Denkard, Book 9

Details of Nasks 1-3 (Ancient Canon of Zoroastrianism)

Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, Oxford University Press, 1897.

Warsht-mansr Nask

fargard 9. Three deceitful demons and their colloquy with Ohrmazd; (§8) arrival of demons in the world, their evil doings and those of their followers, evil of burying a corpse, its impurity; (§17) evildoers of the ninth and tenth centuries, their evil deeds; (§25) the final punishment in melted metal, at the renovation, is the end of evil (32)

1. The ninth fargard, Hvaetumaiti [1], is about the coming of three deceitful demons, and their making supplication (lajak-karih) to Ohrmazd [2], so that he should consider and reward those aggrieved by him, and it would amount to strength for them in destroying the creatures. 2. The disgorging (akhvardano) of supplication by those demons clamorously upwards from an abyss, and the statement of one that he is [3] the kindred that is undeceitful, of another one that he is the serfdom that is undeceitful, and of the third one that he is the confederacy that is undeceitful, was in these words, namely: 'We are those spirits when the kinsman, confederate, and serf [2] do not break promises, one with the other; we are not really these that are no implements of thine, but our religion and law are thine, and we do thy will; we become assistants of him who is thy friend, and injurers of him who is thy enemy [4]; and from thee we beg a position in the existence that is best, the reward that is a reward of the worthy.'

3. The reply of Ohrmazd to them was thus: 'You rush out, astute in evil, to the extremity (bun) of that horrible gloom [5]; so you are all from the demon, your race is really from Evil Thought, that is, your race is from there where Evil Thought [6], as well as Lust the destroyer and also Greed the well accumulating, resides, and where, moreover, Indar the fighter is the spirit of the religion of apostasy and further deceives the worldly existence of mankind, as to proper living and immortal progress [7], and first confines their thoughts. 4. He shall first do this, so that he may restrain the thoughts of men from virtuous things [8], and their further words and perverted further deeds from the ceremonial of us who are archangels; they further lose their wisdom [9], and further consider even as perfect righteousness that which is loved by the demons; they utter the false words and consecrate with the worse deeds of mankind; and with the holy-water which one consecrates most to you, more falsely and more arrogantly [10] than that falsity and arrogance, do they enhance the greatest ceremonial, so that they shall make more of the most. 5. Owing to discord, through that love of you who are demons, they smite with destruction him who shall not be a satisfaction to you in the presidency; and the leader they take (girend) becomes a destroyer, so in the sequel, too, there is some one that smites him; even though they consider him as your follower, they shall occasion his destruction. 6 You are evil demons for a congregation when they speak of avoiding you, and worse for the ceremonial, or obeisance, when it occurs that which becomes all clearness to the utterer of righteousness, in this existence, you utterly destroy; and the lodgment of complete mindfulness in the body is for admonition to human beings about abstaining from the demons.'

7. This, too, is stated, namely: 'Evil are you who are wicked and worship the demons with good holy-water and with words; through them the holy-water obtains evil recompense, even the hell that is horrible.' 8. This, too, he spoke, namely: 'Concerning those malicious demons [11] I will first mention intelligibly to thee when they have come to the world, that is, first when they have rushed in, how their jurisdiction arose. 9- For thirty centuries [12] those of my world were immortal and undecaying. O Zartosht but when the thirtieth century was accomplished [13], O Spitaman! the sweat (khvae) produced by the demons then came on to my Gayomard [14], for his affliction, so long a time as a man speaks forth these words of the Yatha-ahu-vairyo [15], relating to the spiritual lord and priestly master. 10. And when he issued from that sweat he was shadowless, that is, darkness had entered [16]; and the words of the formula (ayin) relating to the spiritual lord and priestly master were spoken forth by me, and when vastarem [17] was uttered by me the demons then fell [18] into the gloom.'

11. About the harm owing to the demons this, too, he spoke, namely: 'The destructiveness of the evil spirit is his evil teaching by statements [19] to my creatures; and my riches (ishto) plundered by him are the proportion of the production and possession of wealth for which a desire exists through Good Thought; that is, when they possess it with propriety it is desirable [20]. 12. And mankind were gratified by that son of Vivanghau who was Yim [[Jamshed]] [21], and cattle were gratified by him, producing thus the phrase "you are mankind" in words, O Zartosht when he spoke to mankind thus: "You are the mankind for cattle, that is, you who are mankind eat meat of your own subdivision, and through subdivision by you there is a superabundant occurrence of meat [22]; you are mankind, neither for Greed (Az), nor for Envy (Areshko) [23], do thou throw away the warm entrails (taftog rudik), nor do thou throw them away warm on account of custom (pishako), now you slay for slaughtering, so that thus it may be beneficial for you and your servant."'

