Contents of the Nasks (Ancient Canon of Zoroastrianism)

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Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, Oxford University Press, 1897.

This digital edition 1996 by Joseph H. Peterson. Comments in {} added by JHP, mainly to facilitate searches. Punctuation and spelling have also been normalized to conform with other texts in this series.



Introduction: Classification, names, and divisions of the Nasks (1)


Sudgar Nask (gathic/religious) (2)


Warsht-mansr Nask (gathic/religious) (3)


Bag Nask (gathic/religious) (4)


Damdad Nask (Hadha-manthric/scientific) (5)


Nadar Nask (Hadha-manthric/scientific): only the Avesta extant (6)


Pazag Nask (Hadha-manthric/scientific)

  • meat-offering, preparations, and priests for season-festivals (Gahambars); (§10) periods of day and year, frawardigan days; gathering herbs, chastisement of sinners, 33 chieftainships, apostasy; (§20) almsgiving, summer and winter, calamity of a century, months (7)

Ratushtaiti Nask (Hadha-manthric/scientific) (8)


Barish Nask (Hadha-manthric/scientific)

  • good and evil; advantages and disadvantages of the period (9)

Kishkisrub Nask (Hadha-manthric/scientific) (10)


Wishtasp-sast Nask (Hadha-manthric/scientific)

  • particulars about Kay Vishtasp, visit of the archangels to him, and his war with Arjasp (11)

Washtag Nask (gathic/religious): not extant (12)


Chihrdad Nask (legal)

  • races and monarchs from Gayomard to Zartosht; (§17) the Sasanians and some leaders of religion (13)

Spend Nask (gathic/religious)

  • birth and life of Zartosht, his vision of the past, future, and other world; (§12) his posthumous sons, the future apostles (14)

Bagan-yasn Nask (legal)

  • worship of the sacred beings and duties of the worshippers (15)

Nigadum Nask (legal)

