Nask 19: Vendidad [Jud-dew-dad] (legal) (44)

Corresponding with the contents of fargards 1-11, 13-22.

1. The Vendidad contains particulars of Ohrmazd having produced the pleasure of mankind by that place where they specially made a residence, and the advantage from the same production. 2. About the formation of sixteen perfect places specially enumerated, and also the adversity which has happened to each separately.

3. About Ohrmazd's disclosing the religion first among mankind to Yim [Jamshed]; its non-acceptance by Yim [Jamshed] owing to attachment (asrunoih) to the religion of the ancients; and the acceptance of other things to develop, extend, and improve the world thereby. 4. About the reason of the needfulness of making the enclosure that Yim [Jamshed] made (var-i Yim kard), the command and instruction by Ohrmazd to Yim [Jamshed], the making by Yim [Jamshed] just as Ohrmazd commanded and instructed, and whatever is on the same subject.

5. About what the comfort of the spirit of the earth is most owing to, what its discomfort is more particularly owing to, and from what its greatest gratification has arisen.

6. About the sin of pollution owing to carrying a corpse by a single person, relating, however, to that which a dog has not seen. 7. About the food, clothing, and place of him who becomes polluted and worthy of death through a corpse, on account of carrying it alone (aevako-barih rai). 8. About how the several precautions of mankind and other pure creatures are taken, as regards a corpse which has become polluted by another corpse.

9. About the pleasure of the spirit of the earth owing to sowing and tilling, and its vexation owing to not sowing and not tilling; the blessing upon the sowers, and the advantage and merit owing to sowing, on account of particulars about the nourishment and protection of the religion thereby. 10. About the destruction of the demons which arises from the sprouting, growing, and ripening of corn; and the good success of mankind from the eating of it.

11. About the sin of burying a corpse through sinfulness, and for how much time is the uselessness of the ground in which the burial may be performed. 12. About the power of the good religion for wiping away sin from human beings.

13. About the sin of deceiving by an avaricious person (pashto) as regards what he has consumed and given, and the grievousness of other breaches of promise; the danger, even in the worldly existence, from maintaining him, and the retribution it is important for him to make.

14. About where there is steadfastness in the religion there is also a manifestation of this: when one becomes liberal -- as to every benefit that exists for him -- towards those of the same religion who come forward with a request. 15. About the extent of sleeping in the day and night, and other matters as to occupation which occurs daily.

16. About the grievous sinfulness of having taken a false oath, so that, apart even from the testifying retribution of the property, the oath taken thereon has also an efficacy very much for the accusers, which, on account of Mihr, Srosh, and Rashn, is an awful destroyer and adversary for one's own person, wife, child, and property; also the grievous bridge-judgment which is an appendage to one's own soul.

17. About the sin of bringing firewood, with which dead matter is mingled, to a fire; and this too, that is, how and when one is innocent therein. 18. About a ditch (joi), which is not always a stream (navo), when the water has to pass through it, and also that which is always a stream, when one wants to increase the water therein, how often and how one has to inspect them for fear of dead matter having been there.

19. About death which is by reason of water or fire, and does not occur through the supremacy of water or fire, but is owing to the demons. 20. About the great advantage owing to rain, and connected with raining on dead matter and the bodily refuse of depositories for the dead. 21. About the greatness and goodness of 'the law opposed to the demons' for cleansing, as compared with other utterances.

22. About pollution owing to bodily contact (ham-kerpakih) with a corpse, and to bodily contact with him who is in bodily contact with a corpse. 23. About the wicked villain who is an unrighteous apostate alive, and abstaining from association (avakih) with him. 24. About how long is the time of pollution of a house in which a dog or human being passes away, the carrying away theretofore of anything going thereto, and the avoidance of it; the place into which any one goes out, the feeding, and other things in that house within three steps, and whatever is on the same subject. 25. About a woman whose child dies in the womb, and which becomes dead matter; and whatever is on the same subject.