13. This, too, is stated, namely: 'Even that man is produced for the destruction of mine [24], who is possessed by the wicked evil spirit; the want of discernment of that man is a tedious. life, in which the utterance of the praise of righteousness is the want of ceremonial of which a righteous man spoke thus: "At the place where their pasture is you are the mankind, the all-producer that fully develops them, and the all-collector that would thoroughly set them moving; in their pasture you are the mankind, and they all remain [25]; with hospitality for the body they remain on account of their pasture, and in fighting they strike their heads together; you are the mankind of their pasture, it is expedient and you deprive it of moisture [26] through fire; as to other things, it was also you that made one altogether believe that untrue statement which is a lie -- the possession of material existence by life -- owing to external seduction by the fiend who has come chiefly to you."'

14. About the harm owing to the demons this, too, is stated, namely: 'Their accomplishment of arrogance over these creatures of mine, and also the unfitness for heaven (avahishtih-ich) of a righteous man, and that, too, of a valiant one, are due to the burial of a corpse. 15. This, too, namely: 'They who drag away a corpse [27] are most hurtful for men, as regards the wealth of the religion in this world, and as regards sheep and beasts of burden.' 16. This, too, namely: 'As to the people, assisted by one living in terrible difficulty, who deliver the corpse of a dead person, on a sheep or beast of burden, at a village where they shall convey it, they distress the fire and also the water flowing from the hills [28], likewise those liquids of the body which are ten [29], and those saps (aevano) of plants which are fourfold in thousands, that is, they come out a thousand at one time.'

17. 'They are giving more assistance when [30] it is the corpse of a wicked person; concerning them, too, I tell thee, O Zartosht the Spitaman! that they shall arrive in the ninth and tenth centuries [31] who are the spawn of the fiend (drujo hunoyako) and the cesspool (rikhdar) of the evil spirit; even one of them is more to be destroyed than ten idolaters (deviyasto) by him they shall make pure, that is, the people shall make him quite void of wealth who is a priest without recitation and commendation. 18. And they, who will be full many in the future, shall bring prostration upon him who is an innocent person, the husbandman who watches the frog of the ditch (zak-i gilugo vazagh) so that he may keep it away from mankind; and they execute ill-contrived commands. 19. They also produce destruction for these of mine, and speak of the living state, to these of my religion, thus: "When living is an expediency it is in our way;" they are wicked, they dwindle through greatness and even terror, that is, they shall commit sin through leadership and vassalage [32] who are smiting thee, and they speak folly who are smiting this pure religion of thine, O Spitaman!'

20. 'They, too, who recite this thy revelation of the Mazda-worshippers, say that the distinction (nishon) of those others from those who are thine, even those whom they hurt, is this, that they plunder, they also think scornfully of this thy ceremonial, and think scornfully of the obeisances (Niyayeshno) and of both those blessings from me, the Avesta and Zand which I, who am the most propitious of spirits, spoke forth to thee. 21. They also injure the ceremonial of him who is perfectly righteous [33], even the obeisance arisen from a disciple of Zartosht the Spitaman; and they chant that which is a settled effusion (bara-hankhetunto regih) is very evil, as a perfect deed for mankind [34], those of very evil deeds call joy [35].'

22. 'They seek sovereignty as a devouring (grehmako), that is, they seek privilege for a bribe, and in their abode is he who is very evil in thought, that is, they seek with this design, that, for the hundred which another gives up, they may take two hundred away from the other [36]; they destroy the best existence [37], they destroy their own souls, and they destroy the world of material beings. 23. Then they who are privileged shall convey that sovereignty of the Kik and Karb [38], even those that are the worst-ruling who are in the country, unto him who is best-ruling in house, village, community, and province; and then both shall keep up an uproar, he who is well-ruling and also he who is ill-ruling, and he who is ill-ruling is beaten, and he is delivered up to the best-ruling ruler. 24. And then, among them, he who seeks for a devouring (grehmako) of all that which is animate, as well as that which is inanimate, is he who is desirous of assault and complaint; and he who fears him who is a righteous man of mine allots him comfort, and is he who watches those who are an exposition of righteousness [39], and who would be wizards or witches, so that the authorities shall inflict punishment upon them.'

25. And this, too, is stated, namely: 'The malice of many malicious ones demands that they shall afflict punishment on sinners [40] when they put (pad-mujend) life into the body, that is, they give life back to the body; but for that purpose the metal, melted forth, arises full upon the earth, which does not wreak vengeance on him who is righteous, and does wreak vengeance on him who is wicked, when I, who am Ohrmazd, produce the renovation among the existences [41]. 26. Thus, too, that which becomes a healthful world -- a healthful one that is thus mine -- never first becomes that further sick one which, apart from me, is even now the immortal and manifest place where vengeance exists [42]; and they become also aware, through that sovereignty of name, that, apart from me, even now immortal is the material world of righteousness.'

27. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.

