiritual-foresight-bestowing and zeal-inducing inspiration from God, they, like the wind, drive off the Drujs owing to their spiritual-foresight-giving power. Those from among the people born in this world, who lead their lives guided by Akoman are looked upon as having been born for a life of evil deeds; just as, in this world, among men and the brute creation there are beings which live and move about in (spiritual) blindness under his (i.e. Akoman's) evil influence.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the life and death of the soul and the indication of its loss of luster. (366)

Be it known that the soul lives through wisdom and foresight and dies through evil thought and obstinacy. The soul becomes luminous through friendship and questioning-intercourse with wise and foresight-increasing men and loses its luster through friendship, intercourse and conversation with evil rulers of evil genius who depopulate the world and turn a deaf ear to the religion of God. And it is accustomed to do deeds of goodness through the wisdom of the excellent (religion) of holy commandments and it acquires the strength to do deeds of evil through evil and deceitful anger.

Exposition in the good religion regarding light and darkness and the benefit and harm accruing therefrom. (367)

Be it known that the soul is benefited by the light (i.e. the Yazadikhoreh [Yazad-e Khwarrah], the active influence of angelic powers) which discloses (to the soul) to an unbounded extent, faith in immortality, cheerfulness, light, love, deliberation and deeds of piety and merit. Just as wisdom and truth are beneficial for immortality, so also the sun, moon and stars are beneficial to water, the vegetable, and brute creation, men, rain, and other good creations, by averting the damage of Ahriman. Their light possessing as it does this beneficial virtue is known as the reliever of suffering. The light of the sun clears off the obstacle of the sinful (i.e. keeps off unholiness) and the light of the sun (also) loosens the fetters of the rain (i.e. sends down the rain which was held back). Through (spiritual) darkness the immortal soul suffers harm in (the shape of) fear and terror and dread of blindness, and setting (i.e. dying) without doing any work and ignorance (of spiritual knowledge). People are excessively damaged by ignorance, falsehood, the stoppage of the sun in its course, the passing away of (the sun's) heat and by other evils. And this damage is repaired by the working of the Yazads in their midst (i.e. in the midst of the evils.)

Exposition in the good religion regarding the superior strength of Ohrmazd by virtue of which the faithful avert the calamities of the times. (368)

Be it known that Ohrmazd has given the Mazdayasnian faith to men to keep off and disable Ahriman down to the Frashegird. Through (this religion) Ahriman is always being broken down in his blooming condition (i.e. vigor). And through it (also) the good creation will be continually smiting Ahriman down to the Day of Judgment, without (even) waiting to see him. And people of the good religion will so get the better of each and every intention of Ahriman that he will at that time stand in fear of being disabled and withered up through the good religion and the faithful belonging to it. It will be considered the superior strength of the creator Ohrmazd to subdue and drive out Ahriman and He will thus be encouraged and will (finally) succeed in regenerating the world and exalting the Mazdayasnian faith. These times have been described in the good religion; so also the other parts of the scriptures of the faith contain the particulars as to the times when the good creations of the Mazdayasnian religion will be under the influence of Spenamino, and when under that of Ganamino and when they will reach the most exalted state and when the lowest.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the parts of the body and the soul. (369)

Be it known that the life (of man) springs from the first or the spiritual world, and the union of the soul with all bodies is due to (life), and the union of the soul with the material bodies of this world is through the limbs of the body. The limbs remain in (normal) order through health and the normal body is the abode of (the soul). Again there are two particulars regarding (the soul). The first is about doing the work relating to the figure, the second about doing the work relating to the wish. The work of the figure is done through the union of the soul with the (potential) body, just as metal is (potentially in) the earth, trees (potentially) in earth and water, and fruits (potentially) in the roots of the trees, and (just as) animals get milk and every other comely thing of life such as feet, blood, skin, and hair from vegetable food and water. In like manner other things (are produced) through the instrumentality of the wish, just as the figure-framer-out-of-wood (i.e. the carpenter) makes the musical pipes and other things, and the potter makes earthen vessels through wish, and the goldsmith through his wish to make them, makes golden armlets, anklets, nail-pairing knife, ear-rings, and finger-rings. In like manner other things are produced by the joint action of the figure and the wish, for instance, man, with (the peculiar human) features, and wheat and other similar grains (the figure of which is potentially in) the earth.* (In such things) the real wish of the maker is to be seen from the face or figure and the limbs*.

[* somewhat unintelligible.]

The sugar-cane grows from the earth and (people grow it because it) is liked for its sweetness, just as, people in these days like to eat clarified butter because of the well-proportioned mixture of sugar with it. The wish (i.e. mind) (of man) becomes purer and fresher by the sight (i.e. contemplation) of the objects of the universe. It is stated in the religion that man acquires spiritual luster and glory through the presiding influence of angelic powers. In the same manner magician rulers move in the darkness of evil glory through the influence of demons. The knowledge of all kinds regarding this and the other world is derived from this source (the soul?) as it has been said by the wise men of old that the soul and its parts contain in them all knowledge concerning (the soul).

Exposition in the good religion regarding the superior rank of divine worship. (370)

Be it known that, the Yazads shine in men owing to (their) goodness and cease to shine owing to (their) evil. There are good men to increase the welfare of the world and wicked men to harm the goodness of the world, hence (men) cannot attain to perfection.

The most exalted rank of the believer in God is due to two causes. First through the communion of Ohrmazd with the man's soul from the very commencement, his wisdom and Farohar act for the benefit of all. Secondly, it is stated in the religion that at the epoch of the Tanepashin he will obtain a final and complete victory over Ahriman. And by driving out Ahriman once for all (from the world) and by depriving him of his luster all animated bodies will be regenerated and saved from hell and people of the world will lead useful lives, and at the time of the last reformation all men will be rid of (the reign of) injustice and will live as citizens in the presence of the creator Ohrmazd.

Exposition in the good religion regarding what the creation thinks of the strength of God. (371)

Be it known that every (creation) has thoughts about each of its acts and is in motion for that act. The movements of all creation for each of their good and evil acts are different, one from the other. The craving of man is towards objects of the most exalted existence, that is to say, the soul. Every living man has a wish either for meritorious or for sinful acts. No creature either of the spiritual or of this world is without such a wish. No man can think or do anything without this wish. Man becomes exalted because of the thought of the presiding influence of the angelic powers, for he thereby leaves off the idea of the work of the one (i.e. the idea of sin). He, who when he has thoughts about the work of his life, is influenced by the (good) powers of this and the other world, is devoid of the strength of that other (i.e. Ganamino). By moving uniformly with Ahriman man is placed by Ahriman under the influence of his (own) stars, And he who in the industry of his work is as it were an agent of Ahriman is continually stirred by Ahriman as the latter's own creation. Just as there is a distinct path for the heavenly bodies among the sun, moon and stars or just as in the heavens there are some stars which move in the path of Ohrmazd and others in the path of Ahriman, so also that man moves in the path of Ahriman. In like manner fire and water gather strength from the winds; this strength was primarily given to them to help them in their appropriate work and not to enable them to abuse it but by wishing to move about (violently) for their work (i.e. by not confining themselves within proper limits) they have gone astray and have turned towards evil acts. Those men in whom their wishes prompt them to work for the supremacy of the most far-seeing, exalted, and holy Yazads are always doing acts of a superior kind, as being creations in communion with the Yazads.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the three sorts of men of the Mazdayasnian faith who among workers are considered perfect by Ohrmazd and are worthy of confidence. (372)

Be it known that among the workers, three sorts of men of the Mazdayasnian faith who are considered full (i.e. perfect) by Ohrmazd are worthy of confidence. Their particulars are as follows: One is (the judge) doing justice impartially in the sight of God and where the evidence is clear, never injuring anybody at all by a false decision.

The second is (the priest) giving after perfect deliberation the necessary instruction to every man through pure foresight derived from God.

And the third is (the king) with the luster of justice (i.e. the divinely gifted king) who shines out (in the world) through the grace of the perfect inspiration of Ohrmazd.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the faiths of Ohrmazd and Ahriman -- their garment and their improvement -- and their continuance -- and the names proper to their votaries. (373)

Be it known that the religion of Ohrmazd is the wisdom of Ohrmazd. Its garment is goodness, its adorner is truth, and its worthy servants are the Yazdanparasts (i.e. worshippers of God) and its end is belief in God. And those who serve it obediently are called Yazdanparasts. And men of wisdom, the wise king and the pious Zoroastrian head priest are the persons who keep the faith alive in the world. The faith of Ahriman is the evil genius of Ahriman; its garment is virtue-injuring teaching; its adorner is falsehood and deceit; its votaries are the worshippers of demons; its end is faith in the demon and its obedient servants are believers in demons. Its end is demon-worship and it is kept alive in the world by the wicked king and the hypocrite priest who among clever men turn a deaf ear to the teaching of the good religion.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the Drujs who inflict the first, second, and third calamities on men at their birth and the intentions of Ohrmazd opposing the Drujs. (374)

Be it known that the being to inflict the first calamity on men at their birth is the Druj Akoman. And before the act of being born is fully completed he inflicts the misery of pain and gives man a foretaste of what he is to suffer at the Tanepashin. And this is indicated by the infant crying at its birth. Vohuman the opponent of this Druj shows man the final eternal life (to be obtained) at the epoch of the Tanepashin by (the practice of) virtue. And this is indicated by the child spending its time in merriment.

