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Denkard, Book 3

Electronic edition prepared by Joseph H. Peterson, 1999.

Note: Spelling has been normalized to conform with F.M. Kotwal and J. Boyd, A Guide to the Zoroastrian Religion (Scholars Press, 1982). Text in [] added by JHP.

Dk3 chapters 1-65. From a photocopy made by Mr. Damania and graciously supplied by Noshir Jesung.

From Peshotun Dustoor Behramjee Sunjana [Sanjana], The Dinkard Vol. I (Bombay: D. Ardeshir & Co., 1874).

Translation of the Gujarati preface.

The Denkard is one of the oldest, most reliable and valuable of the Pahlavi works that have been preserved by the Zoroastrian community. It contains some of the most exalted precepts of the Mazdayasnian religion; as also a life of Zoroaster, a history of the Zoroastrian religion, and much valuable instruction regarding this and the next world. Each and all of the subjects comprised in it are worthy the attention of Zoroastrians. But the style in which it is written is neither so smooth nor so simple as that of other Pahlavi works. Moreover, the subjects treated of are uncommon and difficult to understand. The task, therefore, of deciphering and understanding the work, is one of no ordinary difficulty; especially when one has to depend upon what his own individual efforts can accomplish. To give some idea of the difficulties that have had to be faced in carrying out the present undertaking it is enough to state that although a century nearly has elapsed since the Denkard was brought to this country from Persia, no Pahlavi scholar has as yet ventured to translate the work, with the exception of one or two of the subjects included in it.

The present respected Trustees of the religious and charitable funds of the Zoroastrian community of Bombay having highly approved of a suggestion made to them for publishing a translation of the Denkard, I was requested to undertake the work, under the patronage and support of the "Sir Jamsetjee Jijeebhoy Translation Fund." The present volume is the result of this arrangement, and is one of a number of similar other volumes which it is hoped will be published hereafter. This first installment is, with the approval of the Trustees, divided into the four following parts: --

1. The original Pahlavi text.

2. The same transliterated in Zand characters.

3. Gujarati and English translation of same.

4. A glossary of select terms.

Although every possible effort has been made to avoid errors and defects, yet looking to the great difficulty of translating the work, I cannot venture to hope that it is entirely free from them.

I may mention that the Denkard does not appear to have been written either at one time or by one person: the different parts bear evidence of having been written at different times. The work appears to have been first composed, under its present name, in the time of the Kayanian King Vishtasp, the son of Lohrasp, by the principal disciple of our prophet, the holy Zoroaster; and, under his particular direction; and copies of it were, by the orders of King Vishtasp, distributed among the people, while the original work was placed in the royal library, and a copy of it was preserved in the "Déjé napésté" [1] The original work was found in the royal library by Alexander the Great when he invaded the capital of Persia. When King Ardashir Babagan of the Sasanian dynasty came to rule over Persia, he collected the scattered fragments of the work, and entrusted them, along with other religious works, to a learned Dastur, named Tosré, by whom they were, after examination and inquiries, arranged in the original order. Copies of this work were then, by the royal command, distributed among the people. Subsequently, additions were made to it by the light of other religious works, by Dastur Adur-Farnbag son of Farokhvzat [2].

From the account given at the end of the Denkard, it appears that the original Ms. of the High Priest Adur-Farnbag son of Farokhvzat was obtained, at the time of the fall of the Zoroastrian empire, from a descendant of his, by Dastur Adarbad, the son of A'dmit. Dastur Adarbad A'dmit seems to have carefully copied out the Ms. A copy of this copy was in the year 359 of Yazdegird taken by Dastur Mahávandád Ramiáné Béhrám. Copies in succession of the last mentioned copy were made till one of them made by Dastur Rustam Gushtasp Ardésar was, about a hundred years ago brought to Surat, by Mulla Behman the son of Mulla Behram, and, by him presented to Shet Aspandiarshah the son of Ratanjishah of that place. [3] A copy of this Ms. was caused to be made by Shet Aspandiarshah in the year 1156 of Yazdegird and by him sent to Messrs. Nanabhai Behramji, Manekji Navrozji Wadiaji, Behramji Navrozji Wadiaji, and Dadabhai Noserwanji, the then elders of the Parsi community of Bombay. This copy is now in my possession in the library of Dastur Edalji Darabji Sanjana.

The text of the present edition has been published after carefully collating the four following Mss.--

1. Ms found in the library of Dastur Edalji Darabji Sanjana, late head priest of the Shahanshahi Zoroastrians of Bombay.

2. Ms. copy in the handwriting of the late Dastur Temulji Navrozji Sanjana made at Surat.

3. Ms. copy in the handwriting of Rustamji Noserwanji Meharjirana, Head Priest of Nowsari.

4. Ms. copy found in the library of Mobed Minochehrji Jamaspji Wachhchha. [4]

Where different lections occur, the first of these Mss. is referred to by the initials D. E., (Dastur Edalji); the second by D. T. (Dastur Temulji); the third by D. R. (Dastur Rustamji) and the fourth by M. M. (Mobed Minochehrji).

In giving the pronunciation of Pahlavi words, every, word of Semitic origin has been compared with its root and the pronunciation based thereupon. These pronunciations resemble those of the Pahlavi words written in Pahlavi characters in the Máliknámé Asúri, but do not resemble the corresponding Pahlavi words written underneath in Zand characters. The reason of this, I now think to be that, in former times our people, although they used Semitic words in Pahlavi writings, yet in reading them they did not pronounce them as in the original, but instead, read as if the corresponding Iranian Pahlavi words had been written. In proof of this assertion the Pahlavi works and essays which have been translated by Neriosang Dhawal and his predecessors, giving the pronunciation of the text in Zand characters, may be cited. Thus the practice of reading Semitic words as pronounced originally being discontinued, the recollection of the proper pronunciation gradually faded away. The author of the Máliknámé Asúri in compiling a glossary of words of Semitic origin used in the Pahlavi language, attempted to restore the original pronunciation, by writing the words correctly in Pahlavi characters and giving their meanings in Persian equivalents. But as the correct pronunciation was generally forgotten and as Pahlavi characters glide into, and are mistaken for, one another, an attempt was made, at a date long subsequent, to fix the pronunciation, by writing down under the words in Pahlavi characters in the Máliknámé Asúri, their pronunciation in Zand characters. The same reasons, however, that rendered the transliteration necessary; affected its accuracy; but, the pronunciation having been thus fixed, has been adopted up to the present time. The necessity, under the circumstances, of a return to the correct mode being obvious, I have endeavored in this work to give the proper pronunciation.

Drs. Frederick Spiegel, Martin Haug, Ferdinand Justi, and other learned scholars of Europe have, after much research and labor, given the pronunciation of Semitic words employed in Pahlavi writings: but they do not agree with each other. The labors and researches in this direction of Dr. Haug, who is well known in Bombay for his learning, are deserving of high commendation, and the pronunciations given by him are to a great extent correct and accurate. Still ill giving the pronunciation of Semitic words in this work. I have not ventured to depend upon the labors of these learned men; but have fixed both the pronunciation and the meaning of each Semitic word after a careful comparison of it with cognate Hebrew, Chaldiac, Samaritan, Syriac and Arabic roots. Where, however, I failed to discover a reliable root in any of the above languages, I have based the pronunciation on the current mode. Again, certain Semitic letters have undergone a change in Pahlavi: these are pronounced in the form in which they are found. Of the Iranian words used in Pahlavi, the pronunciation of 't' is represented by t, T, d, and D, and others: of these, instead of 'd' I have invariably substituted 't': the pronunciation 'd' being only used to represent [~]. Where any word or phrase, or letter, has appeared to me to have been left out in transcription I have supplied it, putting it in brackets thus:-- ( ). As regards the pronunciation of words of Iranian origin, where the pronunciation of Pahlavi words derived from the Zand is altered from the original owing to mistakes arising from the similarity of form of the letters of the alphabet, I have restored the correct pronunciation, after comparing the word with its original Zand root. On finally looking over the proofs I find that some of the more common words of Semitic origin have from oversight been omitted from the glossary: these will be inserted in the next volume.

The first three pages of the Denkard have been lost. The present work, therefore, commences with the fourth. The next nine pages of the original Ms. having been in places eaten away by moths, suitable places have been left in the Ms. which was brought to Surat from Persia, and in the other Mss. which have been copied therefrom. Similar spaces have been left in the text published in this volume. For facility of reference I have numbered each succeeding subject in the book, commencing from the third question, in Persian numerals; the same numerals being affixed to the transliteration and the translations. The translation commences with the seventh subject numbered as above; as, owing to the portions of the preceding text being lost for the reason mentioned above, it was impossible to translate it in an intelligible manner. The figures in Gujarati and English on the margin of; the text, the transliteration, and the translations, represent the paragraphs or sections into which the text is divided. All the Semitic words occurring in the text, are inserted in the glossary: of words of Iranian origin, the most important and unusual only are introduced.

In the Gujarati translation I have followed the structure of the Pahlavi language, so as to reproduce, as far as possible, the style of the original text. This will, no doubt, render the translation rather difficult reading; but my object has been to make it useful to those engaged in the study of the Pahlavi language. The English translation has been made by Mr. Ratanshah Erachshah Kohiyar from the Gujarati.

In conclusion I beg to tender my thanks to those of my friends who have assisted me in carrying out this undertaking; as also to those who have supported it by subscribing for copies of the work.


Bombay, the 19th day of the 9th month of the year 1243 of Yazdegird.


The English translation is a version of the Gujarati. It is strictly literal as regards the text, but the preface and the notes have been more freely rendered. A less severe rendering of the text, while it would have lessened the difficulty of the task, would also have enabled the translator to avoid the inelegance, and, in places, perhaps, the uncouthness, of language so disagreeable to the general reader. But it was feared that such a translation would not have suited the requirements of the student of Pahlavi: nor would it have brought out prominently peculiarities of thought and language.

The translator has been assured that the Gujarati version is strictly literal.



[1. This was the name of a magnificent building erected at Istkhar by King Vishtasp for preserving works relating to the Zoroastrian religion.

2. This account of the Denkard is taken from the history of the book which is to be found about the middle of it.

3. This copy was, through the kindness of my late friend Dastur Ardesarji Rustamji Mulla Firozeji, in my possession for about a year. I have compared it with the one in the library of Dastur Edalji Darabji Sanjana which is now in my possession. Portions of the Surat copy were found to be abstracted by some designing person. Five of such portions, together with Ms. No. 3, hereafter mentioned, have been kindly sent to me, for use in the present undertaking, by my friend Dastur Rustomji Kekobadji from the library of Kekobadji Rustamji Meharjirana, late Head Priest of Nowsari. Copies of the other portions also have been obtained by me through the kindness of one or two other friends.

4. This copy has been kindly lent to me by my friend Mobed Minochehrji Jamaspji Wachhchha. It appears to me to be a careful transcript of the Ms. of Dastur Rustam Gustasp made by the late Mobed Jamaspji Faredunji Wachhchha. The second and third Mss. appear to have been transcribed about half a century ago or upwards.]


[First 3 pages are lost.]

[25.] Twelve questions asked by an Ashmogh (apostate)



Again Ashmogh [1] asked:- Are what are (called) Manthra [2] in the nature of traditions? [3] (because) they are all told by Ohrmazd to Zartosht in the words [4] of Frashostar, Jamasp, [5] Hom and the yazads, and in those of persons born before Zartosht, and after Dayun [6]: hence, our opinion is, that the speaking of Ohrmazd to Zartosht is the hymns of the Gathas, and that the rest is composed by Zartosht and his disciples from traditions, but that by good faith having been placed therein it has been considered as appertaining to religion.