1. See Chap. 9.1 n.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 32.1 a.

3. Literally 'I am'.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 32.1 c.

5. Compare Pahl. Vend. 19.147.

6. See Pahl. Yas. 32.3 a. For the demons here mentioned, Akomano, Vareno, and Azho, see Book 8, Chaps. 9.3, 31.44; Indar is the same as Andar (in Chap. 9.1), the arch-demon who perverts from virtue and despises the sacred shirt and girdle [[sudre and kusti]] (Bd. 1.27, Bd. 28.8). With reverence to the good old schism-hypothesis, that identified the Av. daeva Indra, or Andra, with the Sans. deva Indra, it is worthy of note that he is here represented as the pervading spirit of an apostate religion, and is termed the kushidar, 'fighter, slayer.'

7. See Pahl. Yas. 32.5 a.

8. See Bd. 28.8.

9. See Pahl. Yas. 30.4 c.

10. Ibid. 3 b.

11. See Pahl. Yas. 32.7 a, 8 a.

12. See Bd. 1.20, 21 But from § 10 it appears more probable that these are the three millenniums mentioned in Bd. 1.8.

13. Bd. 3.3.

14. Ibid. 19.

15. See Book 8, Chap. 1.7 n.

16. Bd. 3.20.

17. The last word of the formula In Bd 1.21, 22 this utterance seems to be placed before the attack upon Gayomard but until the complete text of the Iranian Bundahishn has been examined some doubt as to the exact sequence of its statements may be entertained.

18. Pahl. ziflunid, for yiflunid formed from the aorist of Ch. [...] instead of the usual neflunast, formed from the preterit.

19. See Pahl. Yas. 32.9 a.

20. Ibid. 9 b. Instead of avordo, 'plundered,' B has the miswriting spordo, 'consigned.'

21. Ibid. 8 a and Book 8, Chap. 13.6.

22. Ibid. 8 b.

23. Alluding, perhaps, to the legend detailed in Bd. 15.8, 19.

24. See Pahl. Yas. 32.10 a.

25. Or, perhaps, 'and they remain astonished,' (va-sipo manend).

26. Pahl. viyavanined which, with vastar, 'pasture,' occurs in Pahl. Yas. 32.10 c.

27. They who carry a corpse alone, like the iristo-kasha of Vend. 3.15.

28. Pahl. geran-tajishno Av. hebvainti in Yas. 38.3 and Av. thraoto-stad in Yas. 68.6, &c. It is the second species of liquid in Bd. 21.1.

29. Only nine are mentioned in Bd. 21.1, namely: semen, urine, sweat, skin-fluid, tears, blood, oil, saliva, and milk.

30. Assuming that mun stands for amat as in Bk. 8, Chap. 21.10.

31. If these centuries are dated from 'the coming of the religion,' according to the incorrect Arabian chronology of the Bundahishn, they extended from A.D. 393 or 435 to 593 or 635 (see Byt. 3.11 n). In the ninth century lived king Yazdakard (A. D. 399-420), surnamed 'the sinner' by the priesthood because he tolerated other religions, and the heretic Mazdak who was put to death in A.D. 528. In the tenth century the Muhammadan religion arose, and the Sasanian dynasty tottered to its fall. If it were not for the manifest errors in the Bundahishn chronology, this passage in our text might be important for fixing the age of the Pahlavi version of this Nask.

32. Pahl. Yas. 32.11 a.

33. Ibid. 11 c.

34. Ibid. 12 a, which has corrupted regih into resh; the former, corresponding better with the original Av. raunghayen, can be compared with Pers.. rihidan, rezidan ;. or it might mean 'imposture,' compare Pers. rigan.

35. Ibid. 12 b.

36. See Pahl. Yas. 32.13 a; the exact meaning of grehmako (Av. gerehma) is uncertain, and the last verb is literally 'I may take.'

37. Ibid. 13 b.

38. Ibid. 14 a, 15 a, and Book 8, Chap. 35. 13 n.

39. Ibid. 13 c.

40. Ibid. 16 c.

41. At the resurrection all men are said to be purified in melted metal which hurts only those who have been wicked (see Bd. 30.19, 20).

42. That is, the earth never becomes hell.

fargard 10. The renovation and Soshyant, merit of a good priest, avoidance of oppressors, the Chinwad bridge; Zartosht, taught by Ohrmazd, is Zot of the world at the renovation; the names of his assistant priests (33)

1. The tenth fargard, Yathaish [1], is about the renovation of the universe in the words of Ohrmazd to Zartosht, thus: 'I have produced the effecter of the renovation, the causer of righteousness, Soshyant, of whom mankind say that he does not come; and yet he will come, for the righteous, with that glory which becomes all-brilliance.'