  • Patkar-radistan section: misery from sin and assault, kinds of assault and magisterial inquiry, (§13) punishment without inquiry, counter-assault (16)
  • Zatamistan section of the same: assault and its consequences, begging and beneficence, perversion, using weapons; conflict through assault, tumult, false-teaching, starving, spells, and threats, by men, women, and children; ill-treatment of slaves, compensation the only atonement, responsibility of fathers for crimes of children (17)
  • Reshistan section of the same: kinds of wounds, scourging, 76 members of the body, effects of assaults, modes of assaulting, description of a wound and the weapon, curing wounds (18)
  • Hamemalistan section of the same: various accusations; true and false, and retribution for the offenses; pollution, a young woman well taught, slander, care of a pregnant woman, a householder neglecting his family, opinions of quiet and unquiet people; (§10) cowardice, impertinence, sin of priests, retribution, authority of priests, punishment of judges, illegal action of plaintiff, seizing purity of foreigners, those worthy of death, confession; (§21) assault with a weapon, curing a wounded person who afterwards dies, security taken from defendant, procrastination by plaintiff, mediation, assaults furious and harmless, punishment of a child for sin, interpretation, signs of approval by the dying; (§31) undefined assault, killing a foreigner, great hinderers, indiscriminate assault, a frontier governor, striking the living and dead, timber and firewood, atonement: and ordeals, physicians, mutilating a horse; (§41) a wound as evidence of crime, modes of using a weapon, assault and retribution, incarceration, pulling a steed's tail, threats and spells, various plaints and plaintiffs, pleadings inconsistent with accusations; (§50) master unfriendly to disciple, arresting and prosecuting a thief, the good to be treated like oneself, when carrying off property becomes theft, native and foreign thieves, why the foreigner is unfettered, assailants to be restrained, renunciation of sin, avoiding one worthy of death; (§60) informing about a righteous man, giving weapons to generals and governors, execution and reprieve of one worthy of death, witchcraft (19)
  • Fifth section of the same: an armed man riding to attack another, overhearing talk of murder or robbery, how to act when a companion murders, saving one worthy of death for medical purposes, legal argument unnecessary only when the judge is a supreme priest, unauthorized combatants, travelers' supplies, penalties; (§10) power and good works of the worthy, weakness and sin of the unworthy, how to conduct legal proceedings, a wife can do so for her husband, particulars about ordeals, measures of distance; (§20) litigation as to a costly article, annulling decisions by appeal or ordeal, litigation of three claimants, selling another's property, disputing, litigation of Iranians with foreigners or slaves, a noisy plaintiff, a high-priest, a wife unfit for evidence; (§30) a pledge, property of partners, or held without evidence of ownership, ordeal of excessive eating, dispute as to a stolen female, property of any one given by another to a third party without dispute, a master teaching his disciple not to litigate, dispute about alms, a successful triple ordeal, spells and threats; (§40) ordeals, a thief liberated to attend a ceremonial, a priest's personal property and its inheritance, residual wealth of fathers, penalty for stealing cattle, three plaintiffs, three claimants, and three thieves; (§50) imprisoning a native for theft; duration, order, hardship, and stratagems of legal proceedings; ordeals, benedictions on decisions, evidence, ownership; (§60) certainty of statements, incrimination, treatment of apostates, origins of virtue and vice, harm of unatoned sin, tanapuhr sin, atonement and ordeal, witnessing a theft, decisions according to scripture or precedent; (§70) when men and beasts can be sold with a warranty, an exceptional decision, appointment and qualification of judges, legal proceedings producing injustice, litigating thieves convicted, offenses as to property, isolation; (§80) dispute about property resigned by a third party, disputing fathers' debts, when women and children can be condemned for spells, lowest and highest values, stealing one's own property, false and true investigation, litigation of man and wife, who gives away the daughter of a dead father; (§90) estranging a wife from her husband, bartering girl for girl, consequent injury to one's own wife, overpayment for wife recoverable, sin of keeping a marriageable daughter unmarried, a wife can be given only to a Mazda-worshipper, mortal sin of giving no food, chastising a wizard, longest and shortest days and parasangs; (§101) work and food of an injured beast, manslaughter by a sheep, period from certainty to doubt, useless witnesses and unjust judges, harm of gifts to the unworthy, gifts and righteous gifts; (§110) crime of not maintaining families under one's control, punishment and atonement for sin and assault, all prosperity given to Zartosht and his disciples, an isolated creature, keeping and breaking promises; sin and punishment of strife, insincerity, and slander; hostages and ransom; (§121) sin of a governor, ransom of thieves, stolen article tied to the thief's neck, no atonement for theft without confession, stolen property to be recovered by authorities, sin of giving a woman to one when engaged to another, cheating an ignorant man, interceding for him, fitness for sovereignty; (§130) indisputable ordinances, inquiry after confession, squandering alms, delay of legal proceedings, a woman without a guardian, written statements in law, sin of frightening away, restoring what was extorted, minor decisions obvious from greater ones, benefit of a family; (§140) sin of wealth from unnatural intercourse, a decree of three kinds, a stolen tree, a sin aggravated by deceit, defilement, stopping a combat, counter-assaults, no property for one worthy of death, abettors of sin; (§150) harm of an incompetent president, sin of deciding by origin of claimant, sin of delivering an Iranian to a foreigner; gifts of the righteous, controversy with apostates, necessity for maintaining the truth, sin of occasioning schism, injustice produced by the evil spirit, complaint of aristocrats condemned for taking bribes, the just judge; (§160) possibility of reaching heaven, true and false justice, learning the Gathas, Hadokht, and Washtag; greatness of the law, kinds of property not to be taken as security, ten friends differing, and much other adjudication (20)

Duwasrud Nask (legal)