Be it known (that other) [7] Manthra as they are different from the Gathas, (in structure of language) so they also differ from them in testimony as to higher (things): still, they are founded upon the hymn of Yatha ahu vairyo, [8] and, in them mention is made of the power of omniscience of God himself and of the Creation. Therefore, no portion of them is (composed) by the wisdom of man and they could not be composed from a number of current traditions. If, the Manthra, communicated to Zartosht in this manner in the form of a dialogue, be not all from Ohrmazd, and, by their being communicated in the voice of different persons, Ohrmazd is concluded not to be their promulgator, then, it would follow, that whatever revelations have been made in them, by Ohrmazd to Zartosht, about Zartosht and other good and evil persons, as also about the daevas and even the Ganamino, must have been made by the Ganamino and the daevas; and Manthra and Dateh, which are removers-away of the daevas, [9] must be considered as declared by the daevas. Therefore, the communicating of the Manthra, by Ohrmazd to Zartosht, in the voice of many (persons) is, for the purpose that complete knowledge might be conveyed from Ohrmazd to Zartosht: and that is not fit to take objection to. Just as the Gathas are all told by Ohrmazd to Zartosht, and are in the voices of Zartosht, the Amahraspands, the Goshorun, and other yazads: and, that they are all told by Ohrmazd to Zartosht, about that, you have no objection to take. But it is owing to the (natural) disposition of an Ashmogh that he should have evil thoughts about and inverted vision of, scriptures, that have reference to protection by Ohrmazd.


Ashmogh put the question: Why do you call it a sin to burn green wood on the fire? It is not (a sin).


Be it known that, green wood being placed upon the fire, by reason of the fire becoming extinguished owing to its moisture and of its (the fire's) being improperly put to the hardship of drying that wood, we call it a sin. But that the reason of it should appear worthless and like dust to Ashmoghs is owing to their habit.


Ashmogh put the question: Why do you call (drinking) liquor to excess a sin? since liquor cannot be drunk in the moderation.


Be it known that, it is just, our calling immoderate drinking of liquor a sin. Because, it is said in the religion that whoever drinks much liquor, eats much food, and, consequently, owing to not having sung the hymns of the Gathas according to the law, he becomes guilty. But it is the habit of Ashmoghs to change the voice of others by rendering their throats dry and to prefer the consequent vice.


Ashmogh put the question: By always reciting these Manthras, which are the word of Ohrmazd, you have to live with great circumspection; but by being so recited, they become a cause of hindrance to industry: then, how can the command of Ohrmazd in respect of the preference of Manthras and Gathas for the purpose of obtaining salvation for the soul be considered just?


Be it known that, the object of our constant recitation of the Manthras is to inform (men) about the religion of Ohrmazd in respect of the relations with the next world and of the salvation of souls; because, by giving to the people of this world the understanding-power to know their Maker and to be the doers of deeds according with the will of the Lord, they acquire knowledge with respect to the invisible yazads, as also the daevas, become rememberers of the yazads and the acquirers of their love, and remain non-rememberers of the daevas and givers of pain to them, and understand, whatever there may be to understand regarding Datehs, Manthras, Gathas, and are enabled to do, at the (proper) time, much of the work relating to them. Through it, is frequently obtained aid and knowledge in exercising dominion, chiefship, and justice in accordance with the times, in driving away the drujs that may have entered into one's body, in removing them from creation, in making mankind walk in freedom and in imparting happiness to a great many men in the world. And, moreover, wherever and at what time soever Ashmoghs come to raise a contest about religion, at those times, through the sagacity, wisdom and strength appertaining to it, means are found to break down all trouble-giving Ashmoghs, to refute (them) by God's religion, and to keep back harm from mankind.



The first question put was this: Since owing to the singing of those heavenly Gathas, righteousness begins to accrue, and, by reason of the power that cherishes righteousness, the good acquire the strength that has reference to the next world, and go into the place of the highest heaven [garothman]; then, why is it said that righteousness, acquired by such power and in accordance with law, is canceled and the reward for it not obtained by reviling the good religion and committing other sins punishable with death?


Be it known, that righteousness that has been completed and strengthened does not become non-existent or canceled; but at the time of the last judgment, owing to the sin of reviling the good religion and other sins punishable with death, the reward of righteousness being covered up, the righteousness remains buried. Otherwise, there is no cancellation of righteousness done according to the good religion. For, the annihilation of righteousness which has remained uncanceled during worship is owing to the greater weight of that righteousness being at an end.


The second question put was this: If what Ohrmazd has said was for making it known to the (first) created Mashye and Mashyane, [10] then, why is the dialogue, which took place some generations after Mashye and Mashyane, declared to be the first dialogue? [11]


Is in this way: What is said about the dialogue held, for the first time among men, with Jamshed has reference to the religion promulgated among the men who lived after the time of the original Mashye and Mashyane in question. The promulgation, directed to be made to Mashye and Mashyane of what Ohrmazd had said, is not intended for the original Mashye and Mashyane, but for those men and women, and for Jamshed himself, who were the descendants of Mashye and Mashyane. And the reason of it is this; if there are questions and answers, one with another, they can be in the conversation of at least two persons, and this conversation in the form of questions and answers, as it is mentioned as having taken place, in our behalf, for the first time, between Ohrmazd and Jamshed, so (no such conversation) has been reported to have taken place, or is shown to have taken place with Mashye and Mashyane.


The third question put was this: If Gaosahudao [12] (prayer) is recited, all food can be eaten; and without it whatever is consecrated that alone can be eaten, and water that has been consecrated can alone be drunk: what is the reason of this?


Be it known that in the Gaosahudao, vegetables and water are placed (before the reciter), so that, when the Gaosahudao prayer is recited, vegetables and water are consecrated and thus the reciter becomes fit to eat all food and drink water. Therefore, (he who) consecrates Dron, [13] should have some pure vegetables with the Dron, so that in the consecration of the Dron, the fruit of trees and (other) vegetables and water, being together, all vegetables and fruits of trees and water become consecrated and consequently the reciter of the prayer becomes fit to eat all vegetables and fruits of trees and to drink water: but, if the Dron be not consecrated (with the Gaosahudao prayer) and the thing belonging to vegetables is consecrated by means of the other thing (prayer) for consecration, in which vegetables and water are consecrated, then through that (prayer), the sayer of the prayer becomes fit to eat the food of the (particular) tree and to drink the (particular) water. If water is consecrated and (during the consecration) the prayer is broken, the water becomes unfit (for drinking) for the consecrator: and, if drunk with a prayer, is, as if drunk without a prayer.


The question was put: It is declared that by repentance the path to hell does not remain at all: what is the reason of this?


Be it known that, by the soul becoming impure through sin, the road (for it) is to hell; and the remedy for the remission of sin and for obtaining purity is through the dastur possessing a knowledge of the good religion, who knows to prescribe medicine for the soul and is a great purifier of it from sin. For, as in the profession of the physician medicine and other things are potent in each disease, and the giver of explanation about them is the physician of the body, and the ailing body is relieved and renovated through the instrumentality of the physician and the surgeon who are the pointers out and doers of remedies for the ailments of the diseased constitution and the deformed body; so, for the soul that is rendered unholy and polluted by sin, if, by the injunction of the dastur of the good religion, it be a hearty repenter for sin, a seeker of pardon by speech, and repenter by deed, there is remission of committed sin through the physician of the soul, the dastur of the good religion, and the soul becomes purified of the unholiness and pollution of sin, and thus the road to hell is cut off.


The fifth question put was this: Which among the deeds of men is most beneficial to the world, the causer of much pleasure to the yazads, the causer of much pain in the world, and is the highest in rank of all?


Be it known, that among the deeds of men, the deed that is highly beneficial to the world is the remaining in submission to one's meritorious master and just king, who is a giver of commands for the improvement of the people: (the deed that is) the producer of pleasure to the yazads is the remaining firm in the Mazdayasnian religion and the keeping people righteous. And the deed that is highest in rank of all is the imparting of knowledge to worthy students, the originators of all righteous deeds.


The question put was: Of the commandments published by former people and dasturs of the religion, if, owing to a difference of opinion of former people and the dasturs of the good religion regarding some commandment, some layman, with intent to move forward in his deeds and thoughts, should not obey that commandment, then, the commandment of which dastur ought he to listen to and act upon.


Know (you) that it behooves the person belonging to the good religion to obey the command and to act in accordance with the command of him, who among the people is the head dastur and has under his power other people of the good religion; for, to render the person of the good religion without a want and of perfect thought, there is the decision of that one (dastur). Whatever other expositions there may remain (given) by previous religious leaders and dasturs of the religion, -- those expositions of the dasturs of the religion and of the leading men of the religion, it is good to love heartily, believe in, and, that people may act in accordance with them, to obey, without looking (at them) with an eye of scorn.


The question put was: What is the reason of the greatness to the servant of religion from religion, to the ruler from rule, and to the learned from learning?


Know (you) that, the continuance of religion is through the wisdom of the servants of the religion; (therefore) that is a reason for a religious person to obtain greatness from religion. To the ruler from rule * * * * [14] one reason is, the improvement of the learned themselves in all matters by means of wisdom that embellishes and the rendering worthy by means of profitable wisdom those belonging to them, for their benefit.


The question put was: What is the reason of the admonition contained in the religion [15] for holding the barsom in that hand which is the left and is appropriate to barsom? And those persons who may keep (it) in the left hand, on what (ground) may they keep it?


Know (you) that, those persons who keep the Barsom in (their) hands, in accordance with the admonition of the good religion about keeping the Barsom in the left hand and thus praying to God, are considered exalted-station-reaching, good created-beings, by reason of obtaining victory in the good path over other persons, by living with those thoughts that appertain to Ohrmazd. At the time when the sun rises in the east, he appears to men in such a manner that his face is opposite to the west, and (on) his right side is the north and on (his) left side is the south: from this, where the faces of men are towards the west, and on the right side is the north, and on the left side is the south, there, it becomes manifest to them, which is the left hand, for holding the Barsom in which, for worshipping God, there is an admonition in the good religion.


The question was asked: It is mentioned, that in the widely peopled (earth), the sun shines on the 3 1/2 Karshwars [16] which are opposite to it, for the purpose of giving them light: what is the object of this?


Know (you), that the earth has relation to the high mountains which surround it and to the universe: the figure of the earth being round, the half of that earth of seven Karshwars is said to be 3 1/2 Karshwars in the religion; and owing to the earth being round the sun in his motion always shines for the beauty, the refulgence and the luster of half the earth.


The question was asked: If a man be washing the trunk of a tree from below with water and there appear on the top of the tree (some) unclean [17] matter belonging to man or dog, then, for the washer with water, is any connection established with that unclean matter without going up the tree, to the danger of (his) becoming polluted; and, by the shaking of that unclean thing, does he become punishable with death? and what is the remedy for that?


Know (you) that, a good remedy for that is of this kind: the upper part of the tree becomes purified by exposure to a cloudless atmosphere and the connection of the wooden trunk with us is like that of the sense of sight. [18]


The question was asked: How can men, through their deeds, become holders of relation with Ohrmazd, and holders of relation with Ohrmazd become perfectly beautiful and equal to the yazads? And how can they become distant from relationship to Ohrmazd, how more distant and equal to the daevas?


Know (you) that men by being devoted to the good religion, through wisdom of a high kind, [19] become the acquirers of relations with Ohrmazd; by being more (devoted) to the good religion, become perfectly advanced for relationship with Ohrmazd; and by being most (devoted) become the equals of the yazads: and, by being not devoted to the good religion become distant from relationship with Ohrmazd; and by being devoted to the bad religion become more distant from Ohrmazd; and by being much devoted to the bad religion become equal to the daevas.


The question was asked: Since the soul of man is bright and virtuous, that refulgent and virtuous (soul) cannot be transformed into the condition of souls formed for vice; [20] what, then, is the reason of the dictum contained in the Avesta about the becoming of a committer of sodomy and of him who causes it to be committed, an invisible daeva, and, of the running on this earth and in its interior of the souls of Ashmoghs in the black form of daevas?