2. About the scrutiny and consideration for moderation in a high-priest's performance of every duty there is this, too, that the desire of that non-assailant, who is a producer of benefit among kinsmen, among confederates, and among serfs [2], as regards anything whatever, is accomplishing the will, and is a friend, of Ohrmazd; and the spirit lodging in him is not deceived by him. 3. And advice about distance from him in whom similarity of disposition to the fiend and arrogance are oppressive, and who is scorning kinsmen, a sharp liar with serfs [3], giving offense (veshin-dahishno) to confederates, careless of cattle [4], and unfriendly to the wretched.

4. About the bridge on which there is access to Ohrmazd [5], and he who reaches the best existence is visibly, or invisibly, proceeding while offering up (auzdahan-sagitun). 5. And the teaching of the primitive faith to Zartosht by Ohrmazd, who remained embodying the Ahunwar (ahunavair-tanu) as the Zoti [6] of the world; and at the time of the renovation Zartosht, who was from the sons of Aezemno, is in the position of Zoti [7] of the whole world; Vohuvasto, son of Snoe [8], from the countries of those of the religion, in the post of Havanan [8]; Isvand, son of Varaz, from the countries of Turan, in the post of Atarevakhsh; Seno, son of Humstuv, from the countries of the Senan [9], in the post of Frabardar; and Vishtasp, who was from the sons of Nodar [10], in the post of Sroshavarez. 6. About the power and triumph which that ceremonial becomes, even through the all-brilliance of the immortal renovation of the whole creation in that existence.

7. This, too, that the evil spirit [11] .....

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. See Chap. 10.1 n; it is here written yasaaish in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 33.3 a, b.

3. Ibid. 4 b.

4. Ibid. 4 c.

5. Ibid. 5 c.

6. Ibid. 6 a. It is said, in Bd. 30.30, that Ohrmazd comes to the world as Zoti, or chief officiating priest, with Srosh as assistant priest, just before the renovation. Here it is not absolutely certain whether Ohrmazd, or Zartosht, is meant as Zoti on this first occurrence of the word.

7. Reading min Ae-zemnoan pavan zot gas; Ayanem being an ancestor of Zartosht, eleven generations back, the grandfather of Spitama, and the name being variously written Aiazemn, Ayazem, Nayazem, and Aizim in different MSS. Another reading is min 3 zamon khupo zot gas, 'from three-fold procreation, has the happy position of Zoti,' referring to the legendary account of Zartosht's origin, as detailed in the seventh book of the Denkard. The position of the Zoti is at the north end of the ceremonial area.

8. This and the two following persons are the Vohvasti son of Snaoya, Isvad son of Varaza, and Saena son of Ahum-stud, of Yt. 13.96, 97.

9. In the great ceremonies of ancient times the Havanan appears to have been the priest who attended to the Hom-mortar, and his position was near the north-west corner of the ceremonial area; the Atarevakhsh was the priest who fed the fire, and his position was near the south-west corner; the Frabartar was the priest who brought the necessary utensils, and his position was near the north-east corner; and the Sroshavarez was the priest who kept general order, his position being at the south end, facing the Zoti at the north end. Besides these five priests, mentioned in our text, there were three others enumerated in Visp. 3,1; Vend. 5.58, Vd. 7.17, 18, the water-bringer near the south-east corner, the washer on the west side, and the cleanser on the east side. In modern times the Zoti retains his ancient duties of chief priest, while the Raspi (Bk. 8, Chap. 7.5, 9) combines the duties of the seven others, being called by the Zoti (in Visp. 3.1) to take the place of each of them in succession.

10. Av. Saininam of Yt. 13.144, probably the people about Samarkand (see Bd. 12.13 n, 15.29).

11. See Yt. 5.98.

12. One folio of B is here lost, containing the end of this chapter and the beginning of the next. The passage missing was equivalent to about 100 lines of this translation, of which perhaps one-fourth belonged to this chapter and three-fourths to the next.

fargard 11. Vohuman reports to Ohrmazd thrice a day, the demons trying to seduce man are vexed by his resistance, Armat and Taromat, opposition to the demons, advantage of religion and its reward (34)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . it is possible to come through virtuous deeds and through virtuous thoughts.' n. And this, too, he spoke, namely: 'That Good Thought [1] of mine proceeds and notices the thoughts of the embodied existence, and of the good words and the deeds he reports again those referring to me, as often as three times in the same day, both of those who are liberal to thee [1], O Spitaman! and of those who are illiberal to thee.'

o. The struggling of the demons [2], for the putting down of all benefit from mankind, has not produced the obtainment of their capability for that benefit which arises for mankind through the future existence; so that that one evil is more grievous than every evil which the demons imagine for mankind, when the latter are frightened by them from the way of the sacred beings, and are wicked; and harder for them are the praisers of righteousness among the apostates and the rest of the creation, through their praise of righteousness, even when very many praise it.