The second calamity is inflicted by the Druj Az (Greed). He is the power weakening the body of the child by hunger and thirst. The child by the sustenance of the delicious hunger-satisfying and thirst-allaying milk gets its due deliverance from its creator Ohrmazd and wins a victory over that (Druj). And this food which fully satisfies the cravings of the body is the smiter of the Druj Az (i.e. Hunger).

The Druj who inflicts the third calamity is the Druj who harms the body and makes (man) indolent by dishonest (i.e. immoderate) slumber. The harm done by him is checked by honest (i.e. necessary) and body-refreshing rest.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the indications of the object (i.e. rain) and the inferences therefrom. (375)

Be it known that there are four kinds of indication regarding the object in the sky. First is the object itself without any indications, second is the object itself, with (indications) in (the sky), the third is the object itself, without (indications) in the sky, the fourth is the absence of the object itself and the absence of any indication in the sky.

The object itself without any indications is the rainy season during which the sky ought to be clouded; but when there are no movements of the wind and clouds which two are indications of rain, it is to be understood that the rain has passed away.

The object itself may be with indications in the sky; for instance, when during summer there are clouds and the wind does not blow and the clouds are stationary, it is to be understood that this is an indication of rain.

If the object is without indications in (the sky), for instance, when it is the rainy season and the birds have built their nests, it must be understood that it is an indication of rain, that is to say, rain will be falling down from above.

If there is no object itself in (the sky) nor any indication concerning it in the sky, as when during summer the birds have built their nests as an indication of rain (i.e. protection against expected rain) it must be understood that though the sky is not clouded still rain must come.

Exposition in the good religion regarding smokeless and smoky fires. (376)

Be it known that the smokeless fire shines with purity and has connection with the worthy Yazads and the smoky fire contains impure substances and shines with a dark lusterless smoke. For this reason, of all smoky fires, the fire of hell is the most smoky. The smoky fires burn in the arable land for dryness, and act as dry heat to dry (the land). The fires for drying moisture are (the sun and the moon) shining in the sky.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the sufferings of the lying Ganamino and the superior rank and superior strength of Spenamino. (377)

Be it known that the evil speaking Ganamino (has to) suffer, that is to say, he is worsted in the fight with the creation of Ohrmazd and turns back to hell. And Spenamino gets the better of him in that Ganamino suffers on account of the defeat of his creation and his creation is defeated on account of this suffering. Spenamino obtains a victory over Ganamino because Ganamino is defeated and his creation is rendered unworthy. The creation of Spenamino remains united to him in order widely to spread the good religion (in the world) at the last reformation. And Spenamino guides (his creation) by knowledge and foresight. Some of the distresses and pain of Ganamino which are an index, throughout life, of this Druj are suffered by (man) when he guides his soul to evil by the blind eyes of Ganamino, in other words, if the evil genius of Ganamino were not to enter (the soul of) man, man would never fall into the deep pit of hell.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the understanding of the strength of both the Minos (i.e. Spenamino and Ganamino). (378)

Be it known that (man) is enabled so to understand both the spiritual powers that he who (thoroughly) knows Spenamino reaches his presence and attains to heaven and he who knows Ganamino goes to him and to hell leaving victorious heaven.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the creation of Spenamino being fully adorned and that of Ganamino being hurtful. (379)

Be it known that the creation of Spenamino is in every way adorned because of its life being to a certain extent always duly virtuous and the creation of Ganamino is to a certain extent (ill) adorned through (Ganamino) and is desolate and harmful because of everything relating to Ganamino and also on account of the influence of his dishonest (i.e. evil) strength. Moreover the creation of Spenamino contains in it the source of the virtuous-thought-power and the creation of Ganamino mars its own interests for its own unhappiness. And so without the creation of Spenamino the creation of Ganamino appears (to men) to be full of dark thoughts.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the continuance of the human race in the midst of the most dangerous oppressiveness of Ganamino. (380)

Be it known that the creator Ohrmazd has given the ornament of life to his creation in the midst of the oppressiveness of Ahriman and has caused it to move about in this world and wish for the things of this life through desires. The men in this world who are hale and hearty and comfortable are without any connection with Ahriman and never go astray from their (original) strength. And like the Ameshaspands endowed with the strength of righteousness and desirous of averting calamity, they are superior in rank to inflictors of calamity in this world. And through this very cause man is devoid of harm-inflicting desires and like exalted spiritual light succeeds in this world of woe, just as the inward spiritual fire keeps the bodily fire, water, and earth alive and active. It is a dangerous (i.e. difficult) task (for man) to propagate and continue his species aright in this world surrounded by the oppressiveness of Ganamino.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that men should regard themselves as servants of God. (381)

Be it known that all men acquire an exalted rank and attain to every virtue by regarding themselves as servants of God. And the good Yazads furnish these men with three principal things of life. The first is to be without want, the second is to be without death, the third is to realize one's wishes.

Man acquires freedom from want by satisfying all the proper needs of the body and thus he (is able to) store up proper wealth (i.e. righteousness) for himself. Even in adverse times he can do much to satisfy these proper needs by this acquired stock of wealth and thus adds to his joy. And through this, man with needs becomes without wants.

The craving (of man) to be without death is satisfied by (the satisfaction of) hunger; it is harmful to feed his descendants (i.e. children) with more milk than they require, for the benefit of immortality (i.e. with a view to avert death).

The auspicious time of his (good) stars always enables (man) to realize his wishes, and desire for dishonest wealth becomes intensified (in such auspicious times) in the case of wealth-craving people. The desire for the wealth which brings comfort and strength with it is lasting (i.e. always realized), (but) the desire (of man) to harm (others) through wealth is not realized and this disappointment causes increased suffering and grief to him. By attaining to his wishes man acquires merit and joy. The servant of God cannot know Him nor please mankind in the midst of the oppressiveness of Ganamino. Man attains to an exalted position by fully knowing God and becomes perfect through the virtues derived from God.

But man in the wicked state lives to please the other (i.e. Ahriman) and thus cannot attain to an exalted rank by means of virtues bestowed by God. Hence men cannot be made perfect by the other (i.e. Ganamino). If man does not regard the two (i.e. Spenamino and Ganamino) as of equal rank or regards the one as superior and the other as inferior, he does not look upon them as of equal rank. In the world the ignorant (i.e. Ganamino) cannot equal the Creator. Nor can he (the ignorant) create (anything, either) less or more. Hence (man) cannot please both at the same time. Again how can the oppressive Ahriman be considered the equal of the Joy-giver. Bearing all this in mind, men should never argue that he who works harm to the creation is the one who keeps mankind happy and creates all things. But let this be fully understood by men that it is because of God that all live happily together. It is noted (in the religion) that at the epoch of the Tanepashin that Blemish-giver Ahriman will be driven away from mankind.

Exposition in the good religion as to what is the strongest in the creation. (382)

Be it known that when we see, that sheep and goats are for keeping the graceful race of man strong and well-nourished, we understand that the strength of sheep and goats is of a superior order and when it is seen that the bodies of sheep and goats are well-nourished on vegetation, the strength of the vegetable creation appears to be more important. When we find that trees grow from the earth and that trees invest men and cattle with luster, we see that the earth is of greater importance for giving comfort. When we find that air moves water, the earth, animal, vegetable, and human creation, we understand that air gives the greater strength to life. When we find that light moves air, which presides over life, we understand that this light, giving as it does all adequate help, is the strongest. And when we find from the good religion that the victorious Farohar is the presiding object which guides the light (i.e. the soul), we infer that these victorious Farohars by their angelic luster, influence for good the sky, air, water, and earth. Again, when the sun, the moon and the stars appear to us full of light, we infer that powerful holy Farohars preside over them. Just as now on the surface of the earth, religious men are the superior rulers and leaders of people of the world, so the strength-giving Yazads enjoy supremacy over the (religious and pious) men of this world.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the two sources. (383)

Be it known that men's acts are either meritorious or sinful. Meritorious acts spring from the wish of man to act righteously and their helper is Vohuman or the good-thought-wisdom relating to life.