Know that, what is stated about the becoming like a daeva of a committer of sodomy and of him who causes it to be committed, is not about those who are obedient to Ohrmazd, but about the souls of those disobedient persons who have advanced far in the direction of the daevas and are for approving the actions of the daevas; because, with the souls of the pure are the yazads, -- owing to that the daevas keep aloof from them: similarly the daevas remain with the souls of sinners, -- owing to that the yazads keep aloof from them: the soul of the sinner is stated to be of the nature of daevas, owing to its remaining much in contact with daevas, worms, frogs, scorpions, snakes and ichneumons. And the soul of the committer of sodomy and of him who causes it to be committed is stated to be a more vicious daeva than that of other (sinners) owing to its greater connection with daevas. And the soul of a deceitful Ashmogh is stated to be of the shape of a daeva, owing to its running in the deepest hell. Otherwise, no change takes place in the nature of the souls of those who commit sodomy or cause it to be committed, by reason of their living in close relations with the daevas; and, in that of the soul of a deceitful Ashmogh by reason of its assuming the shape of a daeva.


The question was asked: About the deeds of salvation of Gayomard, it has been said, on the testimony of the Avesta that, "Gayomard, by reason of his speaking the truth, went at once under the supremacy of the Amahraspands." [21] Again, another known opinion regarding him has been stated in this manner "His nature was created for Garothman:" [22] How then are these two (differently) given decisions to be accepted as dicta of religion?


Know (you) that, what is said about Gayomard having been created for Garothman, because of his nature having remained, in this world, as pure as Garothman, (by abstaining) from the vices of this world, is admitted by people on (the authority of) the dictum regarding it; and, what is mentioned about Gayomard having been saved by his deeds, has reference to the Evil-doer: therefore, these two different statements are truthful and worthy of being assented to and approved, without objection.


The question was asked : One of two dasturs says about Gayomard that "notwithstanding the presence (in this world) of the Blemish-giver, [23] he lived thirty years"; and the other says that "no sooner the Blemish-giver reached (this world) than immediately he died"; which (statements) are opposed to each other (and) obviously objectionable: therefore, how are the two to be assented to and approved.


Know, that, the weight of these statements depends upon the explanation obtained regarding them by men; therefore, if any one give an explanation regarding them with proofs from the Avesta, that (explanation) is to be believed in by all as the word of the prophet: and if, in such explanation, the purport of the two agrees with that of the person on the one side, then, that explanation is not objectionable, but of similar authority, purpose and relation. Therefore, such explanation of theirs, of (similar) tendency and relation, must be accepted and approved similarly with other matters of faith and explanations of things relating to the good religion declared by the dastur of the religion.


The question was asked: In the Avesta, what is original (text) and what is commentary on it, are (treated) as the scriptures; all these are said to be composed from the very first Word, Yatha ahu vairyo; but, how was one part [24] formed from one word of Yatha ahu vairyo?


Know (you) that, in the Avesta, the original (text) and the commentary upon it, are, as scriptures, founded on the Yatha ahu vairyo; and, as without a man's head the hair that give (it) beauty cannot exist, so without the Yatha ahu vairyo the commentaries that give additional beauty to the religion cannot exist: therefore, there is nothing objectionable (taken) one with another. [25]


The question was asked: What is the reason for keeping the nasa of men and dogs at a distance of thirty paces, and a woman who is menstruating at a distance of fifteen paces, from anything pure? Is the pollution arising from the nasa of men and dogs greater than that from the menses? (for) from the overplus in the thirty paces, the defilement from the nasa of men and dogs (seems to be) greater. What, then, is the reason of the mention made (in the religion) about the holy ceremonies for the Good Creation [26] becoming more impure than the nasa of men and dogs, by being looked upon by a woman who is menstruating?


Know (you) that, the greater pollution of the nasa of men and dogs than that of menses is apparent from the distance of thirty paces; but the cause of a pure thing being defiled by being seen by a woman who is menstruating is owing to the nasas [27] acquiring power to run with great force on a woman who is menstruating, and, to the penetration of the nasas into the pure thing through the sight of that woman. And, as the secretly injurious stink of the wind of the posteriors by going into the nose, -- (as) that stink of a foul stomach, -- is injurious to living created-things, so her looking at the things appertaining to holy ceremonies, renders those things useless.

27. Exposition in the good religion about the greatness of times, about the things appertaining to greatness, and as to whom power accrues by attaining to greatness.

Know (you) that, the greatness of time depends upon good and evil: in it there is goodness through the inherent attributes of the Spenamino, [28] and evil through the opposite attributes of the Ghanamino.

There are eight principal (heads of) knowledge of every good and evil (that happens) in time: their names are Spenaki, Ghanaki, Vadi, Varuni, Bagi, Dadani, Vahuyati and Dushneyati: and the access (of good and evil) is owing to them.

Spenaki is knowledge regarding the (right) understanding of wisdom, obedience and truthfulness in religion, and regarding suffering (persecution) for its (religion's) sake; and it is intended for those who are celebrated for spreading true accounts of the good religion and for religious teachership.

Ghanaki is knowledge regarding the (right) understanding of the disobedience pertaining to the bad religion which opposes the Athornan class; [29] of the inability to see and hear what pertains to the good religion; (and) of the teaching to commit sin and to be ungrateful; and, it has reference to those who are well-known for doing injury to the good religion.

Vadi is knowledge regarding the (right) understanding about the giving by the Arthestar class [30] of the assistance arising from (giving) power, elevated station, authority and justice to the priestly class: and it has reference to those who are renowned for dominion and authority.

Varuni is knowledge regarding the (right) understanding of selfishness that injures the priestly class, of all deceitfulness that helps (such) education (as that) of Bradrok-resh [31] and of evil disposition and immorality; and it has reference to those who are well-known for doing harm and injury to the (priestly) class.

Bagi is knowledge regarding agriculture for (the benefit of) the world; and it has reference to those who, by living conscientiously, collecting food, and bestowing it (upon people) for the sake of a rich reward, are well-known as increasers of help to the priestly and the governing classes.

Dadani is knowledge regarding destruction by robbers and oppressors in the world; the injury done to the prosperity of the world through want of mercy, want of sympathy, miserliness, and meanness; and the harm done to mankind by causing scarcity (of food) and dearth: and has reference to those persons who are injurers of the profession of agriculture.

Vahuyati is knowledge regarding the Hutukhsh [32] class, which class is an helper of the (above) three classes: and to the soul of the follower of this profession, there is acquisition of holiness, through good thoughts, good words, and good deeds.

Dushneyati is knowledge regarding people following evil professions: the soul of him who follows evil professions becomes guilty through evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds; and it is a doer of injury to those who follow the three professions. [33]

The formation of the members of the different professions possessing the above knowledge, depends upon the influence of the respective principles; [34] and he, over whom (either of the principles) prevails becomes subject to it.

The good knowledge comprised in Spenaki is (intended) for Vadi; and the knowledge comprised in Vadi is (intended) for Bagi; and, the knowledge comprised in Bagi is (intended) for Vahuyati.

The evil knowledge comprised in Ghanaki is (intended) for Varuni; and the knowledge comprised in Varuni is (intended) for Dadani, and the knowledge comprised in Dadani is (intended) for Dushneyati. And, the manifestation of men in their various meannesses and goodnesses, is owing to them.

Evil arises from oppression, and oppression prevails in the world in various ways. Similarly, various persons prevail in goodness through virtue. In times pertaining to the Evil One [35] the low, generally, have power over the high: at that time much wickedness becomes manifest through oppression, as is said in the holy religion:-- "Man's deeds for obtaining good acquisitions are owing to the strength of the yazads, and (his) deeds for obtaining evil acquisitions are owing to the strength of the daevas."

Times that come for the greatness of Ohrmazd, the Creator, are owing to goodness, and are the cause of making people of a higher nature through goodness; and, owing to them, injury is done to the evil-giving of wickedness and to (men's) becoming wicked through the Evil Principle. And the destruction, from the beginning to the end of time, of the evil-imparting of greater wickedness, which is to happen to mankind through the Evil-doer, is owing to the Principle (of Good) which at once puts a stop to it among mankind. The equibalancing of the powers intended for the Frashegird, [36] and the greater access of the strength and connection (pertaining to them), in the creation, is owing to the prevalence in it of the Good Power which renders Evil lusterless.

Again, the times that possess great preeminence in evil, are (such), owing to there being much more evil than good in them; and, during these times, harm is done to all people through the deceitfulness of the Deceiver In this manner, owing to the continuance of the Good and the Evil Principle among mankind, harm will be done till the time of the Frashegird. In the time of the Frashegird, by means of goodness, there is living with purity; and, owing to that, to the Ghanamino, there will be a want (of occasions) to do harm. And all good persons will obtain immortality and a final well-regulated constitution through the instrumentality of the Will of the Lord Creator having reference to His final intentions.

28. Exposition in the good religion regarding the greatness of the relations, disposition, and strength of natives of Iran.

Be it known that, the greatness of the relations of a countryman of Iran is owing to the Mazdayasnian religion and to his being obedient (to Ohrmazd) through the laws of the Mazdayasnian religion. And the superiority of his disposition and strength is owing to certain qualities and demeanor pertaining to obedience (to Ohrmazd.) The ways of Iranians are the ways of the Mazdayasnian religion; therefore, whoever is a native of Iran is always a breaker of cruel customs. Because a native of Iran has the ways of the Mazdayasnian religion and keeps the good Mino [37] with him, he has greatness, and the Evil Principle is (constantly) harassed by him. And, owing to well-made, (justly) proportioned and well-regulated food, he keeps healthy, well-mended, improved, happy, pure, beautiful, fragrant, and cheerful. And as to certain (other religious) communities, their preeminence of disposition and of strength is owing to their quality of disobedience (to Ohrmazd) and to their possessing the ways of the religion of the Ghanamino, and to their keeping the Evil Principle with them. And so, the Good Principle is hurt by them. And, owing to badly proportioned, corrupted and extremely uniform food, they remain ill, evil-doers, corrupted, miserable, impure, stinking, ill-shaped, and distressed.

29. Exposition in the good religion regarding the origin of the formation of the peoples (living) on the outskirts of Iran.

Know that the formation also of the religion and customs of the people of the borders, whose original country was Iran, is (derived) from the original religion and faith of their Iranian ancestors. Therefore, to them there is (accrual of) good, profit, and increased strength by inquiries concerning this same religion and system. For, the power they have attained is owing to the Iranian religion; and those who have become lords of the world, inclusive even of Xwaniratha, [38] are (descended) from Hooshang, Tahmurasp, Jamshed, Faridoon; Erach, and other Iranians; and, whatever greatness their sovereignty has acquired, that greatness is owing to giving freedom and happiness to (their) subjects; and owing to that there is perpetual advantage to them. Therefore, the decisions of other rulers, [39] who are not approvers of those who tell lies for the sake of oppression, of those who raise up dissensions in religion, of murderers and highwaymen, must always be acknowledged by the servants of Ohrmazd, and, they (the rulers) must be reckoned as protecting kings, and (the servants of Ohrmazd) must keep (themselves) obedient to them according to the laws, without revolting, and promote their rule. But, if any one there, [40] should arrest the greatness, the glory and the splendor of the Mazdayasnian religion for the sake of introducing (another) religion, then, (the servants of Ohrmazd) should keep (themselves) in the right from such cruel persons in the manner in which advantage and happiness may appear to them. And those who may have fallen from that religion and become damned should be persuaded to turn back. Again, a check should be given to the advancing strength and the attack of the "Yahud" [Jewish] religion of Rum and "the Masahiya" [Messiah, i.e. Christian] [41] religion of Khavar, [42] and the "Mani" religion [Manichaeism] of Turkestan, lest their wickedness and degradation should enter into (our) co-religionist friends and the purity of our religion, which is older than that of Rum, should be dimmed.

30. Exposition in the good religion regarding persons whose ways are deserving of superior privileges being bestowed upon them.

Be it known that, among persons whose ways are deserving of higher or lower privileges being bestowed upon them, are many persons of this kind: among them the first rank is held by a person of advanced age, skilled in the arts, and the second and lower, by a skilled youth. There are many reasons for the elderly man-of-art being superior to the youthful man-of-art: He who is advanced in age has acquired, with his knowledge, experience regarding that knowledge; so, much faith is reposed in him and evil of any kind is removed through him; and the youthful man-of-art, with his knowledge, does not attain to the proficiency of the (elderly) man-of-art until he becomes of advanced age. Lower in rank than him, the third, is the young man without (knowledge of) art; and lower than him -- the last, is the old man without (knowledge of) art. There are many reasons for the superiority of the young man without (knowledge of) art over the old man without (knowledge of) art: there is hope of a young man attaining to (a knowledge of) the arts through his superior and uniform strength.