p. About the progress of Armaiti [3] and Taromat perpetually among the creatures, the disclosure of Armaiti to mankind, and of righteousness to Taromat; the listening of that vile Taromat to falsehood, and the distance [4] of righteousness from him who is vile is like that of a sheep fled (sishd) [5] from mankind. q. And this, too, that the evil spirit is beaten [6] by complete mindfulness, in the struggle of those having mighty ones, just as a powerful man beats him who is a reverent creation (niyayin dahishno) [7]; and the pure Zartosht is produced by Ohrmazd, as well as the power of Hordad and Amurdad [8], which acts forcibly for giving value (farg) and preparing the creatures.

r. About the opposition of Ohrmazd to the demons [9], and the valuation of the deeds of mankind which exist for greater jurisdiction [10] and more advantage of the primitive good creation; and in any doubtfulness one is to perform the ceremonial of the sacred beings. s. About cases where the good-will of the spirit of complete mindfulness makes mankind attain to the good religion; and their spiritual joy [11] arises from the purification of their own religion through virtuous exercise of will.

t. About the desire for a reward for anything whatever, and the great advantage owing to a reward of the desires of mankind; also the appropriation of the reward through the operation of the sacred beings: 'Even through the ruler (pad) of that dominion of yours do I produce the renovation of the existences by my will [12], I who am Ohrmazd.'

u. Excellence is righteousness that is perfect.

1. See Pahl. Yas. 34.7 a.

2. Ibid. 10 c.

3. Ibid. 9 a, 10 b, 11 b. Av. Armaiti, 'devotion,' the female archangel Spendarmad, entitled 'complete mindfulness' in §§ q, s. Taromat (Av. Taromaiti), the arch-demon of contempt and disobedience (Bd. 28.14), is her special opponent.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 34.8 c.

5. Ibid. 9 c.

6. Ibid. 10 c.

7. Ibid. 8 b.

8. Ibid. 11 a and Chap. 19.1.

9. Ibid. 11 c.

10. Ibid. 12 a.

11. Ibid. 13 b.

12. Ibid. 15 c.

fargard 12. Benefits of religion; mutual service of men, cattle, and the sacred beings; evil deeds prohibited, worship by the righteous is the best, begging for life; (§11) duties to fire, Zartosht's seeing the future existence, benefits of worship; (§17) colloquy of Ohrmazd and Zartosht (35)

1. The twelfth fargard, the Yasna [1], is about the manifestation of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds by the religion [2]; the lodgment of the religion in good thoughts, good words, and good deeds; and whoever possesses good thoughts, whoever has good words, and whoever has good deeds, by him righteousness and the reward of the righteous are possessed. 2. This, too, that neither is he, who is not to be born for Zartosht, an issue from parents who are not righteous, nor yet is he, for him,. who is a manifestation of the righteous.

3. This, too, is said, namely: 'Thou shouldst give a glad-thinking desire for a spiritual lord, and an easy-bodied constitution, to their minds, the religion which I spoke forth to thee; so that the greatest, best, and most beneficial of existences [3], that are those which cattle are wanting from men, are water, pasture, and freedom from danger [4]; and those which men are wanting from cattle are also food and clothing.' 4. This, too, that that which mankind ought to give to the sacred beings is a power for completeness of control; and that which the sacred beings ought to give to men is ever that which is good for them. 5. And this, too, that thou who art Ohrmazd also suppliest it from those sacred beings, and thou who art Zartosht also teachest it thoroughly to that best-ruling sovereignty [5] and authority.

6. This, too, is said, namely: 'Let no one practice ill-perpetrated deeds, even though in a wilderness when far from publicity, nor in distress, O Spitaman! because Ohrmazd, the observer of everything, is aware of them; and the rule is that just as any one whatever of the embodied existence thinks, speaks, and practices, so great is his punishment.' 7. And this, too, that the best ceremonial and obeisance [6] are the ceremonial and obeisance of a righteous man.

8. About begging for life and receiving it, there is this, that it is customarily due to two methods (baba): one, through leadership of righteousness [7], is that through which it is evident that it is owing to virtuousness; and one, through service of righteousness [7], is that which is not an evidence that it is owing to viciousness. 9. About the case where virtuousness is producing authority over truth, and truth over the tongue, so that thou speakest words through the will of Ohrmazd. 10. And this, too, is said namely: 'I am the propitious spirit who was at first and ever will be, and am not really deceived by anything.'

11. About fire being given by Ohrmazd for shelter and assistance by the protection of mankind; its maintenance and assistance by mankind; and the open-heartedness of the spirit of fire for him who shall perform obeisance to it, and for him who is to perform obeisance to it [8]. 12. The work which is the greatest that exists, and is accomplished in the future existence [9] by the creatures become pure, occurs through fire; and one prays for it for the sake of the requirements which mankind acquired from the sacred beings. 13. This, too, is said, namely: 'Since thou art thus, O Zartosht! most propitiatory, that is, able to perform most for our pleasure, we are more promptly coming than Manushchihar was able to come, when thou beggest of us who are archangels, O Zartosht [10]!'

