Denkard, Book 9

Details of Nasks 1-3 (Ancient Canon of Zoroastrianism)

Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, Oxford University Press, 1897.

Warsht-mansr Nask

fargard 16. Worship not to be neglected on any account, want of spirituality in men, liberality of the archangels, promises for the future, praise of the renovators; (§13) characteristics of the heretic Mani, attracters to the religion, the last millenniums, disturbers of religion; (§20) praise of the Fryanaks, liberality for the archangels, praise of Vishtasp, advice to the Spitamas, four marvels in the other world, advice to Zartosht (39)

1. In the sixteenth fargard, Kamnamaeza [1]., about departure to any land whatever [2], in renewed search of fortune, there is also this, namely: 'Do not stay away discontentedly from this thy ceremonial and obeisance, O Zartosht! through love of us, when they do not satisfy thee -- neither thy own, nor the confederate, nor the companion, nor the serf, nor the wicked tyrant [3] -- by whom those who are demons are wont to be worshipped. 2. And where and when thou art far from us, even then do not stand aloof from our affairs; and also when the affairs of the worldly existence shall not stand well for thee, even then thou shouldst reverence us and shouldst pay us homage.' 3. So also this, that the wish of the evil spirit is thus: 'Thou shouldst not reverence and shouldst not pay homage to the archangels [[Amahraspands]]; and here [4] the people shall possess neither lordship, nor priestly instruction -- that is, ruler and high-priest --and their desire is not for perfect righteousness.

4. And this, too, is said, namely: '0f the contracted [5] spirituality and deficient wealth [6], owing to the little progress of men who are self-gratifiers, thou art aware, O Zartosht! thou who art no seeker of this -- that is, this want of opulence of thine -- because thou dost not know it [7]; but I perceive those words of complaint of thine, of which I demand an account from thee [8].' 5. And this, too, namely: 'Thou art aware of the gratification of desire [9] by us who are archangels, and which we give for the gratification that thou bringest forth (zihih); we also give thee the liberty which a friend gives to him who is a friend [9].'

6. About what occurs in future ages [10]: the experienced (arvandan) who are beneficial through teaching and practicing wisdom [11], and the thirst of youths is increased by them; by the assistance of complete mindfulness they improve the world of righteousness and produce distress for the fiend; and the advantage due to virtue extends to them [12]. And this, too, that he who is evilly oppressive has died off through his own deeds [13]. 8. About always opposing villains with as much strength as exists, so that he who is a good ruler [14], whose high-priest is the bounteous !liturgy (Mahraspand), my become predominant [15] over Wrath.

9. About the praise of the renovators there is this, too, namely: 'Blessings on good understanding and also on Mihr, whose punishment of sinners they shall inflict for this consideration, that he is intelligent and friendly (mitro-pan) [16].' 10. And, about adjudication as to a kinsman (nafshman) of any one whatever, there is this, too, namely: 'Through a revival of Rashn, whoever is righteous and also whoever is wicked -- that is, every one -- is to be kept for judicial investigation [17],' 11. This, too, namely: 'A kinsman is to be considered as virtuous [18], by whom his own soul is preserved from wickedness [19].' 12. And this, too, namely: 'So thy high-priest is he whose own religion is pure [20].'

13. About the characteristics of the fiend, the broken-down (khastako) Mani [21], and the destruction of the wicked who were listening to him, that which came from him who was monarch. 14. And this, too, namely: 'The wicked one, who gives my world to that which the malicious [22] Ahriman has established as supremacy (lalaih), is he who is a self-wounding [23] demon that is set going for the death of the world of righteousness which he praises. 15. The ceremonial of righteousness is not such as that he praises, O Zartosht! the priestly authority of the worldly settlements (gehanan) that he mentions thus: "In priestly authority and high-priestship I am better (shapir) and am better suitable;" and not so, O Zartosht! is that excretion (mutrishno) [24] he stirs up for mankind; that which he mentions to them becomes a perpetual effusion from him, and they who stirred up the excretion afterwards think it theirs, and that which is a perfect ceremonial of the demons occurs. 16. Through the opposing arrival of Srosh [25], the righteous, the ruler is in vexation with that person; that ruler who is a protection of these others through good emanation [26] -- not through evil living -- and at every time a distresser of the wicked [27].'

17. About the peculiarity of attracters to the religion, and the good works of those attracted [28]. 18. About the signs of the last times, which are the millenniums of the sons of Zartosht.

19. This, too, that they cause disturbance (aâramend) unto the sovereignty, and they who are Kays and Karbs [29], those even who are the most evil-ruling in the country -- who by villainous deeds are those who destroy the existence of mankind through statements, and destroy their own souls [30] -- also destroy the material world which, confused by them, is more beloved than righteousness; even the sovereignty is a scanty shelter, among the existences, from those whose command is villainous, when they produce that which is vicious and deliver their pupils (amukhtagano) to that which is their end (afdum), to the fiendish abode [31].

20. And here, too, about the praise of the family of the Fryanaks [32] it speaks thus: 'Righteousness comes up, O Spitaman! from the descendants and posterity of Turan; when extracted by the Fryanaks it is stated [33] just as though it were by Turan: through the assistance of complete mindfulness they develop the world [34] of righteousness and produce distress for the fiend; they likewise think about it with Good Thought, O Zartosht! and thou shouldst bring forth (zayesh) their gratification from us, who are archangels, by words, that is, do thou demand it.'