26. About useless and polluted clothing, that which is cleansed for six months. 27. About the grievous sinfulness of irregularly letting forth clothing, as much as a single double hem, upon a corpse.

28. About how long is the time of the uncultivated state of the land -- free from admitting water and being sown -- on which a human being or a dog passes away; the inspection of the whole land on account of the risk of dead matter having been there, and afterwards admitting water upon it; the sin when, through not exploring, dead matter is in that place, and the water comes on to it, and whatever is on the same subject.

29. About how to bring a corpse out of the water, the extent of the pollution of the water around the corpse, the purity after bringing away the corpse from it, and whatever is on the same subject. 30. About where the bodies and bones of the departed are deposited, and whatever is on the same subject.

31. About how soon is the rushing of the fiend of corruption (druj i nasush) upon a human being or dog that has passed away at the appointed time, and upon one who has done so before the appointed time through the defectiveness (ahugagih) of the worldly existence; where the clothing of this one is which is useless, and which and how is the washing of that which is for washing. 32. About the heinous pollution and grievous sinfulness of devouring dead matter, or of bringing it to fire or water through sinfulness. 33. About the winter, the demon-produced terror, the spider and locust, sickness of many kinds, and much other evil, which become threatening in the world owing to the formation of dead matter. 34. About how to cleanse wood, corn, and fodder from the dead matter which comes upon it.

35. About medical treatment with spells, the knife, and herbs; how to test a medical man, the fee for curing, and whatever is on the same subject. 36. About the place on which a corpse is fettered (garovi-aito), and also that in which it is buried through sinfulness; and in how much time it becomes pure, in each case separately. 37. About the much lodgment of the demons there where a corpse is buried (nikan), and the merit of laying open (ashkarinidano) the place of burial (nikanih) of a corpse.

38. About the duration of not drinking by a woman who has miscarried (visistako); also her not feeding on the liquid of that which is watery food. 39. About the washing of a metallic, stony, or any other cup-like article, upon which dead matter has come, and which is not pronounced useless. 40. About the animal (gospend) that has eaten dead matter, and the plant with which dead matter is mingled. 41. About the sin of holy water being brought to water which is tainted with dead matter.

42. About the house (khano) in which a dog or a human being passes away. 43. About how large and how one has to make the vault (kadako) for the sake of a corpse in a dwelling (man), carrying the corpse to it, when the time comes to expose and avoid it, and whatever is on the same subject.

44. About the baseness (garash) and grievous sinfulness of the decree (vijirih) of death, unnatural intercourse [sodomy]. 45. About a dry corpse which has been dead throughout a year. 46. About the merit of having brought unto purity a corpse-burning fire, a fire burning bodily refuse, or of an encampment (saray-icho); also those which artificers, each separately, keep in use one has to secure, when the work is done, for the appointed fireplace (dad-gas, i.e. Dadgah).

47. About washing the polluted who have been in bodily contact with a corpse, or moving it; divers preferences as to the purifier, the rite of washing, and the reward of purifiers, worldly and also spiritual. 48. About the shining of the sun, moon, and stars alike discontentedly upon the polluted. 49. About the gratification of all the creatures of Ohrmazd by the purifier, when he produces purification for the polluted and suchlike beings (anguni-aitoan); also his reward. 50. About the strength and aid which are given to the fiend of corruption (druj i nasush) by him who does not understand purifying, and yet would accomplish it; also the sin thereof at the bridge of judgment [Chinwad]. 51. About the triumph of the Yatha-ahu-vairyo in smiting the fiend and in healing.

52. About the species of dogs; the worthiness of the shepherd's dog, the village dog, and others also; how to maintain and nourish (srayinidano) them with nourishment, and the sin owing to killing or even improperly maintaining them, each separately; and whatever is on the same subject. 53. And this, too, when a dog becomes useless (abon) or hurtful, what is to be done with it, and how it is to be kept. 54. About authorisedly killing the dog-wolf. 55. About the thirty-one dispositions among dogs, which are just as among the three special professions and divers others of five descriptions. 56. About the grievous sinfulness of killing a water beaver [or otter], and statements (gokan) of the penalty.