31. Exposition in the good religion regarding the contentedness of those who carry on their business in the right way and the discontentedness of those who carry on their business in the wrong way.

Be it known that, whosoever pursues his calling according to the law, -- his profession is one for acquiring enduring wealth and not for acquiring transitory wealth; [43] and that pursuer of his calling by the good path (and) acknowledger of God's obligations, lives cheerfully and contented. He whose calling is to acquire transitory wealth and to avoid enduring wealth, -- that pursuer of his calling by the wrong path, lives a grumbler, morose, restless and discontented. The enduring wealth that keeps the body in order and the soul strengthened is owing to good behavior; and the increase of transitory wealth is owing to the absence of it (good behavior) (and) to evil behavior. The thing that gives to the soul deliverance of every kind and turns away all sin is righteousness.

32. Exposition in the good religion about protection and the leaving off of protection.

Be it known that, the protection (of man) by the yazads in boundless ways and in various modes is owing to man's remaining aloof from the commission of sin and his being righteous. As long as there is goodness, so long the yazads are keepers of relations with the good; and they leave off protecting those who take to committing sin. Since it is so, that, by committing sin and thinking evil of righteousness, (men) become driven from relations with the yazads, then, surely, from this, good people should always entertain hopes (of reward) and evil-doers, terror (of punishment). If ever in this earthly habitation, an evil-doer, who wallows in sin, with an increase of sinful deeds, live, among mankind, as one who has obtained good reward and is protected; and, if a good man live without the (good) fortune to be protected, then, it is positively said (in the religion) that: -- in the invisible world, owing to deliverance and superior position, the good attain to a happy state at the end, and the bad, owing to suffering imprisonment and disgrace, attain to an unhappy state at the end. (Therefore) if at any place holy men find it very injurious and hurtful (to speak the truth), still it (the truth) must be spoken. And, if at any place, holy men should find untruth very convenient and beneficial still, it must never, at any time; be spoken. There is an admonition in the good religion about truthful persons that, if owing to true information being given by a truthful person, he should injure holy men, still, not looking to that, he should be praised for his truth-speaking: and, similarly, if at any time, by telling an untruth, his (the untruthful person's) false information should do a benefit to holy men, still, that ought not to be admitted, and he should be despised for his falsehood.

33. Exposition in the good religion about the man who abstains from sin and advances in righteous, and the man who abstains from righteousness and advances in sin.

Be it known that, if Vohuman [44] live as a guest in the heart of any (man), and Ohrmazd be the ruler over his will, then, his house (i.e., body) is peaceful; his thoughts possess the truthfulness of the Invisible Abode; his speech is comformable to reason; and, his deeds, are (calculated) to abstain from sin and to move forward in righteousness. And if Akoman [45] be in the heart of any (man) and Varun [46] be the ruler over his will, then, he is the abode of anger and the rulers over his mind are the invisible Principle of Sin, and, selfishness that gives commands to (his) tongue; hence, his deeds are (calculated) to abstain from righteousness and to advance in sin.

34. Exposition in the good religion about the ways of the good religion having reference to the wishes of the yazads and the ways of the bad religion having reference to the wishes of the daevas

Be it known that, the yazads approve of the thoughts relating to the ways of the good religion for the reason that, they (i.e. the ways) themselves are for (securing) the Good Principle and for turning back from the Evil Principle: therefore, he who is for securing the Good Principle, is a turner away of himself from the Evil Principle, for the sake of righteousness; and righteousness is the wish of the yazads. The daevas approve the thoughts relating to the ways of the bad religion for the reason that, they (i.e. the ways) themselves are for the Evil Principle and for turning back from the Good Principle; and, again, whoever possesses the Evil Principle, is a turner away of himself from the Good Principle, for the sake of sin; and, sin is the wish of the daevas.

35. Of the first bearer of the good religion.

Be it known that, the reason for mankind becoming doers of work of a superior kind is religion; and it is owing to it only that there is a living in prosperity through the Creator. It is always necessary to send it (religion) from time to time to keep men back from being mixed up with sin and to regenerate them. Gayomard, who was the origin of mankind and the first king of the world, was the first to accept the religion from the Creator. And, Soshyant, -- the last bringer of religion for mankind from God and the embellisher of the world through religious deeds, -- he, who will make mankind walk in purity, -- is the chief and lord of the last men; he, in accordance with the will and desire of the Creator, will be the bringer of His religion at the time of the End, and will be the giver of perfect beauty to the work of rendering the world pure, free from harm and fit for paradise, -- which work was (first commenced) through Gayomard. All the reformers of mankind (i.e. prophets) are considered as connected with its (religion's) design; and the heavenly angels, -- the bringers of the good religion, are the mediators of the prophets of the good religion; but there will be no necessity for sending religion, through a prophet, for the (benefit of) Creatures of the world who will be in existence after him (Soshyant). Religious teachers who, -- in times of exceedingly sinful deeds and depraved manners, and during the predominance of those who make men exceedingly sinful in respect of religion and make them skeptical regarding the good religion, and of those who profess a religion which encourages men to go towards darkness, -- are the promoters of religion, illuminers and superior-knowledge-possessing-renderers of the world by means of imparting to it knowledge regarding the entertaining of hopes about the first world; -- if people should approve, from its published design, the religion of such messengers (i.e. the religious teachers), then, they (the people) should acknowledge those messengers as prophets, for the sake of their good religion: but if in that religion mention is made about the non-deliverance of the inhabitants of this world, then, they should abandon it without examination. [47]

36. Exposition in the good religion for Mazdayasnians to remain aloof from the worshippers of the daevas who disobey God and from the nature of deceitful Ashmoghs.

Be it known that, the souls of worshippers of daevas and of deceitful Ashmoghs, owing to their impure nature, although (located) in a living body, are, according to the religion, (as if) possessing a dead body; and that body with life is considered as (fit) for hell; hence there is a danger of their pollution and bad qualities reaching Mazdayasnians through mutual intercourse with them; therefore, (the Mazdayasnians) must remain aloof from touching their living bodies, for their bodies are in all places like decayed nasa.

Again, it is made known thus, that owing to their friendship and the touch of close relations with them, there is diminution of purity, alloying of good qualities, (with bad ones) and harm to habits, and lessening of glory. These people are through friendship and the practice of eating and drinking with them, givers of separation from the yazads and of relations of impurity; and (thereby) the understanding becomes debased; therefore, as far as possible, (we) must remain, aloof from contact with and separate from them, and with that, do also this, (we) must wash three times with hot water those plates and eating vessels which they use, and Mazdayasnians must avoid eating and drinking from out of them.

37. Exposition in the good religion about those among God's servants who hold the superior, the middle, and the inferior rank.

Be it known that among the servants of God, he, who is self-informed with knowledge about himself as a servant (of God) and guides himself by means of a likely-to-improve principle, in the brightness, majesty, wisdom and (good) qualities pertaining to him, is a superior servant of God. And he, who improves himself by exactly imitating that improved servant of God, and guides his powers, in the way they should be guided, is a servant of God of the middle rank. And he, who, through an accomplished person possessed of perfect wisdom -- by means of such powers-improving advice as his, -- is himself (possessed) with knowledge regarding improvement, is, among the servants of God, a servant of inferior rank. [48]

38. Exposition in the good religion as to the nature of very great happiness, very great misery, happiness accompanied by misery, and misery accompanied by happiness.

Be it known that, very great happiness and misery, happiness accompanied by misery and misery accompanied by happiness, of men of this world, are quickly-vanishing. And with the going away of misery of this world, happiness is connected, and with the going away of happiness, misery is connected.

39. Admonition and exposition in good religion about that from which men have to obtain deliverance and about those things which are not fit to be approved of by them.

Be it known that, there is an admonition to man that his obtaining deliverance (from hell) is by wishing in accordance with and by inquiring about, the will of Ohrmazd, and, by living properly in accordance with the will of the Lord through the way (pointed out) in the good religion; or, by doing, by means of the directions given in the good religion, the work relating to it; and by remaining aloof from deeds, hurtful and relating to repentance, (which) should be abstained from. He whose conscience is the pointer out to him of the higher path and whom reason governs is the man who has found Ohrmazd's wish; but he, who abstains from obtaining knowledge regarding means for himself and is without the desire to preserve himself in truthfulness and is not an approver of reason that counsels contentment, [49] is self-willed, of a perverse conscience, and pertains to selfish things.

40. Exposition in the good religion regarding the Lord of Existence being the Creator of Being and the creation.

Be it known that, the Lord of Existence is manifest through every existent and created thing pertaining to him.. The Self-existent is possessed of a faculty of superior wisdom. And, before the work of the Lord was promulgated through the Spenamino, He Himself existed. And the existence of all is owing to the Self-existent. Again, the manifestation, among men, of the Lord of Existence, through what he has brought into existence, happened last. [50] For, the manifestation of Ohrmazd as the existence-giver of Vohuman was after the work of creating Vohuman. So, the wisdom pertaining to the religion being necessary for the creation, and, it being necessary that it (the religion) should be spread by means of the personality of Vohuman, -- Vohuman, having been created by the Creator, is, as the first creation. And, Vohuman having been created by the Creator, he is, in expositions of the religion, mentioned as the son of the Creator, and the Creator, in respect of Vohuman, is mentioned as the father. Then, it is proved from this that, the Creator must have manifested himself, before the creation of Vohuman. And whatever knowledge regarding Him Vohuman has obtained, -- he is made the possessor of that knowledge by the Creator. Therefore, it appears from this that, the creator is able, through His perfect knowledge, all-sufficient power and entire control, to create as much profitable creation as is wanted. And there is no one who is high in wisdom, possessed of most knowledge, and holder of most dignified advantages, like Him. Therefore, (as regards) the religious teacher among religious teachers who is (considered) as himself the Creator, also, as (both) father and son, -- that is impossible; -- (for) that the father is made before the son and the son after the father -- these two (propositions) are (considered) regular in all religions. Again, the Self-existent himself is One, and he has alone created (the creation): how could he, (then) create himself after? According to the law of descent of things, one, among two, must precede; therefore, if two precede, and two follow, it is proper, that the one that precedes the other among them, should be called the father and the other the son. (For) among the two, (created, the one) before and (the other) after (the other), the first is the father of the second, and the second is the son. But the aged father born before the son, cannot be the son; and, the son born after the father, cannot be the father.

41. Exposition in the good religion as to the Creator of the creation having promised to keep free from dread that (part) of His creation which abstains from giving pain to its Creator.

Be it known that, the Creator of the creation is an acknowledger of His creation, as His creation, because of relations being maintained, by the creation. which He has created, with Him. And He is an esteemer of the creation (as) valuable, because of higher relations (maintained) by the creation. And God Himself becomes an esteemer of His creation (as) valuable, by identifying Himself with it. That is, He Himself becomes a bestower among the creation of the precious gift of thoughts regarding Himself,. and a keeper of it (the creation) free from dread, by reason of (the creation) not displeasing the Creator openly: [51] for, the Lord is like a King over his people. Again, whoever guides himself, among the people of the Lord, by the wisdom of the Creator, and is generous, he undoubtedly, is not an injurer of himself through deeds of sin The religion of those religious preceptors, [52] who are of the side of God, is said to be one that does not at all harm His creation by deeds of sin and does not without reason cause suffering in the Kingdom, owing to the generous deeds, done through the wisdom pertaining to, and of the sacred justice administered by it (the religion). And those who have remained without and behind it (i.e. the wisdom pertaining to the religion) are said to be positively thoughtless.