21. This, too, is said, namely: 'This liberality which is for thee is for us who are archangels; by him who shall provide liberality for thee [36], it is provided for us.' 22. About the praise of Vishtasp there is this, too, namely: 'Kay Vishtasp [37] has propitiated thee, among the existences, by liberal giving; that Vishtasp, whose coming forth to thee in distress is through the reign of Vohuman, has developed the material world of righteousness; thou shouldst think of him, the good companion, O Zartosht the pure friend who is Kay Vishtasp [38]; such is that Kay Vishtasp, the active, who, when he praises the religion, is attracting fellow-dwellers and converts 'hem, that is, he brings them on to the religion [39].'

23. About attracting the Spitamas to the religion there is this, too, namely: 'Thou shouldst speak thus to the Spitamas: "Praise righteousness with much homage about it mentally; and a concession is to be discriminated by you, as well as whatever is no concession ; even for those deeds of yours righteousness is the reward given unto you that reward which is much given by Ohrmazd [40].", 24. About the place of the four marvels produced by Ohrmazd in yonder world: there where is the reign of Vohuman [41], there where is the hospitality of Ohrmazd [42], there where religion is along with complete mindfulness [43], and there where are the souls of the liberal [44].

25. About advice to Zartosht as to speech, made for mankind, which is proportionate -- abandoning want of proportion -- which is an appropriation of liberality with humility and a wise proportion [45] for good works. 26. This, too, namely: 'To him who gives himself mentally up to thee in discipleship, thou also shouldst give up the best which thou hast to give of thine own; and thou shouldst give wealth to him who shall give wealth to thee [46], because so thy soul would be perfect, O righteous Zartosht! when it shall act thus.' 27. This, too: 'Thou shouldst select this religion of mine with wisdom and also with thought [47].' 28. This, too, that as to him who has to act with the freedom from effort (apesitunagih) of righteousness [48] and owing to it, for the good works done by him the gift is good. 29. This, too, that whoever seeks by good works, and seeks good works by innocence, obtains freedom from harm (a-nasih); and whoever is liberal to the sacred beings [49] is free from destruction (a-nasinishno), owing to the liberality of the sacred beings. 30. And this, too, namely: 'These are the rewards I am aware of [50], which have been, which still are. and which ever will be.'

31. Perfect excellence is righteousness.


1. See Chap. 16.1 n; it is here written kamnamezo in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 45.1 a.

3. Ibid. 1 b, c, d.

4. In this world.

5. Assuming that tak stands for tang.

6. See Pahl. Yas. 45.2 b.

7. Ibid. 2 a.

8. Ibid. 2 c.

9. Ibid. 2 d.

10. Ibid. 3 a.

11. Ibid. 3 c.

12. Ibid. 3 d.

13. Ibid. 4 c.

14. Ibid. 4 d.

15. Ibid. 5 a.

16. See Pahl. Yas. 45.5 b. For Mihr see Book 8, Chap. 44.16 n.

17. Ibid. 5 c. For Rashn see Bk. 8, Chap. 20.153 n.

18. Ibid. 5 d.

19. Ibid. 5 e.

20. Ibid. 7 e.

21. The arch-heretic who was born in A. D. 215-6, first preached his doctrines on the coronation day of king Shahpur I (20th March, 242), and was put to death by order of Bahram I in A.D. 276-7 (see Nöldeke's Gesch. der Sas. pp. 47, 412, 415). From the mode in which he and his followers are mentioned in §§ 13-16, it would seem that the original Pahlavi version of this Nask must have been made at a time when this heresy was still fresh in men's memories, as it would have been in the first half of the fourth century, when Adarbad Mahraspandan was collecting and revising the sacred books.

22. See Pahl. Yas. 45.8 a.

23. Ibid. 8 b.

24. Compare Pahl. Yas. 47.10 b.

25. See Bk. 8. Chap. 9.3 n.

26. See Pahl. Yas. 45.8 c, d. This last word (hu-zahishnih) ought certainly to be hu-zivishnih, 'good living.'

27. Ibid. 8 e.

28. Ibid. 10 d, e.

29. Ibid. 11 a; also see Bk. 8, Chap. 35.13 n.

30. Ibid. 11 b, c.

31. Pahl. Yas. 45.11 e.

32. A Turanian family of Mazda-worshippers, of whom Yoishta is specially mentioned in the Avesta (see Bk. 8, Chap. 13.18 n); and it appears from Dd. 90.3 that Ashem-yahmai-ushta of Yt. 13.120 was another member of the same family.

33. See Pahl. Yas. 45.12 b.

34. Ibid. 12 c, and compare § 6.

35. Ibid. 12 d, e.

36. Ibid. 13 a.

37. See Bk. 8, Chaps. 11.1, 13.15.

38. See Pahl. Yas. 45.13 e.

39. Ibid. 14 c, d.

40. Ibid. 15 b, c, d.

41. Ibid. 16 d.

42. Ibid. 16 e.

43. Ibid. 16 c.

44. Ibid. 16 a.

45. Ibid. 17 a, b, c, e.

46. Ibid. 18 a, b, c.

47. See Pahl. Yas. 45.18 e.

48. Ibid. 19 a. All but the last syllable of apesitunagih is written by the repairer of the MS. on one of his patches, but the word is a strange equivalent for Av. haithim.