14. About Ohrmazd's exhibiting the creatures in the future existence to Zartosht. 15. And this, too, namely, the all-brilliance of the earth, the all-brilliance of the cattle, the all-brilliance of the plants, and the all-brilliance of every excellence [11] which is a manifestation of righteousness. 16. About the worshipping of Ohrmazd by worshippers, through advancing [12] in the religion of Ohrmazd's covenant (padmano), which gave the world his righteousness; also the good protectiveness of his rule, and of the greatness therein, is owing to it [13], and the name of the ruler is Wisdom [14]; likewise his ceremonial -- performed while the creations owing to him live, when possessing bodies and possessing life [15] -- is a benefit to all the worldly and spiritual existences.

17. And this, too, is said, namely: 'Thou art our own [16], and also our confederate, O Spitaman! likewise unto us thou comest with the reverence that is good [17]; thine, O Zartosht! are the greatness and completeness in performance [18], so that they become thy greatness and completeness, that is, they are thine, O Zartosht! and are boundless onwards from the middle, that is, we give thee a reward [19] so enormous that, when thou shouldst stand in the middle of it, thou wouldst not see to its limits, the width of the earth, the length of a river, and the height of the sun [20].'

18. Zartosht begged of Ohrmazd thus: 'Give unto me him who becomes a disciple of men [21] of the mighty through meditation for the religion, of them who shall produce the actual progress of this my religion of the Mazda-worshippers, and who will also explain the good practices to this one of mine, even the blessings set forth by me in the benedictions they possess. 19. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'I will give unto thee him who becomes a disciple of other men of the mighty; they are thy kinsmen and those confederates of theirs, and thine are their companions and their serfs [22], who produce the progress of this thy religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 20. Mostly thine, O Zartosht! are their worship and their homage; and, through their ceremonial and obeisance, the liberality of him who is worshipped is given to thee, and righteousness for the soul is with thee; also thy life exists owing to us, and likewise thy body [23], O Zartosht! 21. Forth to thee will I, who am the creator Ohrmazd, come in both existences [24], as assistance; thou becomest worthy, O Zartosht! through Hordad and Amurdad [25], both of them, and through the gratification of me, who am Ohrmazd, by those sayings and deeds which I, who am the most propitious of spirits, proclaimed unto thee.'

22. Zartosht spoke thus: 'They have become applicants on him who is powerful with thee [26].' 23. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Thou becomest an applicant and powerful in the embodied existence.' 24. Zartosht spoke thus: 'Be thou a gratification to us in the slow progress of life, thou most beneficent (hu-dahaktum) of existences! that is, thou shouldst give to us [27].' 25. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: I will gratify thee, O righteous Zartosht! in that best existence [28].'

26. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.

1. See Chap. 13, 1 n; it is here written yast in Pahlavi.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 35.4-6.

3. Ibid. 9.

4. Ibid. 11.

5. Ibid. 13.

6. See Pahl. Yas. 35.19.

7. Ibid. 22.

8. See Pahl. Yas. 36.4, 5.

9. Ibid. 6.

10. See Pahl. Yas. 36.9-14. For Manuschihar see Bk. 8, Chap. 13.10, 12, 18.

11. See Pahl. Yas. 37 (=5).1, 2.

12. Ibid. 4.

13. Ibid. 3.

14. Ibid. 6.

15. Ibid. 7.

16. See Pahl. Yas. 39.13.

17. Ibid. 14.

18. See Pahl. Yas. 40.1.

19. See Pahl. Yas. 40.3.

20. This expression for boundless extent occurs in Yas. 60.4, Yt. 13.32:

21. .See Pahl. Yas. 40.7.

22. Ibid. 10.

23. See Pahl. Yas. 41.7.

24. Ibid. 8.

25. See Chap. 19.1.

26. See Pahl. Yas. 41.10

27. Ibid. 11.

28. Ibid. 15.

fargard 13. Reward and tokens of righteousness (36)

1. The thirteenth fargard, Ushtavaiti [1], is about the great reward of him who, through virtuous procedure, may occasion the benefit of a man [2] and of the religion of righteousness also. 2. This, too, that the maintenance of righteousness [3] is through the practice of it.

3. About the tokens of a righteous man -- that is, the evidence of him -- and his reverence for duty and good works; also his imperceptible perversion (kastarih) -- that is, not a single sin is manifest in him -- and he is an accomplisher of the stipulations of Vohuman [4], good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, and a comprisal of every goodness in the propitiation of the righteous. 4. About [5] . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1. See Chap. 13, 1 n.