42. Exposition in the good religion regarding the Superiority and superior dignity of Athornanship over Arthestarship and Vastariushship.[53]

Be it known that, the superiority and the superior dignity of Athornanship over Arthestarship and Vastariusship are known from many reasons. And one (reason) among them is, that the two titles, soldiership and peasantship are included in priestship; for, the warriorship of an Athornan consists in smiting the invisible drujas and, his peasantship in making (himself) a worshipper of God. [54] And again, the work of conveying the soul in the presence of its Creator is (done) by Athornans.

Another reason is, that to every man the acquisition of knowledge respecting (his) duties -- such as, to know the creator, and to distinguish numerous (deeds of) righteousness and sin -- is through the Athornan class: as also, every man is, in all deeds, relating to his soul, of extended and detailed boundary, through the Athornan class.

Third. The higher rank of priesthood than that of soldiership and peasantship is owing to its religious communing, disposition and the superiority of (religious) places.

Fourth. The dignity of the head in the human body is (allotted) to the profession of Athornan; of the hand, to the profession Arthestar; of the belly, to the profession of Vastariush; and of feet, to the profession of Hutokhsh: thus, it is symbolically shown, that in rank and dignity, the profession of Athornan is as the head of the world; the profession of Arthestar is as the hands of the world; the profession of Vastariush is as the belly of the world; and, the profession of Hutokhsh is as the feet of the world.

Fifth. The superiority of priestship is owing to the (priest) being (set) over the work relating to their (i.e. of the members of the three other professions) souls; for, whoever is in the profession of Athornan, is always a pointer out to people of boundless (knowledge) regarding their souls. The Athornan class being mentioned in the good religion as the best adorner of the mansions of Ohrmazd [55] -- this is a proof, fit to be admitted, of the greater superiority of the Athornan class than that of the Arthestar and Vastariush classes.

43. Exposition in the good religion regarding man's becoming virtuous in all the virtues of the world by means of his being made to observe the commands of the religion regarding him.

Be it known that, if a person (be) able, in respect of wealth, fullness and learning, to impart instruction in the wisdom pertaining to the good religion, (then) that person, having the power of learning and wealth, ought to give zealous assistance in respect of wisdom and wealth to those not fully able; so that, the enabler (of others) may become, through the God who enabled him, an acquirer of the reward of fitting dignity in both the worlds, and may, through the power of the yazads become the receiver of full protection in both the worlds; and also that, people may remain bound, as holders of full relations, in respect of the virtues of both the worlds, and the world may thence become improved, mended and beautified, and the good tribe may increase, and men obtain deliverance (from hell) and (the) exaltation (of heaven.)

44. Exposition in the good religion regarding the warring the yazads to smite the Opposer and to suppress the dark danger (arising through him), for (enabling) the people to live as good creation.

Be it known that, the yazads are, by the command of God, for the purpose of removing and driving back each of the numerous dangers that have approached at different times: and as a wise physician knows the remedies for driving back the ailments of the body and for making improvements in the original constitution; and (as) the cultivator, who removes evil from corn, is the person to apply remedies to corn affected with destructive evil; so they (the yazads) are for the purpose of not allowing harm to happen to the creation at the time of danger and for driving it back. And they come, by the command of God, immediately upon the appearance of approaching (danger), and smite the enemy powerfully in a way that he may not rise up again. They are like heroes who bestow the advantage upon the world of living in happiness without the fear of enemies, of affording rest to people for a long period, and of spreading in the world the religion and (its) glory.

45. Exposition in the good religion regarding evil to man, arising from his conducting himself, by means of the soul, for (obtaining) the riches appertaining to the body.

Be it known that (for man) to remain in obedience to the Creator, depends upon his knowledge, in every particular, regarding religion. (For), owing to it (religion), a worthy man becomes a conductor (of himself) towards his Creator without evil, harm or vice, by means of the things appertaining to the spirit and the body. And the becoming vicious of men is owing to the diminution and destruction of the wisdom pertaining to the soul; and hence the soul becomes guilty. As, owing to admixture, disease is engendered in the body, so, owing to sin, illness, the pain of death and misery happen to the soul. Through the miserliness that causes injury to the riches of the soul and through the dishonest practices of a Farehbut [56] and the murderous destructive practices of an Aibibut, [57] there is a diminution of the life of, and a happening of harm to, the perfect creation of the Creator. When man regulates his conduct by means of the wisdom relating to the soul and by means which secure the riches of safety of body and of prosperity, then the Good creation [58] prevail to some extent over those who do harm to the creation of the Creator. And owing to the greater strength derived by him (man) through, and the care taken of him, by the Creator, the strength of the Injurer [59] who always hovers over him to do him harm, will not prevail. Men pass their own and their kindred's lives in a proper manner through virtue; and in an improper manner through doing injury. Therefore, arrangements (made) by virtue, ought to be protected from persons possessing a disposition to do harm; and communities whose practices are calculated to cause harm ought to be avoided. Those who are religious teachers, are not causers of harm to the Creator, but those whose religion is such as to instill (into people) a desire for sins that give pain to the Creator, for falsehood, for mischief, and for harm-causing means, their (religion) is worthless. Such a religion cannot be considered to be from the Creator and cannot be called good.

46. Exposition in the good religion about the duty of rulers being, as far as practicable, to remove misery, want, hardships, filth, and pestilence from men.

Be it known that, as it is the personal duty of rulers having a knowledge of the religion to prevent their disobedient enemies from (approaching) wealthy and influential citizens, so it is their duty to drive away from them and suppress, misery, hardship, want, disease, and pestilence; and, as far as practicable, to discover and adopt such measures as would keep up prowess in the world. Among rulers he occupies a high position who adopts several measures for removing misery and disease from the citizens in such a manner that there may not be a single complaint under his rule of no measures having been taken against hardship and disease. But being without a knowledge of religion and of its precepts, owing to the idleness resulting from perverse thoughts, and owing to their exerting themselves in occupations pertaining to discontentedness, (they, the rulers,) promote the causes which generate each disease; and, there is thus a strengthening of the profession of arms. Therefore, if any among their subjects should be unable to pursue their occupation owing to their being without the implements of their occupation, -- (if), for instance, a husbandman should be without bullocks and other implements of agriculture, or, (if) members of other professions be without the implements of their profession, -- then they should provide such persons with the implements for carrying on their business and thus render them defectless. And they should protect defenseless women and children, who, owing to old age or to their inability to move about, and owing to there being no person able to keep off plunderers, seek their assistance. The light to crush misery of this description before it has made any advance is the light (of religion). Therefore, rulers should conduct themselves in (the path of works) appertaining to religion and should give orders to commence (such works), that thereby the person suffering from disease may not have to prefer a dungeon (to his misery). For remedying disease and pestilence, orders should be given for erecting in cities and towns hospitals placed under the superintendence of every well-known physician approving of the happiness of the soul, and provided with appropriate medicines and other appliances for removing disease; and there, inquiries should be made and care taken for curing a the diseases of all persons. And measures of all kinds should be taken in cities whereby the city may flourish and be industrious, and famine, misery and want may go on being at once annihilated from (among) most men. Similarly, fire, water, and the earth should be kept fragrant, and the air should be kept pure from all noxious substances and things liable to decay, that owing to them men may not suffer from disease and pestilence. On the contrary, men should keep (such things) aloof, in the world, from fire, water, and the earth in obedience to the commands of kings (who act) in accordance with such admonitions in the good religion.

47. Exposition in the good religion regarding the duty of bearing enmity to the Enemy [60]

Be it known that, enmities should be borne to those with whom (all) relations ought, according to the good religion, to be broken; for, the breaking of relations, brought about by harm done to man and by coming in his way, (so as to prevent him from doing what is good) is just. Those who are turners away of the soul of man from the helper, are daevas. And owing to relations with these evil beings, the help of him from whom there is assistance to man, is not obtained by him. For, the assistance of daevas is well known for coming in the way of every person who assists men; therefore, if an approved Dastur of the good religion be able to turn a good man from (having) relations with evil persons, towards the good, then it is not wisdom to quarrel (with him), but good should be done to him, and love should be shown (to him), and good offices should be done to him, and he who is wicked should be turned to what is good by means of wisdom.

48. Exposition in the good religion regarding the means of getting rid of those whose ways are to oppose the creation of Ohrmazd.

Be it known that, looking carefully, those whose ways are to oppose the creation of Ohrmazd are of three kinds. Of these one (kind) advances unperceived, one through the passions, and one in bodily form, to do harm. Those who advance unperceived to do harm are invisible daevas and drujas; and, the riddance of them is by means of the ceremony of Ijashne [i.e. Yasna] of the good religion: and, owing to the adoption of measures of other good-doing, there is a riddance of the daeva-worship of the bad religion and of other evil practices. And those who advance (to do harm) through the passions, are (possessed of) covetousness, envy, and other passions; and the riddance of the danger from them is by means of the correlated attributes of inherent wisdom, and by means of conducting ourselves through the instrumentality of well-reputed helpers [61] who are the averters of (spiritual) disease, and their powers. The acquisition of strength by the drujas, through the passions, is owing to Varun. [62] And those who advance in bodily form (to do harm) are daeva-worshipping rulers, wolves. and monsters, who are the destroyers of the world: they are got rid of generally, by means of the battle-ax, fetters, and the holy persons who are the possessors of the fetters for catching them. [63] A daeva-worshipping, deceitful (ruler) causes greater evil to the world than wolves and monsters, owing to the power appertaining to rule.

49. Exposition in the good religion regarding (men's) improving themselves for happiness by directing (their) attention towards the pure (and) invisible yazads and by cutting off from among them the admixture of those whose intentions are to wound and to give pain.

Be it known that, the improvement (of men) for the happiness of heaven is by keeping an eye towards relations with the pure (and) invisible yazads, and by opposing the association with themselves of those who have the intention of wounding and giving pain (to the yazads) and are of a like disposition. To join battle with them (i.e. such wicked persons) immediately upon seeing them, is, for the creation of Ohrmazd possessing the disposition of the yazads, to secure Final Victory over the darkness of this world caused by daevas and drujas, and over the practices of the lightless Evil-doer. [64] In the world, the possessors of the disposition of the yazads, become improvers of themselves for eternity, by means of righteousness of all kinds and by restraining their inclinations for improper happiness. Those religious teachers who, by means of knowledge derived from this world, [65] cause numerous men to walk in evil ways and so render them deliveranceless for eternity, are like the creatures of the ever-painful abode of hell: for, their religion imparts evil knowledge respecting the works of the Creator, (respecting) wisdom, highest happiness and the pure invisible yazads possessed of knowledge regarding the End. Consequently, any one of those whose religion is one pertaining to paradise is said to be for the Evil End and to have the ways of the daevas by eating and acting with those whose religion is of this (evil) character.

50. Exposition in the good religion regarding (man's) becoming better owing to the Good, and worse, owing to the Bad.

Be it known that, if a possessor of life [66] be good himself, he becomes possessed of a better rank, owing to making great additions of righteousness under the tutelage of able and very powerful yazads; and, owing to superior righteousness (he) becomes the acquirer of the highest rank. And through him additional advantage is derived at every place. For, he is a great encourager, at every place, of the doing of righteousness; hence, those souls that are (located) in bodies, become doers, at every place of more profitable work for the soul. As, in every place, over the members of a household, is the householder; in a village, over the people in the village is the ruler of the village; in a city, over the people in the city, is the king; and, in religion there is the religious teacher; and as the people of the world live under the different kinds of supremacy of these (persons): So, through them (i.e. the yazads) the whole of the good creation, owing to the goodness of the Almighty and All-High Creator, becomes improved; and, owing to its (of the good creation) continuous righteousness, the good yazads, through the goodness of the Creator, become (capable of) more good.