49. Ibid. 19 d.

50. Ibid. 19 e.

fargard 17. Praise of truth, cattle, good works, ordeals (40)

1. The seventeenth fargard, Spenta-mainyu [1], is about this, that Ohrmazd produced the creatures through wisdom, and maintains them in truth. 2. This, too, that the best thing [2] for every one is thought in a high-priest who is the tongue of a spiritual lord [3]; in a high-priest, who has to maintain thought, no appliances of the body are to lie unto the spiritual lord on account of affection for the

worldly existence. 3. Also that the spiritual lord is always true; of the tongue -- when he (the priest) speaks falsehood with the tongue -- are those words which he does not believe through the spiritual lord, and it is owing to this, too, when, of all the body, the tongue first dies. 4. 'I say unto thee, O Spitaman! that thou shouldst speak with the tongue just as thou thinkest with the mind, and thou shouldst accomplish work with both hands in complete mindfulness [4],' 5. And this, too, that he who shall act thus is sagacious, and he is the father of righteousness through wisdom [5]; and whoever would do that which has happened, thoroughly observes it on account of that which has not happened. 6. Also this, that in the person of him who shall do that which he understands, and asks again about that which he does not understand, the propitious spirit of wisdom is lodging.

7. About cattle being produced for the assistance of mankind, and the pastures of pleasure for the assistance of cattle [6]. 8. This, too, that the archangels injure the evil demon and wicked people, but they do not injure righteous people [7] and the sage. 9. This, too, is said, namely: 'In scanty opulence do not murmur (al mang) owing to good works [8], and thus in great opulence much good work arises.' 10. This, too, that beneficence gives all to the good, and it is no further the villain whom the sacred beings maintain [9].

11. About the tongue of a true speaker being for the satisfying (vijarishno) of disputants,

and for declaring who is acquitted or incriminated; and the ordeal that is a demonstrator, to acquit or convict, which he whose tongue is truthful has accepted -- and it shall make his statement current -- has developed its jurisdiction in the world, and diminished distress. 12. And this, too, is said, that he gives out fire for disputes. so that it may make manifest the acquitted and incriminated, when he in whom are his immense complete mindfulness, and also righteousness, is guardian of the ordeal; and, when many inspect it; that which is the ritual of the ordeal believes them wicked [10].

13. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


1. See Chap. 17.1 n; it is here written spend-mato in Pahlavi, and is called the 18th fargard by mistake.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 46.2 a.

3. Ibid. 2 b.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 46.2 c.

5. Ibid. 2 d.

6. Ibid. 3 c.

7. Ibid. 4 a, b.

8. Ibid. 4 c.

9. Ibid. 5 b, c.

10. See Pahl. Yas. 46.6 b, c, d.

fargard 18. Evidence of the future existence, four triumphs of the sacred beings over the demons, inquiring about religion, avoiding apostates; (§12) mankind attaining wisdom, care for cattle, oppression by wrath and envy; (§21) progress of righteousness, the renovation, next-of-kin marriage, girdling (41)

1. The eighteenth fargard, Yezi [1], is about the existence of certain and doubtful evidence and indication as to the future existence [2] arising. 2. About the great dignity of the spirit of good works, and that also of the person doing good works through the lodgment of that spirit in him. 3. This, too, that they praise, recount, and practice the religion of Mazda-worship at the time of the renovation of the universe, that of which the demons through deceitfulness, and then also wicked mankind deceived by those who are demons, have said that it does not occur [3].

4. About the triumph of the sacred beings over the demons at the end of various periods. 5. First, that which occurs when, on account of the preservation of mankind from hell, they praise the religion of Mazda-worship; and that which occurs when Zartosht the Spitaman, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, came to the obedient king Kay Vishtasp [4]. 6. Second, when the power and triumph of renewed sovereignty are again connected with the religion, and mankind, on that account, return to the good religion and this occurs on the near approach of Ushedar [5], son of Zartosht, when the righteous Chitrag-miyan [6] arrives. 7. Third, when mankind contentedly praise the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, and this occurs as Ushedarmah [7], son of Zartosht, arrives. 8. And fourth, that which occurs when every one shall practice the religion of Mazda-worship with eagerness; at that time arrives the beneficial and triumphant producer of the renovation, Soshyant [8], son of Zartosht; and this becomes the consummation (sar-homondih) and supreme triumph of the sacred beings.

9. About inquiring of him who is acquainted with religion and a wise priest concerning the religion, and hearing of it from him [9]; also well understanding it through wisdom. 10. About abstaining from the secret proceedings (nihan-homondih) of a deceitful and seductive apostate [10]. 11. This, too, is said, namely: 'Thou shouldst also not fall into the downcast imprisonment (nikun alakib) through the teaching they deceive, where they thus mislead thee to the downcast imprisonment which is hell.'

12. About mankind attaining to the wisdom of an angel (yedato danogih) [11] through the grades of intellect, ability, and religion. 13. This, too, is said, namely: 'It is for that way when mankind cause the disturbance (siklinend) of that which is a vile religion for want of a way, when even this is produced from among the creatures, in which is the opening of a passage for mankind to him, where the evil spirit is dwelling and making thee surrender, and on account of the stupefying Akoman [12].' 14. This, too, that, through the sovereignty of sagacity, every one at last arrives at that way. 15. And this, too, that by him, who shall persistently perform good works or sin with fearlessness, it is to be hereupon considered that his performance is mindful [13], and that the best thing for mankind, after birth, is purification from sin [14].