Sinful acts on the part of men spring from the wish to act sinful and they are due to the evil-minded perverse intelligent in men. The good-thought-wisdom brings righteousness, piety, advantage, and happiness from God to men. And the evil-minded perverse intelligence induces sin, impiety, harm, and grief in men. When men are not for righteousness, piety, religion and happiness of mankind all of which are induced by the good-thought power, the evil-minded perverse intelligence lives in men to induce sin, impiety, harm, and sorrow. He in whom the principle of conscience is of the good nature of the body and related to the source of the good-thought wisdom, -- his nature is like that of the Yazads who bring righteousness, piety, advantage, and happiness to men. It appears from this that of the two sources one is for righteousness, piety, advantage, and happiness and is akin to the source of virtue, the other brings on sin, falsehood, harm, sorrow, and suffering. The priests, who are of the source of the one (i.e. Ahriman) and whose religion is that of the greedy, bring sin, falsehood, harm, and sorrow in life for the suffering of mankind and are known as the enemies of the world. Such a religion should never be called, as it is called, a divine religion, meant for the salvation of mankind.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the abode of righteousness and the deep pit of sin. (384)

Be it known that the abode of righteous men (in the other world) is owing to (the following) four causes. One is (obtained) by worshipping God; the second, by love of God; the third, by zeal for that love; and the fourth, by love for His worship. The abode for righteousness (of the first sort) is of the most exalted order, that (for the second) is slightly inferior, that (for the third) is slightly inferior to that of the most obedient (of God) and (the last) is akin to that of the most obedient.

Ohrmazd is worshipped by praising with a loud clear voice the good (Yazads, Ameshaspands, and virtuous men) for love of virtue. And hence (this man) attains to the highest abode of righteousness, That (man) loves Ohrmazd who pleases the good (i.e. Ohrmazd, the Ameshaspands, the Yazads, and virtuous men) through the love for virtue and thereby obtains due reward for (actions in) this world and hence (the God-loving man) is considered to be (fit for the abode) near to the highest abode of righteousness.

The man who loves Ohrmazd obtains due reward for his actions in this world by pleasing the good for the sake of his love of virtue, and hence is considered (fit for the abode) near to the abode of righteousness for the most obedient of God.

The man who has a love for the worship of God attains to the abode of righteousness (reserved for) the most obedient of God by praising the good (i.e. the creator and his Yazads and Ameshaspands) with a loud clear voice.

In like manner there are the following four places for the sinful man. The first for him who worships evil, the second for him who pleases evil, the third for (him who worships) the evil-minded, and the fourth for him who loves the worship of evil. Of the abodes for sin, (the first) is the lowest, (the second) is nearer to the lowest, (the third) is near to the upper abode (of hell) and (the fourth) is the higher abode of hell for sin.

The sin of worshipping the evil (i. e. Ganamino) consists in doing harm to the good out of sheer enmity to them and for such a one there is the abode of sin of the lowest order. The sin of pleasing evil consists in attempting to obtain worldly advantage by doing harm to the good out of enmity to them and the abode of hell for this sin is the one near to the lowest. The sin of worshipping the evil-minded consists in doing harm openly to the good for the sake of worldly advantage and the hell for this sin is near to the higher abode of sin. The sin of loving the worship of evil consists in obtaining worldly advantage by doing harm to the good. Considering the abode and dignity of righteousness, all the abodes of righteousness are full of dignity and splendor. And within the abodes of hell for (repentance of) sin, there are abodes more or less miserable, according to the degree of intention of sinning.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the reasons why man reaps no advantage from undesirable qualities and why he is said to succeed in obtaining various advantages through one other single good quality. (385)

Be it known that man is made to govern the body, and by performing approvable acts, he is able to rule over the other creations of this world. (Men) by reason of the capacity to perform approvable acts in virtue of this supremacy, think, speak, and act nobly for the soul and leave off everything that is not in conformity with nobility of thought, speech, and deed (for the soul). They preserve their souls from contact with impurities and deliver those under their sway from punishment in hell. And other men (capable of performing good acts) who are made to succeed by the single unique (Zoroaster [= Zarathushtra]) through their different good qualities, succeed through the strength of one man (Zoroaster), exactly as it is through the strength of the shepherd that the (shepherd) dog leads the sheep, the creation of Vohuman.

If the shepherd as leader of these two (the flock and the dog) leads them in a manner to be approved of -- the dog in the front and the flock in the middle -- those who hate him, seeing the dog in front, are scared by the superior strength of the latter. Thieves no longer carry away the flock nor do wolves, out of fear, steal away and devour them; and children are benefited and nourished to the full by their milk.

If the shepherd, in violation of the (usual) rule, keeps the flock in the front and the dog in their midst, the sheep suffer harm owing to the dog being in their midst and the sheep being in the front are carried away by thieves and devoured by wolves. And thus the shepherd loses his wealth and his soul becomes sinful.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that the religious man is never polluted through (observance of) the laws of virtue but he surely becomes polluted through the religion of the Demons. (386)

Be it known that the religions man never becomes polluted by (observance of) the laws of virtue, for he performs every act of righteousness enjoined in the religion because it is righteous and avoids sinful acts because they are sinful.

Again, the man who follows the religion of (the Demon) by avoiding righteous acts because they are set down as sinful in his religion and performing all those sinful acts which are laid down as righteous in his religion becomes polluted through the religion of the Demons.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the appointment of men to religious offices after due examination. (387)

Be it known that before a man is appointed to govern or to administer justice, (his qualifications) must be tested; then only should he be appointed governor or judge so that he may not turn out a wicked ruler or a deliverer of wrong judgments anywhere. Thus the state is strengthened by the man appointed to govern and to administer justice and wars are averted by the proper administration of justice. For when people have personal experience of wicked rule and partial justice they purposely withhold their support from and overthrow the wicked ruler and the partial judge in the very commencement of their tyrannical (career) without enduring their tyranny. The wicked ruler and the partial judge are for doing harm to the world. For the same reason the head of the state-religion must be tested and examined before his appointment so that the state and its strength and prosperity may continue for ever and the religion (of the state) may nowhere be considered false.

The glory and the splendor of the state are darkened, in the sight of men, by the degeneracy of the state religion but they are attracted to the state by the purity of the state religion. The dress of its administration (i.e. good administration) ought to make people regard it with a kindly eye. When they see the state in a fallen condition they are not disposed to look upon its defects as virtues. They who examine it minutely find it wicked and lifeless so that they naturally repent of having been attracted to it and wish to turn against it. All who live in such a tyrannical state suffer harm and their souls become sinful.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the lawful and unlawful killing of men. (388)

Be it known that to kill a man unlawfully is to kill through sheer passion. And all (those who do so) are of the nature of Demons and Drujs. The qualities pertaining to Demons and Drujs, greed, evil-thought, anger, spite, jealousy, and other evil passions which lead men on to sin and the infliction of harm, proceed from Demons. Men with the (evil) strength of wolves and ferocious animals are the Demons and Drujs of this world.

To kill lawfully is to kill with the approval of wisdom. For as among men who benefit the creation and men who do harm to mankind, there are those who lead a godly life and are of God and others who are of the strength of Demons and turn away (from God), it is just and lawful to kill these (latter,) as enjoined by religion and ordered by the king. When men of superior wisdom kill sheep (and goats) of a certain age for the more important ceremonies of religion without the (formal) permission of good people and the heads of religion they perform an act which must be understood as strengthening men and the good Yazads and inflicting serious harm upon the Demons.*

[* On Gahambar and Jashan days, pious Zoroastrians are enjoined to partake of the flesh of sheep and goats over three years old, after it has been duly consecrated by yozdathregar mobeds; this practice, it is believed, pleases the Yazads and baffles the Drujs.]

The priests who in the name of religion kill sheep and goats unlawfully do a deal of harm through their evil and vicious acts, and are without the infinite advantages (conferred by) the pure religion and (heedless of) the monitions of virtue and goodness.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the seven excellent gifts bestowed upon king Kay Vishtasp to enable him to spread the good religion in all parts and to secure a high dignity for it. (389)

Be it known that according to the scriptures seven excellent gifts were conferred (by Ohrmazd) on the wise Kayanian king Vishtasp to enable him to surpass his predecessors. So also were they conferred on those of his line who were to succeed him to enable them to govern (well). These (gifts) are even now to be found among wise kings in order to spread the justice of God among men.

The first excellent gift bestowed (upon him) security and increase of empire and dignified spiritual virtue.

The second excellent gift had reference to spreading his justice among the people of the world and keeping them satisfied with their allegiance to his exalted supremacy.

The third excellent gift conferred valor and success of the highest order.

The fourth excellent gift had reference to giving food to all (the needy) that came every day (to beg) at the threshold of the door.

The fifth excellent gift enabled him to have (about him) a strong armed cavalry to baffle the foe.

The sixth excellent gift bestowed upon him a queen of the most excellent character (adorning) the royal palace.

The seventh excellent gift had reference to the appointment, according to their different grades, of virtuous men adorned with all manner of wisdom (i.e. the dasturs and mobeds) to preserve the fire and keep the water pure, in all the fire-temples throughout the length and breadth of his dominions. So that every one of the faithful may, in accordance with (the king's) wishes, continue to maintain his body and soul in a pure state and thus enable the king to administer the affairs of his kingdom in constant communion with the higher influences of the spiritual world.

When men love and help one another to the best of their power they derive the greatest pleasure from loving their fellow-men.

When men do not let evil qualities dwell in them and drive out those that attempt to invade their bodies, they acquire the best virtues which enable them to take heart and be successful (in their efforts); and thus they are always encouraged (i.e. confident of success in their efforts against evil). He who at his door gives to the pious dervishes food and water enough to supply their wants, obtains an excellent thing (in return) -- supreme command over this world and dignity in the next. When a man continues to give food and water all the while to (poor) people at his door, he maintains an admirable system for the distribution of the necessary provisions at his door.