If a possessor of life be evil himself, he becomes an acquirer of the highest rank (in evil), through strong protectors more powerful (than himself) in evil, by (doing) deeds of injury, of harm to the world, of evil fame, and other more injurious deeds. And great harm is done through him. For, in every place, he is an encourager of others (in evil); so that, those souls that are (located) in bodies become, at every place, doers of greater injury to the soul. Just as in a household there is the head of the members of the household; in a village there is the ruler of the people of the village; in a city there is the King of the people of the city; and in religion there is the religious teacher, under the supremacy of whom (all) many men live very uselessly, the causers of much pain and doers of much injury: owing to which the people of the world are unable to obtain their wishes, to keep themselves (from Sin) and strengthen themselves (with righteousness), -- for, how can what is evil be said to be meant to meet the Creator, the highest source of all creation? -- So how can the religion of religious teachers who encourage the doing of evil, not pointing out what is good; and, precepts that break relations of goodness, diminish goodness, cause hardship and do immense harm, be said to be meant for forming relations with the Creator? He through whom evil exists is worse than evil (itself) and all evil doers.

51. Exposition in the good religion regarding the kinds of possessors of life.

Be it known that, possessors of life are mainly of these three kinds. One kind is constitutionally immortal: its vesture (i.e. body) is (formed) for happiness. Another is constitutionally mortal, and its vesture is perishable. The Amahraspands and yazads are constitutionally immortal, and are invisible to the people of this world. Those whose vesture is perishable are known as constitutionally mortal: but from among these those who are of the side of those possessors of deathless and highly happy life, and whose vesture is related to the good thoughts of Ohrmazd and to Mahraspand, [67] -- they are known as givers of happiness to their souls and as preservers of (their) bodies, through Mahraspand. Again, others are said to be possessors, like the Amahraspands, of bodily vestures intended for the happiness of immortality: that, is owing to behavior like that of the good-thoughted Amahrapands and to the relation of their bodily vesture. The Amahraspands, as also other invisible yazads, are bestowers, in this world, upon holders of the good religion, of glory and splendor. Among things visible to the people of this world, that which is immortal is the Sun; and he is a possessor of life, with a vesture that gives happiness to this world. And as to the moon and stars which shine in uniform arrangement, -- they shine owing to his (the sun's) light. And (they) are possessors of innately happy (and) immortal vesture owing to the motions of the sun. [68] And owing to the relation with him, they are considered as having a (shining) vesture. The sun, the moon and the stars give light to the world, bestow strength on (the) bodies (of people) and increase mankind.

Those men whose immortal souls are within the bodily vesture belonging to this world, obtain the happiness-giving vesture of him who is by constitution without death, [69] in various ways; and such men owing to intercourse, one with another, [70] are considered to be of a superior rank among the people of this world. In this world, the obtaining of the constitutional vesture of immortality, by the people of this world, is by means of knowledge regarding the religion, and, behavior like that of cattle. And men and other creation of the visible world become the acquirers of such a state through the instrumentality and owing to the gift of those invisible Amahraspands who are by constitution immortal. In this matter, the object of having the behavior of men like that of cattle is (based) upon this, that people with that vesture are, like Vohuman, by nature the protectors of the body of every man and keep the soul happy. The possessor of the vesture [71] of Mahraspand has relation with Ohrmazd and is possessed of the power of His good thoughts; and people become the acquirers of the light and splendor (emanating) from the Creator through the instrumentality of the personality of men who are givers of happiness to such souls. Again, those who are deserving of death [72] are wearers of the vesture of daevas, wolves, and monsters. Of these, the bodies of daevas were broken (up) by Zartosht of the adorable Farohar, by means of the power of the good religion and of his first hymn. [73] So, for breaking, (by means of the power of the religion), the bodies of wolves, is Ushedar; and for breaking the bodies of monsters is Ushedarmah. And the coming of victorious Soshyant, the doer of the mighty work relating to Frashegird, is for destroying all dangers like these. And after an end has come to them all men will obtain the immortal body pertaining to the soul; and every one (will obtain) the final vesture of cattle. [74] And whoever is not of the meanest rank will, in his immortal soul and in his perfectly joyous purity, suffer from no danger. And the world will be (possessed) of everlasting improvement. The meaning of what is made known by the Creator about the renewal of the creation is that that creation will be improved for being made happy.

52. About guiding oneself with thoughts connected with religion.

Be it known, that any thought originating in innate reason, that resembles the good religion like as a brother, -- such a thought ought to be believed in, accepted, and made current. Any man in whom thoughts connected with such innate reason are always found, -- that man, owing to that, obtains embellishments of all kinds. And the thoughts of those who belong to the bad religion are for obstinacy, robbery and deceit. Those who promulgate the bad religion cause such evil as is caused by comers of money by uttering among people lead in place of gold, or, by alloying gold with lead; but when those who can distinguish the perverse ways of the bad religion obtain a knowledge of its origin, then, by being weighed by right thoughts, it is broken. Perverse ways are understood by being compared with the ways of the good religion And (their) being so understood is owing to their resembling the product of the natural understanding connected with Ohrmazd.

53. Exposition in the good religion regarding deceitless (and) proper behavior towards Him from whom there is deliverance to men.

Be it known that, for a man to act so as to obtain his deliverance, -- this, consists in living properly within the wishes of Ohrmazd, and in making inquiries and search in the good religion regarding the wishes of Ohrmazd, and in doing, for (obtaining) it, (i.e. deliverance,) what may be fit to be done according to the knowledge (found) in the good religion, and in keeping aloof from doing anything that is injurious. and is fit to be abstained from: for, when man improves himself by means of the superior ways of Ohrmazd and lives in accordance with the commands of reason, he becomes like to a thing in accordance with the wishes of Ohrmazd. And it is owing to his obtaining that knowledge that man becomes fully fit for (adopting) means for preserving true things connected with himself. But having no desires in regard to these two, -- contentment and reason -- there is an approval of things pertaining to the commands of evil passions and to a selfish heart.

54. Exposition in the good religion worthy of man's attention.

Be it known that, every man ought to take thought regarding the giving of deliverance to (his) soul: in this matter, rulers, by improving the different peoples of the world, by conferring splendor, by bestowing gladness and by governing well, make (their souls) more glorious (for the purposes of deliverance). Religious men make (their souls) more glorious by imparting the practices of the Mazdayasnian religion, by impressing belief respecting it and by imparting true relations. And all other men besides these make (their souls) more glorious by remaining obedient (to the Mazdayasnian religion) in the business of their professions.

55. Seven explanations sought by a scholar of (his) teacher.

Who remains fresh in wealth? Who possesses happiness pertaining to the soul? Who is a keeper-aloof from sin? Who possesses superior wisdom? Who is an increaser of glory? A man possessing the friendship of many men -- to what is that owing? Through whom is improvement of the body, and deliverance to its soul?

56. Replies given by the teacher from a knowledge of the good religion.

Be it known that, whoever is industrious with personal zeal and labor, he remains fresh in wealth. He whose look, in (this) perishable world is towards the Giver of Life, -- to his soul there is happiness and tranquillity from the Creator. (He in whose heart) is the abode of the omniscient Creator, -- he is a keeper of himself aloof from sin. The man who has much knowledge of the apprehensions regarding the Hoshbam (of Cheharum) [75] is of high rank in wisdom. By looking at people with a good eye, there is an increase of your glory. Men will be very affectionate towards you by your living with them in friendship and looking after them. If you force out falsehood from (your) body, your body will be improved and your soul delivered (from hell.)

57. Exposition in the good religion regarding the wisdom of the Mazdayasnian religion being for all professors of that religion.

Be it known that the wisdom of the Mazdayasnian religion is for the people professing that religion. And those who are Farehbuts and Aibibuts, -- to them there is harm from it. (For) the connection itself of that religion is an opposer of the sinful wisdom of Farehbut and of the obstructive, cruel wisdom of Aibibut. Again, by much faith being reposed in the good religion, the Perfect Improvers [76] by means of good wisdom, of the believer in the good religion, become frequent residents (in his heart); and owing to that, the thoughts, the speech, and the deeds of these professors of the good religion, are always accompanied with the wisdom of the Mazdayasnian religion. The wisdom intended for the professors of the Mazdayasnian religion, -- every (portion) of that wisdom, -- is not obtained by the reasoning faculty (of man), but it is made known by the Giver of existence to the Mazdayasnian religion and its Revealer.

58. Exposition in the good religion regarding state and religion.

Be it known that, the life of citizens consists in (civil) government (being) connected with religion and religion (being) connected with (civil) government. And the exposition, based on a knowledge of the good religion, regarding it is thus: -- (If there be) those whose government is for (the purposes of) religion and whose religion is for the improvement of government, -- then, the faithful must assuredly live in accord with them: for, the rule of such a state is like a manifest support, to the doers of generous deeds of the good religion, for remaining firm in the service of Ohrmazd and for conferring greatness on the religion. For one not to destroy another, to render obedience to the state t and to confer greatness upon it, -- (all) these are owing to the remaining in obedience to the religion of Ohrmazd. The highest greatness to religion is from (civil) government. There is great splendor and profit to the people of the world, from God, owing to the influence of religious behavior. A government is truthful, owing to its being a government accompanied with the good religion. A government is related to the good religion owing to there being a complete connection with the good religion. And from this, the proposition that, government is (identical with) religion and that religion is the government of citizens, is clearly apparent. Similarly, an evil government is owing to its evil religion, and an evil religion is owing to its correlated evil government.

59. Exposition in the good religion regarding the good, the more good, and the most good; the bad, the very bad, and the most bad among men.

Be it known that, (a man) becomes good in many ways: especially by putting faith in the religion of Ohrmazd; and thereby he becomes a holder of relations with the Creator, Ohrmazd. A man becomes more and most good by putting more and most faith in the religion of Ohrmazd. And thereby he becomes a holder of greater and greatest relations with, the Creator, Ohrmazd, the source of all good. Similarly, man becomes bad in various ways. Especially by putting faith in a bad religion. And thereby he becomes a holder of relations with the Ghanamino: and he becomes more and most bad by putting more and most faith in the bad religion And thereby he becomes a holder of greater and greatest relations with the source of all evil, the Ghanamino. Therefore, how can there be a mingling of wicked religious teachers in a religion which is the source of good? That is, in what way can there be a mingling of those whose religion is of evil ways, with the good religion connected with the yazads? As the good are said to be holders of relations with the yazads, through goodness; so, how can the wicked, through wickedness?

60. Exposition in the good religion regarding the government of men and the governors.

Be it known that, the governor, over the body which the Creator of unbounded creation, God, has given to man, is his own soul. In the body, the obtaining of the assistance of the yazads, is through Bud. [77] And through it the reasoning faculty becomes a wisher for, and obtainer of; strength. (Man) is a possessor of strength and a keeper-of-himself-durable through Hosh. [78] Through reason [79] man is a finder-out of falsehood, a distinguisher, and a doer of every deed. Owing to much connection with the yazads, through (the faculty named) Akho, a path is found to the mind by wisdom, purity and gladness that have an eye for the Invisible. Again, seven [80] other bodily things have been created, giving complete embellishment to the body from without; among these are the five senses. These are spoken of; by those who have knowledge regarding them, as the senses of sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch, the windows connected with which are placed outside the body; and the nerves in the dwelling are the proper carriers of his messages to the owner [81] of the dwelling-house. [82] Again, there is a description-giving sense-the tongue, which is the bringer out of knowledge regarding the owner of the body from within the body and is the publisher of whatever may be his wishes and thoughts. In this manner every man is made to personally govern his body, for the freedom of his wishes. Hence, (this is) like the kings of the world who are rulers according to their will over people, and, are considered good rulers over the body of the people, by managing the kingdom with wisdom, through the good use of their powers; and, such rule gives to many unworthy persons relations with the Kingdom of Light; and, consequently, such a king becomes happy and respected in the invisible world; but if he be a misuser of his powers, of evil understanding, and an injurer, then, owing to that, his kingdom is at once subverted, and he remains despised and possessed of evil reward, in the ever-harassing hell. Among the people of this world, the nature which is in itself like to the nature of the Creator Ohrmazd, is the nature of holy men, who are keepers of the principle of good thought in Akho, givers of place in their hearts to the service of the Spenamino, keepers in their minds of (the commands of) Srosh, sufferers in a sufficient manner, and givers of authoritative decisions to God's creatures and obeyers of the law. [83] The nature of that holy man, whose senses possess, in the body, the powers of the soul, is, -- for the purpose of (giving) to the people of the world, through Hosh, knowledge regarding God, -- like to that of the holders [84] of relations with heavenly ways; and is, -- in obtaining true wisdom by means of the faculty of reason, -- as if possessing the brilliancy of fire; (and) is, through the understanding a giver of much admonition for (the doing of) wise deeds and things; as also a raiser to superior rank by imparting knowledge regarding the good religion, and eager to tell and do things calculated for its (religion's) greater purity, and for fuller thought regarding it; and is, -- owing to the higher power (residing) in his body, -- courageous, not afraid of any one, and a remover (of evil), in the midst of all beholders. Again, (the nature of that holy man) is, -- owing to keeping a benignant outlook through the eyes, -- like that of Khwarshed; -- owing to hearing what is good through the ears, -- like that of Srosh; -- owing to being a truth-teller through the tongue, -- like that of Rashn; and, owing to doing good work with the hands and being a mover-about with the feet for righteousness, -- a worker for eternity; as also, without evil, by means of the soul and other powers of the body.