2. See Pahl. Yas. 42.1 a.

3. Ibid. 1 d.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 42.2 d.

5. Another folio of B is here lost, containing the end of this chapter and the beginning of the next. The passage missing was equivalent to about 100 lines of this translation, of which perhaps three-fourths belong to this chapter and one-fourth to the next.

fargard 14. Ohrmazd's creativeness, threat of the evil spirit, praise of religion, the wicked in hell, the demons (37)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 'produced the dawn and noontide (aush repisp) [1]. e. I fashioned sovereignty and the desired complete mindfulness together [2], and produced, for more advantageous disclosure, a son (bermanar-ae) for a father [3]; the disclosure that discloses a male and the impregnation of a female, and in that disclosure a son was produced by me for the father, O Zartosht!' f. So the evil spirit observed, and he called upwards from the abyss thus: 'O beneficent spirit! thou art the creator of all creatures, but I will make all thy creatures old, O beneficent spirit!

g. About the religion becoming progressive [4] in every one, through its renovation of the universe and its future existence, there is this, too, namely: 'This thy religion of Zartosht is the width of the world, and righteousness is the best of religions; this thy religion of Zartosht is the improvement of the world, which is first supplied by righteousness and complete mindfulness in the reason (varom) of those who recite this thy revelation (deno) [5] of the Mazda-worshippers, O Zartosht! this thy good religion is the best which it is possible to provide with righteousness for one's own. h. Thou shouldst proclaim this to kinsmen and confederates, to priests and him who is most active in the country; as to those who will dispute [6] this thy religion of the Mazda-worshippers, thou shouldst proclaim this over the earth of seven regions, unto that which is the furthest of houses, villages, communities, and provinces: "Do thou openly curse [7] these who are heretical towards me, thou united Mazda-worship of Zartosht, opposed to the demons, which is the ordinance of Ohrmazd [8]!"'

i. Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'I will exalt this which is beloved by thee, the religion of the Mazda-worship of Zartosht, opposed to the demons, which is the ordinance of Ohrmazd. j. If this which is thine had not been further loved by me, the Mazda-worship of Zartosht, that is opposed to the demons and is the ordinance of Ohrmazd would have lapsed into disaster (vinasishno) [9], so that the profession of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers would be destroyed, that is, the religion would not have become progressive, and no one would be after the benefiters. k. But, owing to that love, O Zartosht! the religion of the Mazda-worshippers becomes progressive [10] even then up to the production of the renovation of the universe, even then until the perpetual life of the existences, even then till the raising up of the dead, and even then up to the full atonement of the spirits.'

l. About being despised in hell; the wicked are scornful to a wicked one, and to the spirits apart from the wicked ; and it is the creator who, even after saving the others from hell, and the three nights stewing in hell [11], is to cause the preservation of them also -- after those three nights -- from that misery, and every one attains to happiness. m. This, too, that Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'How have the ignorant demons, O Ohrmazd! ever been good rulers [12]? How do they think of them in the world thus, that their happiness arose from them?' n. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'They have been demons, O Zartosht! and evil-ruling; not well-ruling, even for a reward, do they produce the work of righteousness [13].'

o. Perfect righteousness is excellence.

1. See Pahl. Yas. 43.5 d: aushahino va-rapispino = Av. ushau arem-pithwa.

2. Ibid. 7 b.

3. Ibid. 7 c. The verbal causative stem vindin, 'cause to find, or obtain, disclose,' is twice spelt without its first letter, out of four occurrences; and bermanar is hybrid Zvarish for pusar, in which berman = pus.

4. See Pahl. Yas. 43.8 c.

5. Ibid. 11 d.

6. Ibid. 13 c.

7. Assuming that naforino stands for nafrino.

8. See Pahl. Yas. 1.65.

9. See Pahl. Yas. 43.19 d.

10. See Pahl. Yas.43.15 d, 17 d.

11. The three nights' final punishment of those worthy of death, to be inflicted at the time of the resurrection (see Bd. 30.13, 16).

12. See Pahl. Yas. 43.20 a.

13. Ibid. 20 e.

fargard 15. The seven perfections of religious advice, power and contempt for the demons given to the creatures, praise of Zartosht (38)