He who spends a portion of his life in performing meritorious acts and in abstaining from sin, exalts his soul.

He who performs great and virtuous acts in this world obtains the gift of a large army of great strength to destroy the enemy.

He who is hospitable towards the good and entertains (his guests) with what has been given him is regarded as endowed with higher gifts than the (other) good men of his city.

He, who by means of his authority at home preserves the sheep and goats, fire, and water in his house, is by this excellent deed, superior to the holy men who preserve only the fire of Ohrmazd and the virtuous men who keep only the water pure.

He who loves each of these seven practices as best as he can and makes them his own, obtains for himself the reward of greatness equal to (the greatness of) the above-mentioned seven gifts conferred on the Kayanian king Vishtasp.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the benefit-conferrer and the evil-doer of this world. (390)

Be it known that everything in this world has in it the principle both of the benefit-conferrer and of the harm-doer. Of all things (in this world) that which has nothing to do with the harm-doer is related to the benefit conferrer. For instance, heat and moisture promote the growth of vegetation, and the presence of cold and dryness in the trees threatens to dry up vegetation. In the good religion four persons (or sets of persons) are mentioned as inflicting harm on the world. The first of these is (the group made up of Ahriman) of the evil religion doing harm to water, fire, and to the other life-promoting-and-multiplying sources and of the men who ruin and harm the world through his influence.

The second is the religious teacher who imparts undesirable religious instruction and who expounds evil precepts; for it is he who instructs the priests of the evil religion in the evil practices of subverting the supremacy of God and destroying the all-wise religion.

The third is he who helps thieves with his wealth and destroys all the property of the Iranians, (i.e. the men of the good religion) which they may have received from God.

The fourth set is made up of the justice-destroying judges who get the better of (good) judges of the world by their wrong judgments and who are the patrons of those that render the world desolate and deliberately offer evil help to the government (i.e. lead the government astray).

Again, there are four persons who confer ease (i.e. happiness) on the world. The first is he who, to continue the state of happiness, keeps the fire, water and the other life-promoting sources of the world pure and unpolluted by harmful objects, in accordance with the requirements of the good religion and takes good care of the fires and duly preserves soul-possessing objects; so that his descendants in the midst of wise men, lead a glorious, healthy, successful, and holy life and to a certain extent ameliorate (the world).

The second is the teacher who imparts desirable instruction in the faith to the seeker after religious knowledge and commandments and protects the all-wise religion from the sinful harm done by the priests of the evil religion. And hence people conduct themselves aright by the precepts of the true religion and the government acquires luster and the world becomes graceful.

The third is the wealthy man who spreads greatness, peace, and generosity (in the world), (by whom) the world is exalted, men reformed and made to shed luster (on their race) and (through whom) people of the world live contented and the Yazads are pleased.

Fourthly: Justice is impaired by the success of corrupt, false, and evil judges and justice is adorned by the successes of good and impartial judges. Owing to these virtues (of the judges) people live prosperously and well and without fear; they are protected and they multiply, and the pillars of the state are strengthened.

Exposition in the good religion regarding good and bad qualities. (391)

Be it known that good qualities are for the final life. They belong to the Yazads and every soul-possessing creature should have them. Through them the Yazads are in communion with men. Hence any thought in the mind that has no reference to the (happiness of the) soul in the final life should be abandoned.

Deeds which procure the final life to virtuous men a (done) through the understanding. The thought of obedience to God is for obtaining the strength of the final life; and the final life is (obtained) through thought of obedience to God. One is qualified for the final life by carefully living a virtuous life and carefully living a virtuous life is for obtaining the final life. A contented final life is through industry (in good deeds) and industry is for a contented final life. To obtain the next life by virtuous movements (actions) is through the power of endurance (i.e. enduring the ills that befall man) and the power of endurance is for doing virtuous deeds.

The final life for deliverance (from hell) is through virtuous deeds and virtuous deeds are for deliverance of the final life from hell. The final life is (obtained) through ready and willing obedience to God and ready and willing obedience to God is for the final life.

An exalted final life is through charity and charity for an exalted final life. The constant study for acquiring a knowledge of the final life is through the presiding influence of patience and patience presides (in man) for acquiring a knowledge of the final life and performing religious deeds.

The final life is through an acceptance of the precepts of religion. So also the final life is (obtained through acquiescing in the precepts of religion with an exalted faith. The final life is through an intelligent love of deeds that have the final life for their end. So also the final life is for honor. The final life is through living a sinless life and a striving after righteousness leads on to a holiness for the final life. All the other good qualities (necessary) for the final life abide in men owing to the excellent nature of his soul.

The harmful qualities are owing to the frequent influences of the sinful (Ganamino). Every evil quality is through the abode of that sinful one (in man). He who is without the knowledge of religion, has in him foolish vanity instead of wisdom and evil nature instead of honesty, the thought of the spiteful (Ganamino) instead of obedience to God, thoughts of wrathfulness instead of a contemplation of the supreme power (of the next world) and evil thought instead of worthiness. (He is given to) slander instead of to praise; to be idle instead of being contented; to be grasping instead of being industrious;* to be vicious instead of being virtuous; to be thievish instead, of being helpful for good; to be a rogue instead of being a pious man; to sin instead of leading a moral life; to turn a deaf ear to virtuous talk instead of feeding on virtuous thoughts; to fall into disgrace instead of being obedient to God; to be miserly instead of being generous; to be diminishing instead of augmenting; to be perverse and evil instead of constantly studying the all-wise religion; to go without a knowledge of religion instead of cultivating the understanding; to live selfishly instead of loving religion and (living) in conformity with reason; to practice magic and deceit instead of performing reasonable actions. He has impudence instead of modesty; poverty instead of competency; the best (i.e. shameless) faithlessness instead of obedience; ungratefulness instead of faithfulness; the obstructing of righteousness instead of living without sin; destroying righteousness instead of practicing it. Besides these he has other evil qualities of the sinful instead of good qualities.

[* The epithets in this and the preceding clause seem to have been interchanged (to be idle instead of being industrious; to be grasping instead of being contented).]

Exposition in the good religion regarding the things the object of which is inferred (from their observed qualities) after creation and regarding the things which are known by the purposes for which they were created. (392)

Be it known that what is not visible in a thing to the eyes of man is its life. Wise men have known in more ways than one the why and the wherefore of man's life. Just as the wise God exists through His wisdom so unworthiness in the life of man is due to the influence of Ahriman over him. The self-existence of the Creator Ohrmazd is apparent from the existence of innumerable human beings and this also reveals the power of the Creator and His wisdom. The existence of the creation, man, shows the sovereignty of God (over man.) He can regulate His creation (as occasion requires) according to His wishes. He alone has created the universe and this fact enables us to infer many of His attributes. There are many reasons, which the wise know, why man cannot know God (as He really is). The existence of the evil-minded is through evil nature and such evil nature shows itself through various causes. One of these causes is that originally a good creation he (subsequently) became evil; moreover, being uneasy through want, he has not the power to repress his ambitious spirit. And not a single one of his creations is pure but will continue to be like him.

Among those who proceed from the source of Wisdom and those who proceed from the source of evil, (the former) are in inward communion with the Yazads and are as it were their equals and those who proceed from the power of destruction are not like the former in communion with the Yazads but are in communion with the evil source (from which they proceed and are as it were his partners.

The priests who are of the source of the one God are always honored because of their religion. Hence they should abstain from the religion which is manifestly false and should always cleave to the religion which pertains to the soul and become its partners (votaries).

Exposition in the good religion regarding the source and fruit of the happiness and misery of mankind. (393)

Be it known that animate human beings and other good creations are happy through thoughts of virtue and are miserable through thought of vice. He who conducts himself (in this world) with some degree of virtue does so for his happiness and he who conducts himself with vice does so for his misery. The source of happiness to the virtuous is wisdom, and that of misery to the vicious is for evil intellect. The wisdom which reigns over man makes of virtue and its source is the All-wise (God) and the origin of this wisdom is in the Creator Ohrmazd.

The evil intellect reigning over man makes for vice and its source is the evil-minded Ganamino and this source is not for him who is virtuous, for (the virtuous man) is pure and without the evil mind. The work of the vicious can never be done by the virtuous. The fruit of virtue is happiness and by it (man) acquires power for good. The vicious man reaps misery and becomes sinful in course of time. He who is a (good) man benefits mankind and the good creation. And misery the fruit of vice destroys happiness the fruit of virtue and harms mankind and other good creation. Through virtue man is obedient to God and has power for good and suffers misery through vice. It is for the good times of the Frashegird that mankind have to live in purity as regards men and the good creation.