61. Exposition in the good religion regarding the obtaining of the nature[85] of the Ghanamino himself.

Be it known that, there is an obtaining of the nature of Ahriman by means of thoughts which have reached into Akho through an evil mind, and, of the evil heart possessing the knowledge that causes harm, and, of the evil nature of the anger that has fallen into the mind. And hence (man) is of perverse behavior, an acquirer of death, an instructor of men in (what leads to) death, an injurer of good men, and like a chief of sinners. And his nature is, through the powers of the members pertaining to the body and the soul, calculated for infidels. Owing to which, he is, through reason, piercing and hurtful; through Hosh, unforgetful of vengeance; through thought, a perpetual harasser of good things; through (his) will, of a nature fit to harass every man; through ambition, a possessor of the vice of swallowing up the world, by means of an evil tumult; through the passions, fired up to blow the smoke of relation with the perverse ways of the evil religion that causes harm to the world; and, through head-strong thoughts, pointer-out, in an inverted order, of thoughts relating to subjection to God which make (a man) to walk in accordance with the law. And he is, through the qualities of an Ashmogh, a doer of deeds, in a cruel manner, and a giver of (things pertaining to) the Ghanamino; through the soul, envious, like Afrasiyab, of all good creation; through Zohak-like heart, an injurer of virtue; and through doing evil deeds with both the hands and running about for evil help with both the feet, hurtful to the world like thieves and wolves.

62. Exposition in the good religion regarding the causes of obtaining wisdom and happiness.

Be it known that, whatever wisdom (and) happiness -- these two -- exist now, are owing to the principles that give the strength of wisdom and the power of happiness. Among these, by means of the proper power appertaining to the soul, Ohrmazd reaches into the heart of the acquirer of wisdom, and the power of obtaining the wishes, [86] reaches into the heart of the acquirer of wisdom. And on that wisdom reaching into the mind, a path is found by the mind that is obedient to Ohrmazd and is pure, to see what relates to the invisible; and so (man) becomes worthy of fresh [87] and superior happiness.

63. Exposition in the good religion regarding the power possessed by man, of choosing happiness in this awful world.

Be it known that, the happiness of the soul is desired in two ways. One, by means of the power of innate reason pertaining to the soul, which is (a principle) for sending out the inner movements [88] to the effect to raise the soul to a higher rank. (Another), by means of educated reason, which is (a principle) for sending the outer movements within. Similarly, fear (of hell) is chosen in two ways. One by the rising from within of the causes for discontented wants: another, by the coming in from without of the causes for miserliness regarding mean objects. Good thoughts are the cause of the happiness of the soul and the lords of innate reason. And evil thoughts are the cause of danger and the increasers of evil passions. The reaching of good thoughts into men is from the Spenamino: and the running of evil thoughts is from the Ghanamino. In man there is residence of good thoughts as well as of bad thoughts: from among these, for whose residence should a place be made, and who should be prevented from coming? In the proportion in which a man possesses good thoughts, in that proportion he obtains a high, a middling, or a low abode of happiness. And, he becomes unharassed and of good thoughts by means of innate reason which has good thoughts Similarly, in the proportion in which there is evil thought in him, in that proportion he obtains the abode of fear. By evil thoughts, (a man) has injurious thoughts. And by means of his innate capacity for causing harm, (a man) is, possessed, in his body, of proportionately different degrees of happiness and fear. In man, in the proportion in which there is an acquisition, of prosperity and of wishes, to innate reason, by means of cultivated reason, through the relation of good thoughts; in that proportion is his happiness, (in heaven) powerful over (his) fear (of hell). And, owing to the effect of evil thoughts, just as much of evil understanding, of misery, of disappointment there is, just so much does the power of fear (of hell) prevail over happiness: therefore, a vigilant, holy man lives in this world with good thoughts. and is disgusted with evil thoughts. He who is of evil understanding and full of evil thoughts, that man is irrational and driven from good thoughts. Now when, in this manner, there is always a destruction of happiness and of reason, owing to the evil understanding pertaining to fear (of hell); (and) when there is always detriment accruing, to fear (of hell) and to evil understanding, from happiness-giving understanding; then, it is not that there may not at all be a man, of the highest rank in happiness and in understanding, who is, with sufficient wisdom, without the fear (of hell). Nor, similarly, is it that the most advanced man, in fear and in evil understanding, may not be without the germ of happiness.

64. Exposition in the good religion regarding happiness arising from (such) wisdom in man (as that) of Farehbut and Aibibut.

Be it known that, the exposition made, in accordance with the religion, of the happiness arising from the wisdom pertaining to Farehbut and Aibibut, is of this kind: -- owing to their [89] connection with man being well cemented, there is an accrual to him of the happiness of wisdom. And, owing to that, he, lives with the wisdom of the lifeless happiness of sin. The wisdom of sin remains for ever for (the sake of) the happiness that arises from robbery and ignorance of the religion. But, whatever happiness pertaining to good (wisdom) is (found) in just proportion in men, without this relation, [90] -- owing to it, (man) becomes proportioned in happiness; and becomes fit to be approved of in (his) passions, disposition, and conduct; (becomes) one who takes care (of others); brave, and one who pleases with the joys pertaining to the soul. And in the proportion in which the happiness connected with (good) wisdom diminishes, in that proportion the production of the wisdom pertaining to sin prevails over that (good). wisdom. And hence, whatever wisdom pertains to wickedness, that he lays bare. And the person who is much (concerned) in the promotion of the wisdom connected with sin, he is of careless thoughts, a speaker of what is without truth, a giver of birth to the greater success of much inglorious happiness, and a doer of many perverted deeds. And, owing to a wicked understanding that person is (possessed) of habits belonging to the bad religion, is a speaker of what is dreadful and an approver of things that are fit to be given up.

Owing to continued happiness of the nature pertaining to the soul, there is a prevention of the wicked wisdom pertaining to Aibibut. And that person [91] is a harmer of the increase of the wisdom pertaining to Farehbut and of the happiness pertaining to Aibibut; is of the nature of spirits, and, of good understanding. And in the proportion in which the knowledge connected with happiness is (found) in man, in that proportion the unenduring happiness of sin diminishes. And (when) the superior happiness prevails over it [92] then, the happiness of the wickedness connected with the soul, which (happiness) is for (purposes of) sin, is put a stop to. But when the happiness connected with sin is much in advance, then, the man becomes a hurter of the harmony of holy hymns, and a damager of fresh pleasure; and, of mean wisdom. Owing to much unillumined wisdom, there is a greater prevalence of lifeless happiness and a stoppage of the glory (coming) from the yazads; hence, man remains a disapprover of good conscience and a tyrant. Owing to continued unillumined wisdom, and to the stoppage of cleanliness, there is the lifeless happiness of wickedness. And by it, man becomes possessed of the happiness of Farehbut, of the wisdom of Aibibut, an injurer of the world, and, shameless.

65. About men having the ways of the good religion.

These are of five kinds. One, of these, (consists of) holy (men) who help the good religion by words, strengthen it by deeds, are givers of authoritative decisions to the lovers of the religion, and embellishers of purity. Another, of those who praise the good religion in words and weaken it by deeds. The third, of those who extend the friendship of the religion to deceitful, sinning Ashmoghs, through the precepts of the good religion. The fourth, of those who contemn the good religion in words, but strengthen it by deeds, and give decisions regarding it among sinners; and raise it, without an army, to a higher rank; and keep faith towards God; and guide co-religionist friends hoping for holiness, by higher thoughts. The fifth, of those who despise the good religion in words, but who give decisions regarding it to tyrannous, infidel rulers, and make them move in deeds (relating to it).

1. Ashmogh, -- this word is derived from the word ashemaogha, frequently used in the Avesta, which means "hinderer of purity." Hence, it is applied, among the followers of Zarathushtra to persons who throw obstructions in the way of religion and create dissensions in the community and between individuals. The individual putting the above and other questions is called Ashmogh by the High priest to whom they were addressed.

2. The Avesta is divided into three parts:-- Gatha, Dateh, and Manthra. The Gathas are written in verse, and treat of the invisible world. The Dateh are written in prose and contain rules for the conduct of men in this world. In the Manthra are comprised the ordinary prayers, which are the means by which men commune with their Maker. They contain an account of the Creator and of the forces of nature created by Him: as also, moral and religious precepts.

3. Meaning, human compositions, as opposed to divine revelations.

4. i. e. using these several individuals as his mouth pieces.

5. Frashostar and Jamasp were the sons of Habub and the disciples and sons-in-law of Zartosht. The latter was also prime minister to Vishtasp, while the former was the head of a college for imparting religious instruction to priests, established by Vishtasp.

6. Some account of this famous person occurs in a subsequent portion of the Denkard, where it is said that he was born two hundred years after Zartosht and lived one hundred years.

7. i.e. other than the Gathas. Besides its restricted meaning, Manthra is used in a general sense, as including all the three divisions mentioned before.

8. According to the tenets of the Zoroastrian religion God first made the Ahunwar or 'Yatha ahu vairyo,' which is in the form of a Gatha or hymn. From the three clauses or sentences of the Ahunwar have originated the scriptures or Avesta comprised respectively in Gatha, Dateh, and Manthra; and from the twenty-one words composing the Ahunwar, seven to each sentence, have originated the twenty-one Nasks. Hence the meaning of what is said above, -- that Manthra are founded upon the Yatha Ahu Vairyo.

9. i.e. Manthra and Dateh point out the way in which impurity and sin may be removed and evil deeds, which have relation to daevas, may be abstained from.

10. Mashye and Mashyane were, after Gayomard, the first man and woman born in this world: from this pair have sprung the rest of mankind. In the Avesta, Mashye means a man and Mashyane, a woman. The Pahlavi work, Bundahishn contains an account of the origin of man; it says, "Ohrmazd had spoken thus to Mashye and Mashyane:-- As the parents of the world, you are born human beings; I have given you the highest and most perfect mental power; therefore, do the work of justice with mature deliberation, think good thoughts, speak good words, and do good deeds. Remember not the daevas." [Bd15.6]

11. There is here reference to the second Fargard of Vendidad, where it is said that before the time of Zartosht, Ohrmazd had for the first time communicated the Mazdayasnian religion to king Jamshed, and had ordered him to spread it among men, and that Jamshed had accordingly introduced the religion into the world.

The object of this question seems to be to point out a contradiction in the religious books of the Zoroastrians, one of which asserts that the Mazdayasnian religion was for the first time communicated to Mashye and Mashyane and another that it was so communicated to Jamshed, who lived some generations after the first pair of men.

12. There are two descriptions of prayers for the consecration of food before being eaten; one, called the Gaosahudao prayer, from one of the words used in it, and the other Amshespanté and Yathádiyezmédé, from these words having been employed in them. The former is commonly called the big baj and the latter the small baj. These prayers are recited by Mobeds who have undergone the consecrating ceremony of Barsom, before eating any thing; and according as the prayer is the big baj or the small baj, they are allowed to eat food of all kinds, or the particular food that was placed before them at the time the prayer was said. Gaosahudao, means literally, the excellence or merit-giving cow.