57. About the sin which gave an Iranian to foreigners (an-Airano). 58. About the sin for those three males who have debauched a woman who is pregnant, or the wife with a child at the breast, or a daughter of others; and the sin owing to similar sin. 59. About the guardianship and nourishment which it is important to provide for a child that is seen to be improperly protected, or for a dog when it is born without a guardian; and whatever is on the same subject.

60. About menstruation, the heinousness of its pollution, and how much one has to abstain from it. 61. The cleansing from the menses, the time of the cleansing, and the nature of the cleansing of any person or thing polluted by the menses, or that which becomes inefficient thereby; and whatever is on the same subject. 62. And about the grievous sinfulness of having sexual intercourse with a menstruous woman.

63. About the deadly bridge penalty of those who have not sustained the judges. 64. About the care of the hair and nails, and the sin owing to want of care.

65. About the apostasy of him who is bringing a mouth-veil, a vermin-killer, various sacred twigs, or a goad or scourge which is exceptional, and maintains that it is that which is necessary. 66. About the disapproved one, and the bridge-judgment upon him, who sleeps on through the whole night, so as not to accomplish his proper duty. 67. And the approval and reward of him who does not sleep over religious observances, so as to accomplish his proper duty. 68. About the progress of secretly-advancing ruin (sejo) through that exhibitor of evil religion who wears no sacred thread-girdle [kusti], and his not wearing it as it were by law.

69. About the proper duty and great value of the Parodarsh bird, and the great good work that gives it a morsel of meat which is the size of its body, the liberalization of the primitive temperament through righteousness for the righteous man. 70. About the hurry of the fire for kindling for the untroubled watching of the night, and the merit owing to law- fully kindling it; also the blessing of the fire on mankind, when pleased and untroubled.

71. About the four special sins by which the fiend receives vigorous pregnancy, and the atonement for each separately. 72. About the grievous sinfulness, trouble, lamentation (navikih), and harm that proceed from a courtesan; also the advantageousness of her destruction. 73. About the retribution for the sin of having sexual intercourse with a menstruous woman.

74. About the combat (kushishno) of the evil: spirit with Zartosht, the victory of Zartosht therein, and whatever is on the same subject. 75. About Zartosht having inquired of Ohrmazd how, and by what means, one has to confound the evil spirit and other demons, and his reply. 76. About the gratification of Vohuman, the archangel, owing to the washing and bringing back to use of polluted clothing; also praise unto Ohrmazd for his narrating the care of the clothing.

77. About the reward which they give up to a human soul for the sake of kindness, and whereto and how is the attainment to exaltation of him who is given it. 78. About the going of Vohuman to meet the souls of the righteous, the notification of their position, their announcement for reward, and the contented progress of the souls of the righteous to their [home], to the throne of Ohrmazd and the archangels, which is made of gold. 79. About the terror of the demons owing to the scent of the righteous, and the fear that arose among them owing to the birth of Zartosht.

80. About the great powerfulness of plants of a poisonous character for the forcible keeping away of much adversity; the production of entire species (pur saradako) of plants by Ohrmazd for the curing of the creatures from disease (ayoyakih); the success of the Gaokerena plant -- which is the white haoma -- in curing, as compared with other plants; and the diligence of Airyaman in the medical treatment of the world.

81. Information about the ritual (nirang) through which the violence of the fiend was minimized at the original creation; and the great powerfulness of the Airyaman supplication, the Ahunwar, and other Gathic Avesta, for restraining the demons from destroying the world of righteousness.

82. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence. It is the excellence of righteousness that is perfect.

Nask 20: Hadokht (gathic/religious) (45)

Recital of Ahunwar, high-priests, 21 chieftainships, duties at periods of the day, season-festivals, superiors, membership of the community, prayers at eating, recitations, invocation, devotion; (§10) good attributes and qualities, diligence, righteousness, the chief resource of the creatures, sayings full of humility.