Those who are priests cannot live without the religious source of the One (God) for (otherwise) their religion which is full of virtuous wisdom would be said to be united to the vicious evil intellect. The religion of vice which proceeds from the evil-minded source cannot be called a religion of virtue and is called the Demon-presided religion.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the men who have a middling rank among those who are the most exalted and regarding those who have a middling rank among those who are the lowest among mankind. (394)

Be it known that the class of men who are under the protection of the Ameshaspands have wisdom of a very superior order and the class of men who are far away from (their) protection are inferior to the sagacity-possessing sheep and goats. And the man between these two classes, who is endowed with godly wisdom of the highest order, has excellent knowledge of virtue and shines out (in the world) through natural wit improved by culture. And through his (culture and innate intelligence) he advances in moral development as a servant of God among men and reaches an exalted position by means of the wisdom of the Ameshaspands entering into him.

Among mankind the lowest is one who does not cultivate and add to his innate understanding by learning acquired from a knowledge-imparting teacher. Unless such a man reforms his heart and conscience, his propensities are very disgraceful and he is among men like sheep and goats devoid of sense and understanding.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the man of great, middling, inferior, and no value and the man desolating prosperity. (395)

Be it known that he who has the best knowledge of religion and who sings the Gathas and instructs (the people) most fully in the Mazdayasnian faith is a (man) of great value.*

[* This is applicable to Zoroaster and other divinely inspired leaders of the faith like Arda Viraf, Adarbad Mahraspandan, etc.]

He who is of the good religion, has great sense and sings the Gathas and instructs the people ordinarily in the Mazdayasnian faith is a man of middling value.*

[* This is applicable to the learned and religious dasturs and ervads and behdins who impart religious instruction to the people of their community.]

He who reforms his moral nature, has innate intelligence, sings the Gathas and instructs the people somewhat in the Mazdayasnian faith is of less value.+

[+ This applies to pious mobeds (priest) and behdins (laymen).]

Of no value at all is he who, though innately good and possessing sense enough for the good religion, is duped and rendered impure by the dark expositions of the priests of the evil religion and helps the specious (i.e. seeming noble) thoughts of the wicked priests with the evil education he has received from the priests of the evil religion.++

[++ This applies to those Zoroastrians who on the pretext of reform introduce practices and customs from other religions which are not in consonance with the spirit of the Zoroastrian faith.]

He turns prosperity into a desolate waste who, being duped by the priests of the evil religion, has imbibed their instructions and does harm to the followers of the Mazdayasnian faith. Such a hellish man must be slain for he is as deceitful as the priest of the evil religion and is as guilty as those who are guilty of mortal sin. (Such a man) never entertains higher thoughts.

Exposition in the good religion regarding substances not liable to change in this finite time and substances which do so change. (396)

Be it known that the man who in this finite time conforms to the will of Ohrmazd and lives secure from calamities never alters his original state. In this world men are born in an environment of evil. Those of this world who are of the good religion continue to live in this world prosperously through goodness and those who are of the evil religion live on in evil. By meritorious acts (pleasing to) the good Creator, unto whom be all praise, (man) obtains due reward; he suffers punishment by committing sins which pertain to the hateful evil one i.e. (Ganamino). Just as other things change in course of time and (just as) the affairs of the world are being carried on in various ways, so also the body (of man) changes from infancy to youth, youth to old age, ignorance to knowledge, evil to goodness, and from impiety to holiness.

Those substances which ought not to change can nevertheless change by endeavors after such change. For instance, the moon turns in various ways (i.e. has various phases) according to its age, as it passes from the crescent to the half-moon and from that again to the full moon. Golden ages pass on into silver times, and the silver age passes on into the steel age, and the steel into the iron age; so then a good deal of change must come over the state of the Iranians (i.e. the Mazdayasnian Zoroastrians). And men as well as other animals will pass in this period from their original state in this world into a state of nonexistence.*

[* The particulars regarding the phases of the moon are mentioned in the Mah Niyayesh and those about the different ages in the Behman Yasht.]

The religion of those priests whose principle it is to turn the souls of the religiously inclined from zeal for righteousness into a craving after evil is really evil, for through perverted vision of the good faith they turn a man away from yearning after it. They repent when they see their evil wish of today in it. proper light tomorrow.

Description according to the scriptures of the good faith, respectively of men who through power to see (i.e. being endowed with intelligence) improve and elevate themselves and of men who through evil power (i.e. evil intelligence) lower themselves and render themselves miserable among law-abiding people. (397)

Be it known that man has the power to see through his innate intelligence and this innate intelligence is the eye of the soul. The melioration of the eye is through the influence of Vohuman over his conscience. Its position and rank are increased by listening to the wise precepts of religion and diminished by refraining from listening to the wise precepts of religion.

Man has the strength of the stolen (i.e. false) wisdom through the tyrannous influence of Akoman over him. (The eye of intelligence is of three kinds). One of these is open in all possible ways, the second is more open and the third is half open. And on this principle men are divided into the five following classes. One is with fully open eyes, the second with eyes more open (than what they were before), the third with half open eyes, the fourth with eyes considerably shut, and the fifth with eyes completely closed.

The man with fully open eyes is so through the abode of Vohuman in his conscience. And man is rendered miserable through Akoman reigning in his conscience. By (a knowledge of) the precepts of religion man is dignified with the wisdom of religion and this dignity confers superior wisdom, foresight, and spiritual knowledge. The eyes of intelligence are more open (than what they were before) when the man allows the overpowering light of Vohuman to fall on the conscience after having removed from it all thought of the dark Akoman and when he is in touch with the precepts of the all-wise religion through the force of his understanding (i.e. when he recites the Avesta.) The dignity (enjoyed by such man) confers knowledge of life, superior rank, and supreme glory.

The eye of intelligence is half open by the man making the dim light of Vohuman in the conscience shine more brightly and by removing the clouded (i.e. dark) thought of Akoman which is spread over the conscience.

(Man) has middling knowledge concerning the faith by being in touch with the precepts of that faith (i.e. by reciting the Avesta). This dignity confers knowledge of life and of faith.

The eye of intelligence is considerably shut by the light of Vohuman in the conscience being weaker and the cloud of the thought of Akoman being more thickly overspread therein and (it is considerably shut) through a most superficial study of the all-wise precepts of religion. (A man in) this position leads men astray in this world.

The eye of intelligence is completely closed by the dim light of Vohuman in (the man's) conscience passing away altogether and by the thought of the pain-inflicting Akoman being completely blended with the conscience and (it is also completely closed) by not reciting the wise words of the faith. This state harms his life, drags it through the mire, inflicts pain and suffering, causes damage and clouds the understanding.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the various sorts of kings of the world. (398)

Be it known that the kings of the world are of the following four sorts. Of which one is said to be a reforming king, the second a hopeful king, the third is always dreading (evil), and the fourth is ill at ease. The following are the particulars regarding these.

The reforming king has an insight into the evil times of the subjects and is anxious to concert remedial measures before his subjects are ruined.

The hopeful king understands full well his evil times and hopes to change the bad times into good by his wisdom.

The king who is always dreading is of evil intelligence and through his evil intelligence, being constantly in dread of (coming) evil even in the midst of prosperity, becomes miserable.

The king who is ill at ease is of evil intelligence and during his reign does not attempt to nip evil times in the bud.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that Ohrmazd is the Creator of men in this world in order that they may do deeds for the reformation of the spiritual world and that the Blemish-giver (Ganamino) instigates men to do deeds of harm in both the worlds. (399)

Be it known that God has created men in this world for the purpose of performing deeds which may shed luster on (his) soul. Again, man is endowed with life (in this world) because he has also been given human wisdom (i.e. wisdom which differentiates him from the brute creation). In order to realize the desires of the soul the material body must be nourished and meritorious acts inspired by divine wisdom must be performed. For the thought of its (i.e. the soul's) existence should present itself to (men) in the affairs of both the worlds.

The Blemish-giver (Ahriman) makes men perform through greed injurious and harmful deeds in both the worlds. Hence (men) suffer a miserable death, acquire an evil intelligence and become vicious, ignorant of religion, greedy, immoderate in desires and perverse in thought. Such men lead a life in communion with Ahriman and by their Demon-and-Druj-like deeds make men polluted and of evil appearance. For greedy desires shut men out from the benefits of heaven by impelling them to dishonest (i.e. evil) deeds of the soul. The man who so acts in this world as to do harm to himself in the spiritual world and risk his soul in both the worlds and who leads a life of the body (i.e. a sensual life) becomes sinful through the influence of the evil (Ganamino.) His it is of set purpose, to wrangle in the interest of vice without the knowledge of religion, to sin through evil intelligence, to sham righteousness and to render himself unfit for the dual work of moral advancement for the next world and deliverance of the soul (from hell.) Hence he suffers misery in the next world, does harm to his soul and suffers pain in hell through (indulgence of) perverse desires (in this world).

Contentment beats down greed (for contentment), suppresses the desire which plunders the soul (of its good qualities) to render it greedy and ungrateful. The good-thought-power drives out the evil-thought-power This good-thought-power asserts its sway over the conscience of man by suppressing the evil-thought-power which plunders (the soul of its) godly desires and renders it ungrateful.

The man who is by nature wise keeps off greed from the wishes of the soul (the companion and chief) of the wise Urvan, through contentment.