16. This, too, that the food and maintenance of the priests depend upon the husbandmen [15]. 17. This, too, that coveted is now the pleasure and strength of mankind due to the cattle of Hordad and Amurdad [16]. 18. About the oppressiveness of Wrath and Envy, and the destruction of both through complete mindfulness and possession of Good Thought [17]. 9. And this is said, namely: 'I made the religion of righteousness a combining desire (voyak-i ham-dahishno [18]), and all mankind's own selves are to be forced into that desire; also its involuntary seeking of immortality is the reign of the will of all mankind, and advantage always arises from it [19].' 20. This, too, that the care of cattle is reverence of Ohrmazd [20].

21. About the progress [21] of righteousness there is this, too, that that greatness [21] is generated therefrom, and its seekers -- who are human beings -- have demanded the supreme predominance in the best existence. 22. About the praise of the period of the renovation of the universe there is this, too, that, at that time, those who are doubtful about it are all disclosed to publicity [22]; also the last reward and bridge judgment of the worthy. 23. About the lawfulness of that which occurs through the destruction by Vohuman [23], who is himself the spiritual lord of the arrangement, there is this, too, that the wicked,

at that time, become aware of their own wickedness, when their bodies are dissipated. 24. About the destruction of the good works of the wicked, also that of their own souls, that of their spiritual existences, and that of their material bodies [24]. 25. And this, too, that at the time of the renovation of the universe occurs the approach of the wisdom of our sovereignty to that of the best of mankind, and that glory is put on by it through which the destruction of the bad and the development of the good arise; also the sagacity which exists in Vohuman extends to those who are its friends [25].

26. This, too, that there are those who are extenders of the days, and they are beneficial in the country [26]; and their custom, where they have arisen, is an opponent of him who is a wrathful person [27]. 27. And this, too, that they shall thereupon excite (lala vadidunand) a brother and sister with mutual desire, so that they shall form a next-of-kin marriage with unanimity; and before midday they generate a sublime radiance, centered in the face, and trembling passion [28], and they make the radiance grow up, openly manifest, to an altitude of the height of three spears of the length of three reeds each [29]; and after midday they have learnt expulsion (ranakih) [30], and shall remove the fiend who was before a destroyer. 28. About those who girdle themselves where they shall perform their proper duty, and are thus all-beneficent for being seen.

29. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


1. See Chap. 18.1 n; it is here called the 19th fargard by mistake in the MS.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 47.1 a.

3. Ibid. 1 b.

4. See Bk. 8, Chaps. 11.1, 13.15.

5. See Bk. 8, Chap. 14.12.

6. A title of Peshyotanu, son of king Vishtasp, who remains immortal as chief high-priest of Kangdez, whence he is expected to come to restore the religious rites in Iran and the rest of the world (see Bd. 29.5, Byt. 3, 25-32, 36-39, 41, 42, 51, 52).

7. See Bk. 8, Chap. 14.13.

8. Ibid. 14.

9. See Pahl. Yas. 47.3 a, b.

10. See Pahl. Yas. 47.3 c.

11. The use of ô for â sometimes occurs in MSS. from Iran. The word can also be read shavandagih, 'existence,' but this meaning is less likely.

12. See Bk. 8, Chap. IX, 3 n.

13. See Pahl. Yas. 47, 4 c.

14. Ibid. 5 c.

15. Ibid. 5 d.

16. See Pahl. Yas. 47.6 a, b; also Chap. 19.1.

17. Ibid. 7 a, b.

18. Ibid. 7 c, where, however, this last word can be read asaminishno, 'unalarming' (asahaminishno in Pt4, Mf4), and the corresponding word in Pahl. Yas. 34.10 b can be read asamishno, 'intrepid;' but, as these meanings are difficult to reconcile with those of the original Av. hithaosh, hitham, it seems more probable that the first syllables asam or asaham, should be read hisam or hisâm, a mere transcript of Av. hithãm.

19. Ibid. 8 a.

20. Ibid. 8 b.

21. Perhaps these two words, rubakih, 'progress,' and rabaih, 'greatness,' should be alike, but it is doubtful which is correct.

22. See Pahl. Yas. 47.9 b.

23. Ibid. 9 c.

24. See Pahl. Yas. 47.11 c.

25. Ibid. 11 d.

26. Ibid. 12 a.

27. Ibid. 12 d.

28. Reading as follows:- lala zerkhund roshano pavan miyan rod buland navendako khros, but some of the words can be read otherwise, as in S.B.E., vol. xviii, p.395, or with further variations; and it is doubtful if the verb is to be -construed with the words that follow it, contrary to the usual Pahlavi rule, as there is no other trace of Avesta construction in this section. Neither the Avesta, nor the Pahlavi, version of this chapter of the Gathas makes any allusion to the subjects mentioned in §§ 27, 28.

29. It appears from Dd. 43.5 that this total of nine reeds would be about forty-eight human feet of fourteen finger-breadths (see Farh. Oim, p. 41, l 1), or 10 1/2 inches, each; so that the height here mentioned would be about forty-two English feet.

30. The capability of expelling fiends.

fargard 19. Protection at the renovation, belief necessary for being convinced, evil of a wicked judge and vicious people; praise of Zartosht, Frashostar, and Jamasp; punishment of the wicked (42)

1. The nineteenth fargard, Ad ma-yava [1], is about the protection by a protector for the protection of the distressed ones of the renovation of the universe [2]. 2. About the impossibility of convincing those who have not attained to the fundamental reason (bun chim) of belief, before making them comprehensibly reliant upon the existence of the creator, which is the fundamental reason of belief.