  • First section: the thief, his arrest, sin, punishment, and ransom, pinioning and fettering, imprisonment at expense of privileged accusers; kinds of theft, theft with plunder, injury, and in confederacy; shares in theft, assisting a thief, theft by women and children, property to be preserved from thieves; (§10) testimony of thieves, rewards, difference of theft and plunder, property to be restored to its owners, protectors of thieves (21)
  • Second section of the same is miscellaneous: authority for inquiry into sin of a relative, teaching and sin of children, not killing in war, property of a slain soldier, weapons not for women, children, or foreigners; a woman's treatment of two men, supplies found by a warrior, property inexpedient, delays of a judge; (§10) improper decisions, duties of judges; (§21) fitness of women and children for judgeship, aiding a disciple, supremacy of Rashnu, property in trust, consistency of actions, congregational actions, misuse of the law (22)
  • Pasush-haurvastan section of the same: selection and efficiency of the shepherd's dog, preparations for him, his duties; (§12) characteristics of sheep, way to the village, when starved the dog may kill a sheep, stray sheep and dogs; treatment, punishment, instruction, and peculiarities of the dog (23)
  • Storistan section of the same: sin of injuring cattle, beasts, and sheep; branding, making a dog dumb, plucking birds, spoiling fish, beating cattle, leather and woolen clothing, sin of burning it, good works lead to heaven, and sin to hell (24)
  • Arjistan section of the same: value of property, animate and inanimate, and of preserving the righteous; damaging the sacred fire (25)
  • Aratestaristan section of the same: destroying wolves, two-legged and four-legged; supplies, equipment, and horses for warriors; training of horses, efficacy of warriors, sin of a warrior's village on account of a battle, armor, officers and troopers, number of troopers; (§10) supplies for two warriors, medicinal herbs and accouterments, feeding warriors on day of battle, wealth of the enemy, friendship and devotion of warriors, the general and his strategy, requisite horses to be seized, sentinels; (§20) demonstrations, altercation with enemy, speech to troops, conciliating and encouraging them, religious rites before the battle, reserves who keep the stores and prisoners, refreshment and return of stores after the battle (26)
  • A miscellaneous section of the same: a warm bath, exertion of a horse, precautions with regard to fire when cooking and traveling, picketing a horse, food of men, fire, and cattle; hospitality, clothes, a street-keeper; (§10) providing in summer for the winter, reaping, union for good purposes, produce of plants and animals, property of nobles and the multitude, envy among animals and people (27)

Husparum Nask (legal)

  • Aerpatistan section: providing for a priestly assembly, the priest and his disciple, district priest to be appointed, five dispositions of priests, inquiry into concealed parentage of a priest, his accountability for sin, worry in forming a priestly assembly, relative superiority of priests (28)
  • Nirangistan section of the same: ritual and priests for the ceremonial, the sacred cake, abstaining from wine, recitation of Avesta, the ceremonial when the priest is a Tanapuhr sinner, priesthood of a woman or child, he who is cursed, season-festivals and periods of the day; (§11) sacrifice of a sheep, stations of the priests, the perfect ceremonial, sacred shirt and girdle, sacred twigs, firewood, ceremonials of various grades, celebrations of the ceremonies; (§21) cleanliness of the celebrator, place, and apparatus; ceremony of the waters, and other particulars; families of Zartosht, Hvov, and Vishtasp (29)
  • Goharikistan section of the same: superiority; selling property of another, cattle, slaves, and without warranty; (§9) houses and clothing used during contagious sickness, fatal or otherwise, family alliance with foreigners, sheep of good breed (30)
  • A miscellaneous section of the same: stealing, religious instruction, oppression and deceit, reducing liberality, limit of a wife's liberality, a bride going to her husband's house, quarrels in wedlock, menstruation, foreigners seeking wives; (§9) birth and care of a son, injurious things that must be kept, those who must not punish, rejoicing and gifts at a birth, naming the child, breeding sheep and dogs; (§20) fees for priestly duties, guardianship of a child, sickness from evil eye or touching a menstruous woman, fearfulness, supplies, produce of property, duties of judges; (§30) creation and production of corn, excitement due to blood, ownership, land-grabbing, supplies sold in distress, supremacy of sin, atonement for various sins; (§42) the oppressor, greed, the weak man should be good (31)
  • Another section of the same: about an ordeal (32)
  • Another section of the same: mad animals and their care (33)
  • A miscellaneous section of the same: amassing property, arranging marriages for one's children, portioning daughters, righteous gifts, an Iranian vainly asking reward for assisting foreigners in battle, offering up of water; (§10) best and worst actions, heinous sins, various sins, assisting foreigners, destroying plants, digging a grave, clothing a corpse; defiling fire, water, or people; about water, damage by water or fire; preventing misery and adversity (34)
  • Another section of the same: seeking and begetting a son, conception, tokens of sex, development of fetus; period of gestation and birth, period of determination of sex, childbirth and care of child; (§10) periods of gestation in various animals, spiritual perceptions of the child, habits tending to beauty, evils of unnatural intercourse and adultery; increased and diminished vigor of the female and male, respectively (35)
  • Another section of the same: ownership and litigation about property; earnings, family guardianship and income; about wives, adoption, partnership of brothers, inheritance, and giving in marriage (36)
  • Another section of the same: daily food of men, women, children, and dogs; religious conversion, association of various kinds, sins of falsehood and extortion, atonement for deprival of food, necessary debt; (§14) physicians, medical treatment and fees; (§30) suitability for trust, unauthorized dwellings, boundaries, testimony of the orthodox and heterodox, priestly dwellings, abode of fires, water oozing and flowing, works on a frontier; (§40) sheep trespassing, animals' food, distance of house from river, grazing sheep, felling trees, slaughtering, defensive clothing, migration during war, waters reverenced by a traveler, obedience of disciple to priest; (§50) frontier war, various advantages (37)