(Man), by being the constant friend of the good-thought-power keeps off the evil-thought-power which makes the heart and Conscience of man inactive (for meritorious actions.) And it (i.e. the good-thought-power) impels man through the heart and conscience to deeds conformable to the just and moderate desires of the soul and nourishes his body.

By contentment in the heart, the knowledge of meritorious actions enters into man's desires. And such a man performs religious deeds through desire, thought and word. And he is zealous to nourish the body and to perform meritorious actions full of the wisdom of the faith. He does acts which may cover him with glory in the next world, recites the appropriate portions of the Avesta to bring his soul into a state of happiness, obtains deliverance from hell and rejoices.

Again, man should drive out from the desires of the soul indolence, unintelligent education, laziness and evil knowledge about thieving which all are due to the influence of the highway men (i.e. the Demons and Drujs). Man becomes vicious through greed and through the domineering desire of worldly greed becomes like a dishonest Farehbut and through the force of the evil intellect becomes like a vicious sinful person without the knowledge of religion. And (man) through the evil intellect becomes pugnacious and prone to inflicting pain. When a desire to inflict pain enters into man, he commits sin and becomes guilty through that evil desire. And such a man becomes dishonest and full of blemishes in this world. Man becomes qualified for (putting on the garment) and ornament of the spiritual world by fixing his heart on religion. And in this way he protects his body and soul from all harm, grief and injury.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the knowledge concerning wisdom and evil intelligence, the adornment of the same, their origin and gift, their promises (to man) -- their improvement and augmentation and the dignity of wisdom and the dreariness of the evil intellect. (400)

Be it known that wisdom resides in him who is on the side of the soul and who keeps the eyes of his soul open for the purpose of accurately examining the actions of the body.

The adornment of wisdom is due to the control of the wise man over his desires for the improvement of religion and for the promotion of good qualities in men, such as righteousness, piety, and virtuous fame; (the adornment of wisdom) is also due to his being the means of spreading purity in the world.

God's own wisdom is the source of all wisdom and God Himself endows His creation with wisdom. God acknowledges His creation as His own because of the presence of His strength in the creation. The good Vohuman improves this creation (to render it fit) for the spiritual world and endows it with foresight thereof. Wisdom is so spread everywhere in this world that the wise and religious man renders himself exalted through his wisdom. There is a certain amount of intelligence in luminous objects (i.e. the sun, moon and stars) owing to the bright Yazads. He who is truthful becomes of the most exalted kind through the knowledge of truth derived from truthful men. In the same way man becomes charitable, patient and possessed of other good qualities.

Again, evil intellect is due to the man who taking the side of his soul yet keeps the eyes of his soul shut against the actions relating to the soul; just as darkness is due to the man who taking the side of darkness shuts the eyes of his body against seeing things.

The adornment of the evil intellect is due to vice, evil qualities, sin, impiety, evil fame, controlling the heart and conscience of the evil-minded man, and also to his being the means of harming the virtue of the world.

The evil-minded (Ganamino) is the source of the evil intellect The evil-minded (Ganamino) hopes to influence the creation of God. The man who has in him the evil intellect (of Ganamino) comes in the way of the (good) promptings of his soul. Such a man exercises a miserable control over his desires owing to his evil intellect and through the force of the evil invisible power in him he develops and perfects himself (in sin). And through him suffering so spreads everywhere that people become polluted through the evil qualities of his evil intellect and move about in the world like (so many) Demons and Drujs.

The religion of the priests, who, guided by their evil intellect devoid of all wisdom, (to all outward appearance) act among men as the servants of God, is only in appearance the all-wise religion of God. This (religion) through the evil intellect depopulates the world, ruins, and destroys mankind. And such a priest is as it were the agent of the evil-minded (Ahriman) to do his work among men and harms mankind and the world. Such a religion, owing to the evil intellect, renders mankind miserable and makes them suffer pain in both the worlds. Hence he who is wise will not acquire the evil intellect, but by conducting himself with wisdom among men will render them prosperous and earn their gratitude.

When some (from among these priests) assert that the understanding in men is from the evil-minded and that it is he the evil-minded who has made men (they fail to give due consideration to the fact) that it is not possible for the evil intellect to reside in the man of God nor for the commandments of the evil religion to have the wisdom of God. When man cannot create the soul within him, how can God render the body lifeless (before its allotted time) and how can such an act be called just?

He who is born in this religion (of Ganamino) is not fit to be a man. How can the Druj-influenced man work for God? How can the unseeing blind man become fit for obtaining deliverance? If that unseeing blind man could be called the companion of the Yazads on account of his evil deeds, the evil-minded (Ganamino) would have as powerful a sight as that of the Yazads and irreligious men would have the gift of (spiritual) vision. Whence it would follow that eyes to see would be due to both these powers, that is to say, to wisdom as well as to the evil intellect in men.

The work done through the agency of the evil intellect in men is not from God. The work thus done (through the evil intellect) is not for the soul; the reason whereof is that the work for the soul is (done) through the strength of the divine wisdom in men. Religious work is done by piety and virtue and not by the blemish-disclosing evil intellect For just as the agent for good wisdom in men (i.e. Vohuman) does the work relating to its source (i.e. God) so also the source of the blemish-giving faculty in man is the evil-minded (Akoman) (residing) in men. The Yazad who is the dispenser of the power of wisdom in men instructs him everywhere in the Mazdayasnian religion, which religion is (derived from} the innate intelligence of the wise Spenamino. And the power in men which induces a love for the evil intellect gives everywhere instruction in the religion of the demons and is derived from the evil-minded (Ganamino). Men who are on the side of God, the invisible multiplier of mankind, are righteous in thought, word, and deed, and are grateful unto God. And the Supreme God who keeps them in a prosperous condition gives them their due reward for their actions.

Those who are sinful in thought, word, and deed are not grateful unto God; they render themselves liable to punishment by doing (evil) deeds of the body, and thus they are adjudged to be without their source (i. e. separated from their Creator).

Again, these priests say it is God who has implanted in men the strength of the evil-minded one. If so, how could God have ordained that those who sin in thought, word, and deed should suffer punishment and pain on that account and be rendered miserable? And further, how could it have been ordained that the man doing meritorious deeds for God should be richly recompensed by the presiding wise Yazads who are grateful unto God and who keep the righteous man in a prosperous condition.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that the man influenced by the Druj conducts himself like the Druj. (401)

Be it known that the Druj makes the man in touch with him endeavor to act like himself (i.e. the Druj). The soul of man is bright and the vesture of this soul is its power-endowed body. The sheep and goats and other creations of this world are not made like man. The invisible spiritual power (in men) helps to keep men away from all contact with the Druj. The man who loves the Druj is made full of blemish by (the Druj.) The invisible power (of the Yazads) crushes the power, which is capable of rendering man lifeless, before this latter (power) has time to reach him and so this life-taking power cannot injure (the man) in any way. And the best and most acceptable testimony of this is that no evil power can deal death to any man while alive. Moreover the active influence of the angelic powers is capable of removing from man the movements of the strength of the pain-inflicting Druj. (By this influence again) the soul does not suffer from illness and in the absence of the fetters of the Druj it cannot be imprisoned (i.e. cannot suffer in hell when it has committed no sin).

It is owing to the Yazads that the souls of all men are immortal. Likewise, there being in man the power of the Yazads which can keep off the Druj from his body, he does not suffer -- nay, the Yazads improve man and keep him away from the miseries of both the worlds. And by constant companionship with them man continues to be in communion with the source -- (Spenamino). Reformed by the Yazads, man devises excellent measures and attains to high dignity, preserves himself from the profitless movements (i.e. influence) of the Druj within him, and by conducting himself without misery and without folly drives off the Druj by the aid of his Yazad-given manliness. By freeing himself from the Druj, man enjoys himself in the other world in an abode of supreme felicity.

He, who for his benefit keeps himself aloof from the misery and foolish toil of the Druj and from all contact with the Druj, drives out the Druj from him. And by acting with the strength of the Druj man becomes a prisoner in the mean and painful abode of the Druj. It is stated in the good religion that man will be led astray down to the Frashegird by the Druj of hell (Ganamino) and at that time the blemish giver (Ahriman) will be driven away (from among mankind) and the people of the world will (then acquire the divinely strong, religious power. Those who are delivered from hell will obtain greatness (from the pious) and the imprisoned will be let out of hell. The different powers of the soul which had been separated from the material body will, through the help of the Yazads, unite with the body (at the time of the day of Judgment) and their separation will pass into unity. The invisible soul will (at that time) be given the powerful vesture of its body and everyone will live in perfect enjoyment with dignity and comfort.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the two kinds of instruction given to mankind by Spenamino concerning his strength. (402)

Be it known that the instruction regarding divine wisdom given to man by Spenamino is of two kinds. One is concerning foresight, the other is regarding the attainment of high dignity. That about foresight deals with the obtaining of the final victory of mankind and improving all the creation with virtue at the epoch of the Tanepashin, for the purpose of driving away the blemish-giving Druj with strenuous efforts. And that about the attainment of high dignity deals with the multiplication and continuation of mankind in the world for increasing the strength of the last Reformation.*

[* According to the Zoroastrian religion the age of marriage for both males and females is fixed at 15 but at present our young men in hopes of getting rich dowries very seldom act up to this precept of early marriage.]