3. About the grievous suffering (vimarih) of the religion owing to him who is a wicked judge, whose effusions (rezidano) on the judgment seat are injudicious, malevolent, and enemies of wisdom; also wounding is owing to truth [3], and his annoyance owing to the truthful, and the evil spirit is lodging in him; likewise the advantage to the religion and great reward of just judges, and the introduction

(madam-barishnih) of a desire for leadership in virtuousness [4] 4. About separation from the friendship of a wicked, ill-judging, unintelligent, and idle person, in whom wrath and envy are coiled up (avarpeko) [5]. 5. About the good government of securers of their own necks (chavarman) from viciousness, and the bad government of those repeatedly culpable (lakhvar-ahugan) owing to viciousness. 6. And this, too, that the wicked themselves are wicked to their own and make them fit for hell, even as to those who [6] are precious to them and more beloved than righteousness; and their reign, too, is a scanty protection (gashuko srayishno).

7. About the praise of Zartosht there is this, too, namely: Thy sweetness and mildness are shown to the worldly existences, thy leadership of the religion is through Vohuman, and thou art well conversant with righteousness [7].' 8. About the praise of Frashostar's ardor in the leadership of good works, in virtuousness [8], listening to instruction, and truthful speaking, and in pasturing (fshegih), cultivating the world, achieving benefit (sudo tashidarih), and not giving leadership to villains [9], 9. About the praise also of the energy and high-priestship of Jamasp [10]. 10. About the protection of the good creations by Vohuman, and that, too, of the souls of righteous by Spandarmad also [11].

11. About the punishment of the wicked ruler is seizing anything unlawfully in his realm. 12. Also about the grievous punishment of the wicked, evil- thinking, evil-speaking, evil-doing, heretical (dush-deno), evil ruler in hell [12]. 13. About reply of the archangels to Zartosht, as to the reward begged by him, to make him satisfied about it [13].

14. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence.


1. See Chap. 19.1 n; it is here written ad-mag-yuv in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 48.1 a.

3. Ibid. 2 a, b.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 48.3 b, c.

5. Ibid. 4a.

6. Assuming that amat stands for mun, their Iranian equivalents being much alike.

7. See Pahl. Yas. 48.5 a, b, c.

8. Ibid. 8 a, b, c and Bk. 8, Chap. 38.68 n.

9. Ibid. 9 a, b, in which Pt4, Mf4 have tashidar instead of the khvastar of K5, J2; regarding fshegih (= Av. fshengh'hyo) see Bk. 8, Chap. 22.6 n.

10. Ibid. 9 d and Bk. 8, Chap. 38.68 n.

11. See Pahl. Yas. 48.10 a, b, c and Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3 n.

12. Ibid. 11 a, b.

13. Ibid. 12 b, d. In Pt4, Mf4, § b is as follows: 'Mun Zaratushto chigun lak Vohuman;' being correctly limited according to the Avesta text.

fargard 20. Assistance by the archangels, reward given to the righteous in the other world when unattainable here, cattle for warriors, advancement of religion by force, assisters, of the dead righteous, reason for certain movements of the Zot, worship of archangels, merit of Zartosht, reward of good works (43)

1. The twentieth fargard, Kad-moi-urva [1], is about anything whatever being begged as provision for the soul [2], and as to the speaking of Shahrewar [3] to Zartosht thus: 'Thou shouldst think thus, O Spitaman! that Ohrmazd assists thee.' 2. This, too, is said, that the creatures of Ohrmazd live through Hordad [4], are immortal through Amurdad [4], possess complete mindfulness of Ohrmazd through Spandarmad [5], and possess him as ruler through Shahrewar.

3. About wealth being begged owing to virtuousness there is this, too, that, to him who, owing to virtuousness, begs that which is not allowed to him owing to the oppressiveness of the vile, or on account of some other opposition, they then give essentially that reward, in the spiritual existence which is greater and better than that wealth. 4. About the cattle suitable for that warrior who possesses virtuous habits and strength [6], through the assistance of the will of the sacred beings and for the benefit of Iran and the defeat of the diminishing foreign force (kastarih-i an-Airano).

5. About the seizure [7] of mankind for the advancement of the admonition and command of the sacred beings, so far as force is an assistant to them in knowledge due to the sacred beings [8]; and their appropriation of the best existence through the advancement of that admonition and command.

6. About the assistance of the righteous, on the passage to the best existence, by the spirit of the wisdom of sovereignty, liberality, and truth, Ashishwangh [9] and the angel Hom [10].

7. About the reason of the three steps walked forward by the Zot from the place of the Zot, while uttering the Avesta (avistako-gobishniha), after the end of the ritual for the fire, on delivering (parvazishno) the offering of holy-water [[zohr]] to the water [11], being the leading up of the archangels, always at the end of an assembly of conference with Zartosht, by three steps from the earth to the sun station, through the places of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds [12].

8. Advice to Zartosht also as to the nature of the archangels; likewise a reminder to worship on their account after separation from the sight of them. 9. And this, too, is said, that there arises therefrom a conception (ham-giriftarih), by him whose disposition and character are sagacious [13], also as to the adaptation of his own deeds to that nature of his. 10. And about the good affinity of Zartosht, even for abundance of good works, there is this, too, namely: 'So, for all those deeds which thou hast to accomplish, and which are also accomplished, there is reward for thee through their righteousness, O Zartosht!'