Sagadum Nask (legal)

  • One of the first 30 sections: future reward and punishment, necessity of seeking the good law and scrutinizing actions, noticing a fire, intentional injury, extent of the fire's light, size of its sanctuary door, care and food of a new-born child, keeping a cooking-pot pure; (§11) proper bed-places, curing defective sight, workmen and women, giving no food thrice and four times, care of anything pointed and of all utensils, injury by a door, washing the head and shaving; (§21) custodians and rules of a market, giving forth pointed things and victuals lawfully and unlawfully, horse-courses and maneuvers, admitting listeners, making and tying the sacred girdle [kusti], scratching with the nails, care of fire when traveling; (§29) panic at night among warriors, marching in fear or fearlessly, demanding a share, care of firewood, warming bull's urine, selecting pasture, farm-houses, interference with the seizure of cattle, hanging things up, stabling horses; (§40) cutting trees, washing clothes, walking in, passing through water, canals and fords; (§52) two warriors marching, sin of eating on the road, remedies for cattle, their breeding, removing an ox that steals hay, danger from ill-omened speaking, a father's sin owing to his child's misbehavior; (§60) gathering medicinal herbs, feasting with idolaters, atonement for starving, ordeals, religious secrets, evil-speaking to others' wives, extent of communities, habits of Frashostar and Jamasp (38)
  • Hachidakanistan section of the same: sequestration of property, sheep, horses, cattle, and their young, milk, and wool; their shelter and ill-treatment; (§11) handing over sheep to the sequestrator and his responsibility, a free sheep among those seized, the killing of a seized sheep, particulars of a seized animal to be stated when it is kept with others, care of a man wounded in slaughtering, gain of a sequestrator of animals in various circumstances; (§17) treasure found in various places and at various depths of earth and water; (§24) nourishing a seized sheep, disputes as to its identity, keeping it in the mountains, and other details (39)
  • Ziyanakistan section of the same: duty of protecting animate and inanimate existences, and sin of injuring them; a damaged gift or animal, inanimate property and its increase, merit of not rejecting a damaged article (40)
  • Vakhshistan, one of the last 22 sections of the same: atonement, compensation, active and existent increase, increase upon increases, righteous gifts, interest simple and compound, how loans are treated on the death of lender or debtor; (§10) retribution, penalty for inefficient breeding of animals, animals' milk and hair, males preferable to females, an injured camel, improved dog or pig, buying up supplies too much; (§20) giving away necessary clothing, penalty for deprival of food, litigation about debts, unauthorized supplies, multiplication of sheep and other details, loans and repayment by installments, seizure of slaves to work off a debt; (§30) seizure of a cloak or a water-skin, increase of grains and sheep, seizure of clothes and implements, produce of land and ornaments (41)
  • Varistan section of the same: trial and execution of a wizard, trial by ordeal, and particulars about ordeals (42)
  • A miscellaneous section of the same: assistants, wealth causing imprisonment, confession, disciple and master, penalties, sins owing to the wrathful, an unjust judge and one of long experience; (§10) a daughter controlled by parents and one without a guardian, bequeathing property, sin of declining adoption, property of a liberal man and of a damsel, a damsel taken by an idolater and offered to a Mazda-worshipper, a mother being guardian of her son's father, providing a high-priest; (§20) sin of not providing a husband for an adult daughter, inadvertent sin, worst demon-service and sins, furtherances and destroyers of the world, truth that is wicked, driving spiritual benefit from the world, three kinds of righteous men, sin of defiling water and fire; merit of removing dead matter of men, dogs, and reptiles from water; reptiles may be killed in water, but must be removed to gratify the earth-spirit and vex the demons; (§30) a well-managed drinking-party, the sin of him who leaves it uproariously, animals produced from the sole-created ox, offerings to the sacred beings; injury to the world by fiends, idolaters, and wolves; the necessity of destroying them, advice not to reverence the evil spirits, nor to chatter unseasonably, the advantage of the ceremonial of the sacred beings (43)