1. Of the three divisions of the Hadokht, as it exists in its 133 sections, the first is of thirteen sections, and contains particulars about the nature of the recital of the Ahunwar, which is the spiritual benefit from chanting it aloud, and whatever is on the same subject. 2. Advice about selecting and keeping a spiritual and worldly high-priest, performing every duty as to the high-priest, and maintaining even those of various high-priests.

3. About the twenty-one chieftainships, spiritually through Ohrmazd and materially through Zartosht, through which the ceremonial of the sacred beings and the government of the members of the community (dahmano rayinidarih) exist. 4. About the duties in the five periods [gahs] of the day and night, each separately, and the bridge-judgment of him who shouts out in the ceremony of a season-festival [gahambar]; likewise of him who does not provide the preparations for the feast of a season-festival, and who also becomes worried (sudako) in other ceremonials of the sacred beings.

5. About how to consider and what to do with a sacerdotal leader and a man of the superior classes (pishakikano), him who atones for unimportant sin, and him who does not atone even for that which is important; and whatever is on the same subject. 6. About the means through which membership of the community (dahmih) is prepared. 7. About the manifestation of virtuous manhood, and the merit and advantage from well uttering the words of blessing at eating and drinking food and drink, and from despising the inward talk of the demons. 8. About the recitations at the five periods of the day, the ceremonial invocation by name of many angels in each separately, and great information on the same subject.

9. The worthiness of a man restrained (vandak) by authority, the devotion of life and body to the sacred beings, the good rulers, and their examination and satisfaction; also the blessing and winning words which are most successful in carrying off the affliction that is owing to the fiend. 10. About all-pleasing creativeness and omniscience, every precedence, leadership, foresight, worthy liberality, perspicacity (venakih) and all proper cause and effect of righteousness; the individuality (khudih) of righteousness, the opposition to the demons of Ohrmazd's law, and also much other information in the same section.

11. The middle division is of 102 sections containing particulars about spiritual and worldly diligence, the leadership of the diligent and their mighty means, all the former deeds of righteousness. 12. Righteousness kindling the resolution is the reward of merit, each for each, and is provided by it for that which one mentions thus: -- 'It is the Hadokht which is the maintenance of righteousness, so that it may make righteousness more abiding in the body of a man.'

13. The last division is of nineteen sections containing a trusty remedy, that is, a remedy whose utterance aloud by the faithful is a chief resource (afzartum) for the creatures of the sacred beings. 14. Also the nature of sayings full of humility (purpastih), well-favored, most select, and adapted for that which one mentions thus: -- 'I reverence that chief, the beneficent and eminent Hadokht, out of which is the sustainment of the strength of every word of Zartosht they trust in.'

15. It is perfect excellence that is righteousness.

Nask 21: Stud-yasn (gathic/religious)(46)

1. The Gathas of the Yasht, as the first offspring of the Ahunwar, are a recitation of the source of sources of the religion, and in the compass (parvastarih) of the Gathas, every word (marik) in it is the origin of a word. 2. The word ahu of the beginning is of a like kind with ahya, beginning of the Gathas; the end word, which is vastarem, is of a like kind with vahyo, the end of the Gathas; and the whole -- which, though its nature is of one kind, is distributed (vakhto) in what is selected therefrom -- is stored up (avargudo) in this compendium of all parts of the Mazda-worshipping religion.

3. Likewise the purport (avori-hastan) 7 of its verse (gah), and the particulars of the primitive Visperad are to procure homage and praise, oblation and invocation; and the blessing, which is regulated by the sagacity of the creator, is adapted for the spiritual illustration of the lodgment of the ceremonial of the sacred beings therein. 4. All three are provisions for the first and last presentations which one utters by means of the Stud-yasn.

5. It is perfect is the excellence of righteousness; it is perfect excellence that is righteousness; with the copy revised (rayinido).

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