11. And about the advice to Zartosht there is this, too, namely: 'Thou hast to become reverent to them [14], so that mankind may become reverent to thee.' 12. About considering the time of the days and nights as all for good accumulation in good works there is this, too, that whoever is diligent and always doing good works, and that whoever shall perform as many good works as is possible for him, is given as much reward [15] as is his desire.

13. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence.


1. See Chap. 20.1 n; it is here written kad-mog-ravako in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 49.1 a.

3. An archangel who is a personification of the Avesta phrase khshathra-vairya, 'desirable dominion.'

4. For these three archangels see Chaps. 12.25 n, 19.1 n, and Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3.

5. See note 4.

6. See Pahl. Yas. 49.3 a, c.

7. Ibid. 7 d.

8. This proviso implies some faint perception of the absurdity of trying to assist almighty beings by human force.

9. See Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3 n.

10. A personification of the Av. Haoma plant, an infusion of the dried twigs of which is used in the religious ceremonial. Yas. 9 and 10 are devoted to his praise.

11. See Pahl. Yas. 49.8 a. This refers to the proceedings of the chief officiating priest in the ceremonial, after the conclusion of the Atash Niyayesh (Yas. 62) and just before the beginning of the Aban Niyayesh (Yas. 65), during the recital of Yas. 64 which chiefly consists of a repetition of §§ 6-11 of this Gathic ha (Yas. 50 = 49 of the Pahlavi version). These proceedings are detailed in the rubrics, partially in J2 and more fully in Pt4, Mf4, as follows: After reciting Av. Yas. 50, 7 d 'the barsom (Av. baresman, see Bk. 8, Chap. 44.65 n) is to be taken up from the Mah-rui,' or crescent-topped barsom-stand, 'and one step is to be set forth in the direction of the Frabardar' (the imaginary assistant priest whose station is near the north-east corner of the ceremonial area, or to the left of the Zot, see Chap. 33.5 n), 'at this place of taking up the barsom from the Barsom-stand, and of going on to the position of the Frabardar, a beginning of Yas. 50.8 a is to he made in walking towards the beginning of the fire place, until Yas. 50.11 d is to be uttered,' in the following manner: - After 'mad vau one step is to be set forth, and homage to be offered to the holy-water;' after 'padaish one step, and homage to he offered to the holy-water;' after 'ya frasruta izhayau one step is to he set forth, and he is to go on to the position of the Abard' (the imaginary assistant priest whose station is near the south-east corner, so that the progress of the Zot towards the fire is along the left-hand side of the ceremonial area), and, after reciting the rest of the Gathic text to the end of Yas. 50.11 d, 'homage is to be offered to the fire, and he is to go away to the position of the Zot.'

12. The three lower grades of heaven, intermediate between the earth and the best existence or supreme heaven (Garothman), and situated in the stations of the stars, moon, and sun, respectively (see A.V. 7-10, MX 7.9-12).

13. See Pahl. Yas. 49.9 d.

14. Ibid. 10 d.

15. Ibid. 11 d.

fargard 21. Desire for a good ruler; where the best wealth, prayer, and sovereignty exist; favors from the sacred beings, memory and discrimination, attraction of spiritual mercy and leadership in heaven, good works and wealth, submission to the priesthood meritorious, creations for the benefit of the creatures, comfort for the spirit of the liturgy; (§10) the wicked deceiver, man prepared for future existence by fire, the supreme heaven for the righteous only, enmity of Akht the heretic, Kay and Karb excluded from virtue; praise of Vishtasp, Frashostar, Hvov, Jamasp, Maidok-mah, and Zartosht (44)

1. In the twenty-first fargard, Vohu-khshathrem [1], it is said by Ohrmazd thus: 'I produced, O Zartosht! the desire for a good ruler [2];' and this, too, is said, that, when there is a desire for a good ruler suitable for a share of the world, whoever is suitable for a share of the world [is a development of that character also, owing to the share which is given him, and by him who is himself also developing the character, by giving him a share] [3], giving the share is producing a helper (vijidar), production of a helper is a perfect action [4], and superiority of action is owing to thought and speech.

2. About the place where the best wealth is the produce of water, earth, and plants; also its best supplication is lamentation for the religion. and the sovereignty is liberality. 3. About favors being begged from the sacred beings, even with words controverting the response of the sacred beings; the favors for the worthy are to be contended for worthily. 4. About the connection of the power of intelligent remembrance and wise discrimination, one with the other. 5. About the attraction of the mercy of the spirit and leadership [5], together, into the supreme heaven (Garothman), for observation regarding the good creatures.

6. About the begging and teaching of that intelligence which is with the increase of good works; also the imperceptible acquirement [6] of wealth occurs thereby. 7. This, too, that whoever gives himself up, with humility and reverence, to him who is a high-priest of the true religion, is proficient (far'-zanaki-aito) in the religion [7]; and the benefit produced by him, for him who is good, is the liberality which is provided for the sacred beings [8]. 8. About Ohrmazd having created water, plants, animals [9], and the law of the primitive religion for the nourishment, arrangement, and succession of the creatures. 9. About the comfort of the spirit of the liturgy of the religion when he who is a man of credible wisdom and superior disposition utters it [10].

10. This, too, that the wicked one who does not believe the deception that he teaches to others, which is his through his own spiritual lord, yet, when he teaches multitudes (kabedan), is convinced by it, attains -- as the end of that teaching -- eminence (padgahih) for bare-faced deceit (barahnako fradipih), public falsehood, and disjointed belief.