The religion of the priests, which sets people wrangling among themselves, which makes them miserable, sick and permanently injured and makes them expiate their sins in hell, exists for making innumerable men prisoners (in hell) and for destroying the world. Because what they regard as religion is not only devoid of all instruction concerning foresight and the attainment of high dignity but it even imparts the evil knowledge of reducing the human species. What is called the good religion is always full of goodness and devoid of all the vices of the demos and it alone is called the superior (religion).

Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that light and darkness do not change places without one of them going away, do not mingle with each other in this world and never shine (i.e. appear) together. (403)

Be it known that shining and dark substances exist apart and do not mix with each other. Objects in this world are visible on account of light-giving luminous substances (i.e. the sun, moon, and fire). Light springing all of a sudden from fire, there is no mixture of smoke in it. The smoke is for the light of the fire of the blemish-giver (i.e. the fire of hell). Again, the smoke is the indication of fire. Again, fire is as it were an indication of heaven and of hell. That light of it which is of good mien, of the early morn and full of heat, which nourishes and gladdens the creation belongs to heaven. And the fire of hell, the light whereof is mingled with smoke, whose stink is of dreadful punishment and the reduction and sufferings of mankind, belongs to the blemish-giver Ahriman, and the heat of this fire which hurts and injures and consumes sinners belongs to hell.

There are priests who madly institute a comparison between what is said to be the fire of hell and the light of Heaven which exalts the creation, sheds a delightful radiance, and augments and gladdens the creation and who apply all the particulars of (the heavenly light) to the heat of the fire of hell. But how can the particulars regarding heaven be made applicable to hell?

Exposition in the good religion regarding (men) who are like unto the Yazads and the demons. (404)

Be it known that among men known in enumeration and understanding to belong to the Yazads and to the Demons, the Athornans free from (the contamination of) the priests of the evil religion, the Athrestars free from (the evil influence) of the kings and warriors of the evil religion, the Zoroastrian agriculturists separate from (i.e. who have nothing to do with) the miserly farmers and the good traders who are separate from (i.e. free of) evil practices, are those who work for the Yazads.

The sinful Athornans rendered polluted by evil priests, sinful kings, and warriors polluted by evil kings and warriors, sinful farmers polluted by penurious farmers and sinful traders polluted by their own evil practices work for the demons.

In enumeration, the good-shadowed (i.e. divinely gifted) governor, the impartial judge, the pious man, the charitable man, the man who looks with favor on religion, and the contented man enjoy honor among the creations through their generosity, and hate impure men.

The prosperous wealthy man is one whose thoughts are those of a servant of God, who conducts himself in all actions as such (servant), who is charitable to those in distress, who tells the truth despite temptations to the contrary, and who is in his good times grateful unto God.

The vindictive magistrate delivering wrong judgments, the wealthy man miserable and discontented despite his wealth, the man who strengthens the evil misers, the man who hates men devoid of greed, the man who helps the wealthy irreligious men to augment their wealth, the man who takes delight in slander and the man who nurses his revenge and when in power wreaks his vengeance are men like unto the Demons and the Drujs.

The men free from any the slightest influence of the Demons, are holy like unto the pure Yazads, nay, they have some of the wisdom and the good qualities of the Yazads. The men who have something of evil intellect and other evil qualities are like unto the Demons.

The religion of the priests who resemble the source whence the Demons proceed is akin to that source of evil intellect; hence those who follow that religion are on account of their evil intellect surely said to be like unto the Demons.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the obtaining by man of superior wisdom and knowledge. (405)

Be it known that man obtains wisdom and knowledge in the four following ways. One: For a man who has the intelligence of the soul to come under divine influence, is through the Creator. Two: The man who spreads the knowledge of the scriptures does so through the intelligence of the soul. Three: Through the words of the wisdom of the soul (i.e. through intelligent prayers) the descendants who are closely related to religion (i.e. the descendants of the religious man) (obtain) glory. Four: The Ameshaspand Vohuman who resides in the conscience of man helps and feeds these three (sources of wisdom). He who has the wisdom of the soul gives good instruction in (the attributes of) God and through knowledge of the good religion increases the most excellent wisdom of the soul.

Through the words of the wisdom of the soul (i.e. through intelligent prayers) the good-thought-power presides over the conscience of (men) who are enabled to continue their family and obtain prominence in a variety of ways. They have the knowledge of driving out the invisible Druj from them and by their superior wisdom and knowledge and by making the goodness of both worlds their own they enjoy honor among the leaders (of men).

Exposition in the good religion regarding the various kinds of kings. (406)

Be it known that kings of different times and different manners are of the following eight kinds. Of these four are of the praiseworthy and four of the blameworthy degree.

Of the four praiseworthy kings, one is possessed of foresight; the second is the protector of all; the third is a great protector and the fourth is the protector of the soul. The king possessed of foresight has the strength of the all-wise Ohrmazd and has an insight into his times. The king, who is the protector of all, strengthens his government by curbing his wrath. And thereby such a king changes for the better the things which tend to destroy and ruin his subjects. The king who is conversant with the powers of the soul, takes great care of his subjects in times of distress; he keeps his sway firm and stable with the aid of the powers of wisdom as well as with his foresight of the soul; whereby, his subjects are zealous (in their devotion to him). The king, who by means of the wisdom relating to the soul keeps those who are possessed of a like wisdom full of zeal, turns distressful times into good times and introduces thoroughly satisfactory reforms into his administration.

The king, who is possessed of foresight, every way protects the evil-minded fools (among his subjects) in mean (bad) times and takes care of these through his foresight by rendering all possible help that might change their times into good times; under the sway of such a king his subjects are full of hopes.

Again, the king, who is full of confidence and zeal on account of his good times and his foresight of the soul, makes his government durable through his wisdom and through reforms in the administration.

The king who has spiritual foresight protects the soul against the evil powers of the mind and against distressful times. Thus he adopts the title of the far-seeing king and by the help of his zealous subjects his authority continues (unshaken). The king who studies the happiness of his subjects converts by his foresight his (mental) powers into wisdom, his (evil) times into good times and his government into a well-reformed (administration).

Four (kinds of kings) deserve scandal and slander (i.e. are to be condemned) in the matter of governing the people. Of these one does not protect his subjects at all and frequently harms them. The second protects them feebly and does not harm them much. The third is devoid of religious faith and frequently brings misery on his subjects. The fourth ceases to care for the soul and harms it.

Among these, the king who has no spiritual foresight has the strength of the evil intellect, does not protect his subjects in evil times and soon brings ruin on his government and his supporters.

The subjects of the cowardly king are in dread. Through want of spiritual foresight he becomes evil-minded. His times are evil times and through unrest his government soon becomes liable to ruin.

The king who is wanting in spiritual foresight but is possessed of wisdom takes all possible care of the afflicted in times of distress. The government (of the king) who protects his subjects but feebly is, on account of his wisdom, moderately strong in the matter of inflicting harm (i.e. does not harm as much as it otherwise would). And such a king owing to his want of foresight both spiritual and as regards times of distress is very much in dread of his subjects. Hence such a king ought to avert from himself his foresight- wanting-understanding, the dangerous times (which such understanding may bring about) and the perverted understanding of that evil-minded (Ganamino). In like manner it behooves him to reform his government which does not protect the people and is guided by evil servants (i.e. advisers).

The king lacking spiritual foresight is of the understanding of the evil-minded (Ganamino) and does not protect his subjects (being guided) by the ruinous (counsels) of his evil servants (i.e. advisers) ; nor does he strongly protect his subject in evil times but soon brings misery on them. Although in bad times he ought at once to change his evil intellect he, wanting as he is in foresight, does not understand in what way he can readily alter distressful times (into good times); hence his subjects are in great fear lest ruin should overtake his government. The king devoid of spiritual foresight is very much afraid lest owing to his evil intellect he might not be able to convert distressful times (into good times), and the harm done to his unhappy government (into something advantageous).

The king who is wanting in spiritual foresight but is possessed of wisdom, having an insight into his times, leaves off the foresight-wanting-strength which brings harm on his government (by the help of) the superior strength of his wisdom in order to save his soul from harm. And such a king anxious for (the welfare of) his subjects prays for such good times as might conduce to the security of his government And thereby that evil intellect of his turns into spiritual foresight and the evil times change (into good times). And his government which is full of unrest and in danger of ruin is also changed.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the epoch of the pain-inflicting efforts of the Druj (Ganamino) and his final disappearance from among the creation of Spenamino. (407)

Be it known that it is stated in the good religion that the Druj (Ganamino) before knowing the limit of time (i.e. being unaware of the hour of his defeat), despising the Creator and the powers (presiding over) his creation (i.e. the Yazads and the Ameshaspands) and thinking wrongly about himself (i.e. impelled by his false pride), fought against the omnipotent Creator and His creation to render the latter lifeless. The omniscient Creator knew him (in his true colors) and to overcome him completely (and make him realize his weakness) fixed a limit for the fight and allowed him during that time to continue his experiment of fighting with his false strength (against the creation.) The termination of this limit (was marked by) the course of the sun in the sky and by the completion of a (certain number) of the sun's revolutions. The defeat of the Druj (Ganamino) depends upon the frequent stoppages of the sun in its course. And it was owing to the sun frequently stopping in its course that the harm-inflicting Druj was worsted in his first harm-inflicting battle (with God). In the commencement, at the end of seventy days and nights, the Druj was defeated in the battle (between the Yazads and the demons) by the strength of the Creator, and on this occasion the sun had stopped in its heavenly course.