13. Small, round, wheaten cakes, placed before the Mobed for consecration.

14. In all the extant manuscripts, the portion marked by asterisks is wanting, having been omitted by the original transcriber.

15. Vendidad, Fargard 19, clause 19. See Westergaard's edition of the Zend Avesta, p. 470. cl. 19.

16. Karshwar is derived from Kereshvar or Karshvar used in the Avesta, and means 'that which is bounded.' In the Avesta the earth is divided into seven Karshwars or continents, called respectively, Arezahi, Sawahi, Fradadhafshu, Widadhafshu, Wouru-bareshti, Wourujareshti, and Xwaniratha

17. Nasa, which has been here translated by "unclean matter" means anything cast off by man or certain beasts, as hair, nails, &c., or any dead matter.

18. The meaning is, that as there is no pollution merely from looking at an unclean thing, so no pollution arises from the connection with the unclean thing on the top of the tree by means of the body of the tree.

19. i.e. wisdom derived from a knowledge of the Mazdayasnian religion.

20. i.e. evil spirits: the daevas.

21. i.e. in the highest heaven.

22. i.e. the highest heaven.

23. Satan.

24. i.e. Nask, or book of commentary. See note 8.

25. i.e. nothing contradictory in the statement that the text and the commentaries together form the Scriptions.

26. i.e. God, the yazads, the Amahraspands, and the Farohars.

27. Nasas is that which decomposes or destroys; nasa is the decomposed or destroyed thing. Both these words are derived from the root nas=destruction, decomposition.

28. Spenamino is the name of the good principle in Ohrmazd and is the origin of all that is good it is the opposite principle to the Ghanamino. In the Avesta, Spenamino is designated Spenta Mainyu and Ghanamino Anghra Mainyu. The former means "the mino that furthers," the latter, "the mino that harms;" that is, the one is an invisible principle that elevates man and makes him worthy of the next world; the other is an invisible principle that makes him unworthy of it. Hence, in the Avesta, those creatures who live virtuously are called "the creatures of Spenamino"; and those who walk in evil ways, are called "the creatures of Ghanamino." All good and evil is, in the Avesta, traced to these two principles of good and evil.

29. i.e. the priestly class.

30. i.e. the governing class.

31. Bradrok-resh was one of the generals of Arjasp, king of Turkestan. This general went into Balkh and there put to the sword Zartosht and other holy men: hence, he is spoken of as a very sinful and wicked person in the religious books of the Zoroastrians. In the Saddar Najam, ch. 9, Dastur Shehmard Malekshah thus alludes to Bradrok-resh:

For this wicked deed of sodomy is like to the deeds of such daevas as Afrasiyab, the miscreant Zohak, and the sorrow-producing wicked Bradrok-resh who slew Zartosht. the jewel of our religion, from whom our hearts and backs derived warmth.

32. i.e. the trading class.

33. Namely, those of priest, ruler, and husbandman.

34. i.e. of Spenamino and Ghanamino; of Good and Evil.

35. Ahriman.

36. Frashegird, -- this word is derived from the word frasho-kereti used in the Avesta, and means "the higher formation" of creation, i.e. the work of making mankind better. This word is applied to the work of regeneration which is to take place at the Last Day.

37. i.e. Spirit, principle.

38. Another name for Iran.

39. i.e. other than those of Iran and professing the Zoroastrian religion.

40. i.e. in the dominions of border sovereigns.

41. The Messiah of the Jewish scriptures.

42. i.e. the west.

43. The expressions "enduring wealth" and "transitory wealth" are figurative and mean moral merit and demerit acquired by pursuing one's calling honestly or dishonestly.

44. i.e. the principle of good thoughts.

45. i.e. the principle of evil thoughts.

46. i.e. evil passions.

47. The following testimony is contained in the Frawardin Yasht about Gayomard being the first bearer of the Mazdayasnian religion of Ohrmazd to the world:-

"We praise the Farohar of the holy Gayomard, who first heard the thoughts of Ohrmazd and his commands." [Yt13.87]

The testimony as to Soshyant being the last prophet of the Mazdayasnian religion and that he will, in the time of the End, spread it completely among the people of this world, under the command of God, and reform all the people of that time by means of that religion, is contained in the 15th chapter of Zamyad Yasht, as follows:-

We praise the over-powering Kayan Khwarrah created by Ohrmazd, which will be obtained by the victorious Soshyant, as also his other comrades; by means of which he will make the world of a superior grade, without old age, deathless, without rottenness, without putrefaction, possessed with perpetual life, perpetually benefiting, and of satisfied hopes. And at that time the dead will rise again, the living will obtain immortality and they will be given a life of higher desires. Those persons who are givers of knowledge of purity, will become immortal, and the druj that has spread himself round about to do harm to the pure, -- he will be destroyed at that time, and, similarly, hundreds of his progeny will be at an end from that time.

The names of the comrades of Soshyant who, it is said in the above extract from the Avesta, will with him obtain the Kayanian Khwarrah, are given in the Pahlavi work Dadestan-i Denig as follows: Rushn Chashm, Khur Chashm, Faradat Gadman, Vandad Gadman, Kame Vakhshan, Kame Sut, and Soshyant. In the 128th verse of the Frawardin Yasht, where the Farohars of Soshyant and his comrades are invoked, the names of two more comrades are given, viz. Ukhshyad eret and Ukhshyad Nemangh. See Westergaard's Zand Avesta p.243.

48. Here, the highest rank is given to those who, naturally and without being taught, know all about their duties as God's creatures, i.e. to prophets; the next in rank are those who model their behavior on that of the prophets; and the lowest rank is allotted to those who learn their duties towards God from religious teachers or priests.

49. Lit. contented reason.

50. This is explained by the statement in Yasna 19, in Bundahishn and in the Afrin of Gahambar, that God created first the heavens, next the waters, then land, then the lower animals, then vegetables, next fire, and lastly, man.

51. i.e. purposely, consciously.

52. i.e. Prophets.

53. Athornan = a priest; Arthestar = a warrior; Vastarius = a husbandman.

54. In providing spiritual food.

55. The mansions of Ohrmazd may be taken to refer, either, to the heavenly mansions or to God's places on the earth, namely, Atashkadehs [i.e. Fire-Temples] and other sacred places.

56. Farehbut -- meaning "that which is done, or, which has gone, beyond bounds." It is applied to dishonest or ill-regulated men. Vajoragmehar (or, Abujarachmehar), vizier to Nosherwan the Just, in his Pahlavi work, called Ganjeshaigan, thus defines this word:

Farehbut means one who considers this world as his highest abode and considers the invisible world to be full of dangers, and prefers that which in the end injures him and brings trouble and punishment to his soul.

57. i.e. One who is vicious: an offender. The following explanation occurs in the Pahlavi translation of the Khordeh Avesta, regarding the deeds of an Aibibut:

"The practice of an Aibibut is to keep people on little or dear food."

58. i.e. the invisible yazads.

59. Ahriman.

60. i.e. Ahriman or Satan, and other evil powers.

61. These "helpers" must be understood to refer to the eleven invisible principles or affections in man which constantly suggest what is good to him. Their names are Asne Khrat = native or inherent wisdom, Goshosarut Khrat = knowledge or experience, Vir = faculty of reasoning, Hush = power of understanding, Him = good disposition, Khurasndiya = contentment, Din = religion, Umed = the hope of heaven, Akho = a pure heart, Bud = vigilance, and Farohar = frawashi.

62. This word is used in Pahlavi as a translation or equivalent of the expression 'Varenya daeva' used in the Avesta, and denotes, "evil passion," or, "the invisible principle of evil passion."

63. The reference here is to those holy persons who were supposed, by means of certain prayers and other incantations, to have the power of controlling and harassing evil spirits.

64. i.e. the Ghanamino.

65. As opposed to the knowledge derived from the other world, by inspiration: imperfect and worldly as opposed to perfect and heavenly knowledge.

66. i.e. Man.

67. i.e. those who live in this world thinking the good thoughts that please Ohrmazd, and offering the prayers and worship enjoined by religion.

68. i.e. The moon and the stars receive their light from and are kept in their respective positions by the Sun.

69. i.e. the yazads and Amahraspands.

70. i.e. with the yazads and Amahraspands.

71. Vesture in the whole of this passage means, according to the context, either body, nature, disposition, state, or condition.

72. This word includes the notion of punishment in the next world.

73. i.e. the Ahunwar. The reference to the bodies of daevas is explained by the following dialogue between Zartosht and Haoma Yazad occurring in the 9th Ha of the Yasna:

"Thou O pure Zartosht, opposer of the daevas, of the religion of Ohrmazd, wert born in the house of Pourushasp. And in renowned Iranwej, thou O Zartosht first recited, in the voice of song, four (daeva) removing Ahunwars. And after the laud-voiced song, thou madest those daevas, that before that time came upon this world in the shape of men, hide (themselves) in the earth. O Zartosht! Thou art thyself the highest in rank, the strongest, the most enterprising, the swiftest, and the most victorious amongst the invisible creation."

Iranwej is the name given to the land on which Gayomard and Mashye and Mashyane were born, and to the first city that was formed by men in this world. The evidence on this point is furnished by the following passage from the first Fargard of Vendidad:

"I, Ahura Mazda, first among all places and cities, created excellent Airyanem Vaejah of the good creation."

It must not be understood that Zartosht simply recited four Ahunwars. He performed the Yasna of Mino Nawar, and the four Ahunwars were the four "Yatha Ahu Vairyo" recited at the ceremony of bruising the Haoma plant and occurring in the aetat dim Ha of Yasna.

74. This expression means that in the end men will have the inoffensive disposition of cattle. Thus in the 37th Ha of Yasna and the 3rd chapter of the Haftang Yasht the worshipper promises to worship God with a disposition like that of cattle:

"For the sake of His supremacy, greatness, and good protection, we worship Him with the advanced behavior of those among his worshippers who live like cattle."

75. On the morning of the fourth day (cheharum) after death an account is taken of the good and evil deeds done by men in the flesh, and, according as the former or the latter predominate, their souls enjoy the everlasting happiness of heaven or suffer the punishments of hell. He, therefore who in his actions in this world bears in mind the day of account is emphatically a wise man.

76. i.e. The invisible yazads.

77. Bud is derived from the word baodha in the Avesta. It is used in Pazand and Persian in the forms bôe and buy, must be understood to refer to the principle or faculty in us which gives us warning, puts us on our guard. Thus, Abujarchameher, the vizier of Nosherwan the Just, in his Ganjeshaigan says "Bud is the principle that gives warning." Again in this work, the Denkard, Bud is thus defined:

"As the harmless light of the sun and the lamp keeps (the people), in the world and in (their) dwellings, unharmed, so Bud is (the power) that keep, the body and soul illuminated and gives to the soul, in the body, unobscured knowledge regarding freedom from harm."

78. i.e. Reason, sense.

79. Reason is of two kinds, innate and acquired through knowledge and experience. In the Ganjeshaigan it is said, "The business of innate reason is the examination of oneself, for fear of sinful deeds, and the saving of oneself from useless labor; the using of the perishable wealth of this world in the work relating to its End and thereby not diminishing ones wealth relating to the Far shokant and not increasing wickedness. The business of the other reason, acquired through knowledge or experience is to know the good path, and to remain fixed upon it, to search for those things that may prove of higher rank after death in this world, to keep on guard against whatever is mean, not to desire to do that which cannot be done and not to taken in hand that work which cannot be finished."

80. All the Pahlavi Mss. give seven as the number of the senses; but it would appear from the context that six is the correct figure.

81. i.e. the Soul.

82. i.e. the Body.

83. This description is applicable to those who are true prophets of God.

84. i.e. the yazads.

85. Lit. body; hence, personality or nature.

86. i.e. Such as are approved by Ohrmazd.

87. i.e. Ever fresh; everlasting.

88. i.e. Thoughts.

89. Of Farehbut and Aibibut.

90. i.e. With Farehbut and Aibibut.

91. Who puts a stop to wicked wisdom.

92. i.e. Over the happiness pertaining to Farehbut.

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