11. And about mankind being bodily prepared also for the future existence by fire and melted ore [11]; in the worldly existence the acquitted and incriminated, as regards the law, have become thereby manifest [12], and, in the future existence, the torment of the wicked and the gratification of the righteous [13]. 12. About Vohuman and Ardwahisht being invoked [14] for assistance also in danger from the wicked, and about appropriating the best existence through righteousness alone. 13. And this, too, that a happy coming of men to the supreme heaven exists for the righteous, but no [15] coming of any one from the wicked.

14. About the enmity of the Kay [16] sodomite (vaepo) [17] Akht, the heretic of the dark existence [18], to Zartosht; and the causing of disturbance (siklinidano), by him and the wicked of similar kinds to him, among those who follow Zartosht is extreme, and the primeval hellish existence is for them [19]. 15. About the closing of the abode of the Kay and Karb from virtuousness [20]; and this, too, that they do not develop the worldly existences, nor attend to the spirit, but they contract the world and dissipate the spirit [21].

16. About the worthiness of the sovereignty of Kay Vishtasp [22], on account of great ability and activity, apart even from superintending. 17. About the praise of Frashostar [23] for his having given Hvov [24] in marriage to Zartosht, the praise of Hvov for her complete reverence of Zartosht, and admonition to Zartosht as to making Hvov privileged for the post of house-mistress [25]. 18. About the praise of Jamasp [26] for begging fortune and for wisdom in appropriating the excellence of the primitive righteousness; also his affection for the sovereignty and for the recitation of revelation, in which there is assistance of Zartosht through command of Vohuman [27]. 19. About the praise of Maidok-mah [28] for his accepting and exercising -- and on account of his exercising -- the upholding and propagation of the religion; also the yelling, united assault, evil food, and other affliction owing to the wicked in the earlier half of the night, which is that which Zartosht had, for a like reason, to bear; and the reciting of the law of Ohrmazd [29], for the joy of the sacred beings, and his appropriation of the best existence.

20. About the abounding of Zartosht in complete mindfulness of the origin of learning, and its development by him [30]; both the object and the advantage of knowledge -- which is the reigning of Vohuman in the body -- being the means of developing the world in righteousness [31]. 21. About the perfection of the ceremonial [32] and obeisance of Zartosht, and the superiority [33] of his recompense [34]; also advice to him as to worshipping Ohrmazd preeminently, and the primeval angels by their own names [35] according to their greatness.

22. It is the excellence of righteousness that is perfect.


1. See Chap. 21.1 n; it is here written vohu-khshatar in Pahlavi, and is called the 22nd fargard by mistake.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 50.1 a.

3. The passage in brackets was at first omitted in the MS. by mistake, and subsequently interlined and written in the margin with a different ink.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 50.1 c.

5. Ibid. 4 a.

6. Ibid. 5 a.

7. Ibid. 5 c.

8. See Pahl. Yas. 50.6 a.

9. Ibid. 7 a.

10. Ibid. 8 c; nevagtar is written by mistake for nevagtar, 'superior,' in the MS.

11. Ibid. 9 b and Chap. 32.25

12. Ibid. 9 a.

13. Ibid. 9 c.

14. Ibid. 10 c.

15. Assuming that rai stands for la.

16. See Bk. 8, Chap. 35.13 n.

17. See Pahl. Yas. 50.12 a.

18. Akhtyo duzhdau temanguhau of Yt5.82; the wizard Akht of the tale of Yavisht-i Friyan.

19. See Pahl. Yas. 50.14 c.

20. Ibid. 14 a.

21. Ibid. 14 b.

22. Ibid. 16 a and Bk. 8, Chap. 11.1.

23. Ibid. 17 a and Bk. 8, Chap. 38.68.

24. Ibid. 17 b. Av. Hvovi of Yt13.139, Yt16.15; she was daughter of Frashostar and wife of Zartosht.

25. Ibid. 17 c.

26. Ibid. 18 a and Bk. 8, Chap. 38.68.

27. See Pahl. Yas. 50.18 b.

28. Ibid. 19 a and Chap. 24.1.

29. Ibid. 19 c.

30. Ibid. 21 a.

31. Ibid. 21 b.

32. Ibid. 22 a.

33. Assuming that avartih stands for avartarih.

34. See Pahl. Yas. 50.22 b.

35. Ibid. 22 c.

fargard 22. Perfection of prayers, glory of the Spitamas, praise of Pouruchast and Hutos, characteristics of the preparers and disturbers of the end, the apostle and follower of the demons is to be smitten by the righteous ruler (45)

1. The twenty-second fargard, Vahistoishti [1] is about the perfection of the prayers [2] of the good religion, and information thereon.

2. About the glory of a family of some houses that has come to the Spitamas [3], even before the coming of Zartosht; the knowledge and habit of organization and priestly authority of those arising from that family; the existence therein of houses, villages, communities, and districts; its attracting and exalting mankind, from vice to virtue, by propriety of words and actions; and it convinces those of the world even till the arrival of the good religion. 3. And this, too, that the existence of Kay Vishtasp -- that desire of Zartosht [4] -- and of Frashostar of the Hvovas [5], is owing to it.

4. About the praise of Pouruchast [6], daughter of Zartosht, for loving the good religion with wisdom and acting by the advice of the religion, having given herself contentedly in womanly service (zanoih) to Zartosht [7]; her complete accomplishment of duty and reverence for bin,, and, after Zartosht, her also performing womanly service (zanih) and reverence for Jamasp [8]; likewise her great reward from Ohrmazd for religiousness and self-devotion (khveshih) to the sacred beings. 5. About the praise of Hutos [9] for the arising of the progress of the Mazda-worshipping religion through her, by the growth of righteousness and smiting of the primeval fiend; also the good works and advantage which have arisen in the world from her great possessions, and her equal praise and grand position here and in yonder world.