Secondly, just before the commencement of the ascendancy of Zoroaster there was again a battle (between the Yazads and the demons) and this fierce battle lasted ten days and nights. At the end of the epoch of Zoroaster, will commence the epoch of Ushedar, and Ushedar will interrogate Ohrmazd on matters concerning the faith. On this occasion the sun will stop in its heavenly course for Ohrmazd to gain strength and the demons will be defeated in that fight. The delay caused by the sun in its course on this occasion will be before the commencement of the epoch of Ushedar and towards the end (of that of Zoroaster); and this fight at the end (of the epoch of Zoroaster) will be a fierce one and it will last twenty days and nights.

On the termination of the epoch of Zoroaster, Ushedarmah will go into the presence of Ohrmazd to question Him regarding the faith. On this occasion the suns will stop in its house in the heavenly course and the demons will be defeated by the superior strength of the Creator and the sun will be delayed for the time in its appointed course.

Then just before the termination of the epoch of Ushedarmah there will be again a very fierce battle (between the Yazads and the demons) which will last for thirty days and nights. On the termination of the epoch of Ushedarmah the victorious Soshyant will go into the presence of Ohrmazd to question Him on matters of faith. the On this occasion the sun will stop in its house in the heavenly course and the demons will be completely defeated in the battle because of the superior strength of the Creator. The sun will (henceforth) gain strength in its revolution in the heavens (i.e. the sun will not have to stop in its course after this final victory over Ganamino). And Soshyant through his God-given strength will during his reign of fifty-seven years drive out all the Drujs for the amelioration of mankind. And the Druj (Ganamino), his strength being completely broken and himself become useless, will throw himself into hell.

The stoppages of the sun in its course during all the battles with the Drujs have been mentioned above. During each (of these stoppages) the harm-inflicting battles with the Druj will cause suffering to men and the other creations of Ohrmazd.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that the work of the Creator regarding man which commenced with the number one has been successfully accomplished by carrying it on to the number nine. (408)

Be it known that the first work of the Creator is to bring man into existence in this world. The second is to give him a material body. The third is to cause him to move about for (his) work. The fourth is to give the necessary strength-giving principles to the human body for the preservation of life. The fifth is to cause growth by satisfying the desires of the senses and keeping the living body alive (by giving the body its due nourishment). The sixth is to bestow the necessary knowledge concerning the right use of life in the union of' the body and the soul. The seventh is to instruct man to live without vice and to show the way for the body and soul of man to live together in happy union. The eighth is (to instruct man) concerning immortality -- that is to say regarding the fact that (on the Day of Judgment) the Creator will make all living men immortal by means of the Gayodir.* The ninth is the work regarding Rapithai, that is to say, the bestowing (upon man) of a certain pure happiness-inducing wisdom and mind, the good creation of the holy God, to enable man to perform good deeds for the Last Day.

[* Gayodir. This Pahlavi word is thought to be derived from the Avesta "daregô jîtîm" or long life. And it applies to the food by which God will render all men immortal on the Day of Judgment.]

The priests, who are for destroying the first (of these nine) works of God relating to His creation, destroy His creation by bringing sin and death (to men) through the agency of the sickness-producing, sin-giving and evil-sprung source (Ahriman) and thus they make several people hellish (i.e. fit for hell). Their religion exists for doing evil deeds without the least spiritual foresight, doing evil deeds for the Last (Day) and causing suffering and repentance to the people of the world. This religion is altogether different from the good religion which is said to be for meritorious deeds and which in the end is victorious.

Exposition in the good religion as to by whom man is rendered good and full of luster. (409)

Be it known that luster is called in Avesta Rai which means the inspiration of the faith. It also means (angelic) luster, or in other words, strength of religion. Good is called in Avesta vanghu which means prosperous-glory-inducing. Glory is the result of industry and the full meaning of the word is perseverance and industry. Rai is the invisible strength relating to the efforts at good deeds for securing immortality; and its abode in man is said to be through the spiritual power from God, called arvat, Ervad.

The inspiration regarding industry is for knowing all the powers conducing to industry. And this inspiration in the creation is from God and is known as Ervad. He who is glorious on account of industry becomes so through (Ervad).

These two, give birth (rise) to all other virtues. Luster and glory are from the lustrous and glorious Creator Ohrmazd and (through Him) shining luster and light enter into the creation. And man falls away from this light and luster by following the Blemish-giver. So also (Ahriman) is prevented from doing harm to the creation by the teachings of the prophets who turn men's thoughts towards the Frashegird. It is stated in the good religion about Ohrmazd "On account of these Thy virtues, the creation will in the end turn towards Thee, and all the bodies which are conscious of immortality will become animated at the time (of the Frashegird). Moreover the creation will praise the immortality bestowing worthy Yazads and will rejoice on obtaining from God a happy immortality."

The priests who by their religion lead all men to every kind of pain and suffering at the Frashegird make many fit for hell. Their religion leads men to act wickedly towards the Creator and is full of evil consequences. And they call this the good religion.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the priest of the good religion being the most pious and the hypocrite priest of the evil religion being the most sinful. (410)

Be it known that among men it is the pious man 2 who pleases the Creator most. That man pleases the Creator most who benefits His creation most. That man benefits the creation most who strengthens men's faith in the good God and makes them active and zealous in doing holy deeds. The priest of the good religion is considered wise among men; he keeps the Creator highly pleased and is most pious on account of his piety.

It is the sinful man who in this world distresses the Creator most. He distresses the Creator most who harms His creation most. That man harms His creation most who shakes men's faith most in His existence and who leads the people of the world to do deeds like unto those of the wicked Zohak. And the priest who is the servant of the evil religion is among the sinful men of the world the most sinful.

Exposition in the good religion as to what praiseworthy thing is disadvantageous to pious people and what odious thing is advantageous to pious people. (411)

Be it known that the praiseworthy (virtue) which is disadvantageous to pious people is (the virtue of) truth-telling. Concerning this it is stated (in the religion) that where there is the presence of Ganamino among men, there the pious have to suffer harm by truth-telling and harm is thus done to the piety of the world.

The odious (vice) which is advantageous to pious people is (the vice of) lying. Concerning this it is stated (in the religion) that where there is the presence of Ganamino among men there the noble high priests of the religion have to be liars for the benefit of the pious. And the piety of the world is polluted.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that the man who loves God most and keeps him pleased lives most happily and in great dignity in heaven and the man who is most inimical to God and grieves Him most lives in hell in a very mean and painful condition. (412)

Be it known that the man who loves God most and keeps Him pleased is destined to give the greatest dignity to his soul in heaven and to keep it happy. And he by his wisdom does meritorious deeds which give him strength (for obtaining heaven). And his wish is that like the worship-worthy Farohar (i.e. Zoroaster) he too had been more righteous (than he has been).

The man who is the greatest enemy of God and grieves Him most keeps his soul (in hell) in a very mean and painful condition. And all the intelligence that he has is for committing sin. And his wish is that like the Turanian king Afrasiyab he had sinned more (than he has).

Those things over which the Druj Ganamino exercises his influence cause men to suffer much. The Khwarrah by which the Zoroastrian high priests wield their authority purifies such things (i.e. over which Ganamino has influence), and the government is all the better for this Kayanian Khwarrah.*

[* Kayanian Khwarrah, or the supreme authority in religious matters conferred by the state on the high priest in virtue of which he punished those who acted contrary to the precepts of the faith. The following lines show that king Jamshed of the Peshdadian dynasty claimed both spiritual and temporal authority.]

The creation of Ohrmazd destroys the Blemish-giver Ahriman by the help of the Mazdayasnian religion and the Mazdayasnian religion is continued in the world through the angelic influence exercised over the Zoroastrian high-priests. The sovereignty without the power of the Kayanian Khwarrah is hurtful to the subjects who are reduced in number. The creation of Ohrmazd destroys the Blemish-giver Ahriman by the continuance of the Mazdayasnian religion through the divinely-inspired Zoroastrian high-priests. And on this account the wishes of the Druj cannot reach the creation nor can he dwell therein.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the wealth most worthy of attention. (413)

Be it known that the wealth most worthy of attention is (righteousness) for the obtaining of immortality. And (this wealth) is for the last exalted Reformation and for the good time for acquiring the last body (i.e. for the epoch of the Tanepashin). And this wealth for the last reformation induces thoughts regarding the exalted and famous bodies (i.e. thoughts of the righteous actions of the famous men of the past). And the thought of obtaining immortality has been given to mankind by the omnipotent Creator Ohrmazd for the Frashegird.

(End of volume 8)

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