1. The fifteenth fargard, Ad-fravakhshya [1], is about the seven [2] perfections of the admonitions of the religion. 2. First, association with the beneficent spirit of the creator, through hearing [3], learning, and practicing his religion; and this, too, that thereby arises the preservation of the good creation when the destroyer is separated (vanjid). 3. Second, about separation from the destructive evil spirit [4], and the contempt which is due to his arrogance and falsehood, the chief of all his vice. 4. Third, governing the temper [5] by good thoughts, good words, and good deeds : and this, that, whoever of you does not so use this liturgy as thought and word [6], they will not allot him light, they will not allot him the best existence, and he is miserable up to the last [7]. 5. Fourth, about the perfection of the nature of next-of-kin marriage [8], which is when it is a giving of one's own (khudih-dahishnih) and the decision given about it, which is the goodness of one's own progeny for the manifestation of progeny; also the relationship, sturdiness, effectiveness, advantageousness, ownership, and giving in next-of-kin marriage. 6. Its first accomplishment was by the creator Ohrmazd in the fatherhood of Vohuman [9] who was the first progeny, and from that arising of the practice (var'z-yehevunih) came the progress of the spiritual and worldly creatures and much connected therewith, such as the arising of splendor from light, radiance from splendor, and lustrousness from radiance, and the fully progressive diffusion and succession of mankind till the renovation of the universe; also, through spiritual and worldly passing on in the spiritual and worldly existences, Spandarmad's [10] acceptance of the motherly glory was an ennoblement. 7. Fifth, about providing and maintaining the high-priests [11] who are provided with a spiritual lord and possessing priestly instruction the listening of his authorities of every kind to Ohrmazd, and the reward of the beneficent good works [12] of the high-priesthood, are authority for Ohrmazd; and the reward of the good works of the high-priesthood is their relation to the best existence. 8. Sixth, about the praise, obeisance, and ceremonial [13] for the creator Ohrmazd; and this, too, that further conference with Vohuman [14] arises, and wisdom and advantage [15] are taught by him thus: 'Thou shouldst be a supplicant for the immortal progress of the soul [16], O Zartosht! so that Ohrmazd may be lord of the creatures [17], and the practice of propitiation by mankind may be that for him, also a proportion of the ordering of obeisance [18].' 9. About the sovereignty of Ohrmazd [19] -- even through the reward given at the bridge of judgment [[Chinwad]] -- which is in his good assemblies [20], those of the restorer of the world, the destroyer of the evil one, and the benefiter.

10. This, too, is said, namely: 'Thou becomest, through complete mindfulness, O Spitaman! a perpetual adopter (giriftar) of this ceremonial of mine [21].'

11. About Ohrmazd having given power [22] to the creatures, the preparation [23] of the power, and the contempt [24] for the evil spirit and his appliances; Ohrmazd and the creations gave that contempt back to the evil spirit and the primary (kadmon) demons who are those produced by the demons.

12. About the glorification of Zartosht there is this, too, namely: 'Thou art beneficial, thou art high-priest and master, and through thee exists the religion which is propitious [25]; thou art brother and companion of all the benefiters, and thus thy friend [26] is Vohuman.'

13. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


1. See Chap. 15, 1 n; it is here written ad-fravakhshe in Pahlavi.

2. Only six are numbered in our text, but the seventh seems to be detailed in § 9.

3. See Pahl. Yas. 44.1 a.

4. Ibid. 1 d, e.

5. Ibid. 3 a.

6. Ibid. 3 c, d.

7. Ibid. 3 e.

8. Ibid. 4 a. There is nothing whatever about next-of-kin marriage in the original Avesta text of this Gatha, but the Pahlavi translators (in order to interpolate authority for such marriages) took advantage of the Avesta speaking metaphorically of Mazda being father of Good Thought (Vohuman), and of Bountiful Devotion (Spandarmad) as being Mazda's daughter; while they ignored the old tradition that Vohuman was created before Spandarmad (see Bd. 1.23, 26). A translation of the Pahlavi version of this Gatha passage is given in S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp.392, 393.

9. See Pahl. Yas. 44.4 c.

10. Ibid. 4 d.

11. Ibid. 5 a.

12. Rather doubtful, as the repairer of the MS. has omitted the first two Pahlavi letters of kirfako, 'good works,' when writing the word on a patch.

13. See Pahl. Yas. 44.6 a, b, d.

14. Ibid. 6 d.

15. Ibid. 6 e, 7 a.

16. See Pahl. Yas. 44.7 c.

17. Ibid. 7 e.

18. Ibid. 8 a.

19. Ibid. 9 c. This appears to be the seventh 'perfection' mentioned in § 1.

20. Assuming that hu-hambamiha stands for hu-hangamiha, just as hanbam is a common variant of hangam. It might also mean 'good times,' but it seems to represent the incorrect word amavandih in Pahl. Yas. 44.9 e, which each of the four MS. authorities spells differently. Mf4 has hu-dandih which, no doubt, stands for an original hu-zandih, 'good community,' a fair translation of Av. haozathwa, and well expressed by 'good assemblies.'

21. See Pahl. Yas. 44.10 a.

22. Ibid. 10 e, in which zako-i ought to be zor-i according to Pt4, Mf4, with which J2 partly agrees.

23. Assuming that nivaruno stands for nivardano.

24. See Pahl. Yas. 44.11 b.

25. See Pahl. Yas. 44.11 d.

26. Ibid. 11 e.

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