6. About the characteristics of those who are preparing the end of time and arranging its period there is this, too, namely: They are a manifestation of those, O Spitaman Zartosht! who shall cause this renovation in the existences; they are observant, little afflictive in tormenting, and fully mindful, so that, when milk reaches them, they thoroughly digest it; they have no fear and accouterments (afzar), nor yet do they mention false and irreverent (anasto) statements concerning those who are righteous through imploring righteousness.' 7. About the characteristics of those disturbing the end of time and opposing its period there is this, too, namely: 'They are a manifestation of those, O Spitaman Zartosht! who are destroying the existences [10]; they are swiftly remedied, that is, they become very quickly devoured (khaido) and are in the torment of the vicious and grievous abode; they are not fully mindful, so that it is not possible for them to digest milk, their fear is inevitable (achar), and they mention even false and irreverent statements concerning those who are righteous through imploring righteousness.

8. About the craving for the fiend, the assistance of the fiend, and the gratification of the fiend by him who is an apostle of the demons, and his rendering the creatures of Ohrmazd helpless [11] even through the want of progress (anasachishno) which they lament; also the confusion owing to his speaking deceitfully in the world, and the connection with him of an awful and swift death [12], and the most grievous and hellish punishment. 9. About that wicked follower and assistant of theirs in defeating righteousness, and also in destroying the greater religiousness (freh-denoih) of the world and making the soul wicked in the end.

10. About the occurrence of the dissipation of the glory of him who is a well-ruling man, and the pacification (asudano) of the creatures of the world by the sacred beings, it says this, too, namely: 'The persuader to evil [13] and the organizer of distress (veshishno) -- where they shall make pain and distress current in the world -- are the weakener (nerefsinidar) and corrupter (alayidar) for the righteous ; it is the ruler that is righteous who smites them and opposes them -- that is, restrains them from sin -- and causes hatred for them through his will [14]; that, O Ohrmazd! is this dominion of thine by which you give benefits (vehigano) to him who is justly living and poor [15].'

11. It is perfect excellence that is righteousness.


1. See Chap. 22.1 n.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 52.1 a.

3. The family from which Zartosht, Maidok-mah, and Pouruchast were descended. Its name originated with Spitama, an ancestor of Zartosht nine generations back. Compare Chap. 39.23.

4. Perhaps we ought to read 'the Spitama Zartosht,' substituting Spitamak for kamak, 'desire,' which latter word is written on a patch by the repairer of the MS. who must have found the original word defective. See Pahl. Yas. 52.2 c.

5. See Chap. 21.24.

6. See Pahl. Yas. 52.3 a. Av. Pourukista who became the wife of Jamasp, prime minister of king Vishtasp.

7. Ibid. 4 a. It seems unlikely that zanoih means 'marriage' here (the term being applied to her relation both to Zartosht and Jamasp), unless we were to suppose that she married Jamasp after her father's death, which the phrase akhar min Zartosht, 'after Zartosht,' might possibly imply. And if zanoih means merely 'womanly service' here, its Zvarish equivalent nesmanih, applied to the seven sisters of Arda Viraf in AV.2.10 may also not imply marriage, which is a view already suggested in S.B.E., vol. xviii, p.398 n.

8. See Pahl. Yas. 52.4 b.

9. Ibid. 5 a. Av. Hutaosa, the wife of king Vishtasp, see Yt9.26, Yt15.35.

10. See Pahl. Yas. 52.6 e.

11. Or it may be 'maintaining the affliction of the creatures,' if we read azardarih instead of akargarih.

12. See Pahl. Yas. 52.8 d.

13. Ibid. 9 a. B has avehih verenakinidar, but avehih, 'want of goodness,' ought to be dushih, 'evil,' which it resembles even more in appearance than in meaning, in Pahlavi letters.

14. See Pahl. Yas. 52.9 c.

15. Ibid. 9 d. Compare Chap. 47.17.

fargard 23. Benefits of the Airman supplication (46)

1. The twenty-third fargard, Airyaman [1], is the Airyaman supplication [2]:-'That is the greatest, I tell thee, O Spitaman! of the pure sayings of every kind, in so much Avesta lore, this is the best, because it is given forth by him who is a very eminent producer (madam-kartar) of sayings of every kind. 2. Which Airyaman supplication they should recite who are beneficial [3], and the benefiter [3], through the recital of it aloud, O Spitaman! becomes predominant. 3. The evil spirit who is heretical (dushdeno), O Zartosht! with his own creatures, O Spitaman! becomes buried in the earth; the evil spirit is among those buried in the earth -- who are the demons -- where their bodily form (kalpudo) is completely shattered. 4. And up the dead are arrayed by it; through its assistance they give life back unto the body, and the embodied life they then possess is such that they do not die.'

5. It is perfect is the excellence of righteousness; it is perfect excellence that is righteousness.

(End of the account of the Warsht-mansr Nask)


1. See Chap. 23.1 n; it is here written Airemano in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 53.1 and Bk. 8, Chap. 44.81.

3. Pahl. sud-homond = Av. saoshyas [Soshyant], referring to the future restorer of religion to the world, just before the renovation of the universe.

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