Vendidad Nask [Jud-dew-dad] (legal)

  • corresponding with the contents of fargards 1-11, 13-22. (44)

Hadokht Nask (gathic/religious)

  • recital of Ahunwar, high-priests, 21 chieftainships, duties at periods of the day, season-festivals, superiors, membership of the community, prayers at eating, recitations, invocation, devotion; (§10) good attributes and qualities, diligence, righteousness, the chief resource of the creatures, sayings full of humility (45)

Stud-yasn Nask (gathic/religious)(46)

Introduction: Classification, names, and divisions of the Nasks (1)

Praise for Ohrmazd, and obeisance to the Mazda-worshipping religion which is the ordinance of Ohrmazd opposed to the demons.
The eighth book is the present (latamman) memorandum about a summary of what is in the Nasks of the Mazda-worshipping religion, each separately. 3. That which is within the compass (shad-aurvan) of this book, about the account of the good religion, is a writing for the information of the many, and an announcement from the commentary (Zand) -- that which is in explanation of revelation (deno) -- which, for this simple (padram) high-priest, is in itself the writing of the voice of revelation.
[Tr S. Shaked, Esot. Trends p. 192: "The Eighth [book]; a summary of that which occurs in the nasks of the Mazdean religion. A memory of each one separately is [found] here. That which is found within the binding of this book concerning the categories of the Good Religion, was written for the knowledge of the many and was communicated from the Zand, which is the religion. It was written as an authority for teaching knowledge to this mass of people, by the word of religion itself."]
But, before that, is a writing of the usage about the divisions (banjishno) of the reckoning of the Mazda-worshipping revelation, also the parts (bahar) of its divisions, and the sections (burinako) of the parts; and the exposition of the account -- which, though very condensed, is in its division -- is also condensed in the parts of its division, and more diffuse in the sections of the parts. 5. The divisions of the reckoning of the Mazda-worshipping revelation are three: Gathas which are the higher spiritual knowledge and spiritual duty; Law which is lower worldly knowledge and worldly duty; and the Hadha-manthric which are mostly information and matters about what is between these two.
And the reason of the triple division of the reckoning of revelation is the exposition of all knowledge and duty, and the kinds of knowledge and action in the same revelation are these three that have been written. 7. Also in the Ahunwar, which is the basis of the reckoning of revelation, are three metrical lines (gas); the first chiefly indicates the Gathic lore, the second the Hadha-manthric lore, and the third the Law.
And there have been twenty-one parts of its divisions, which are called Nasks: --- (9) Seven are Gathic, because they are composed for the Gathas, and their names are that of the ritual of the Gathic worship, which is the Stud-yasn, with the Sudgar, Warsht-mansr, Bag, Washtag, Hadokht, and that which has made them Gathic, the Spand. 10. And the names of the seven Hadha-manthric are Damdad, Nadar, Pazag, Ratushaiti, Barish, Kishkisrub, and Wishtasp-sast. 11. And seven are Legal, because they are composed for the lawyer (dadik), and their names are those of the legal, and those are the Nigadum, Ganaba-sar-nijad [Duwasrud], Husparum, Sagadum, and Vendidad [Jed-dew-dad], and those which are composed for the law with separate dedications, the Chihrdad and Bagan-yasn. 12. And the sequence is Sudgar, Warsht-mansr, Bag, Damdad, Nadar, Pazag, Ratushtaiti, Barish, Kishkisrub, Wishtasp-sast, Washtag, Chihrdad, Spand, Bagan-yasn, Nigadum, Ganaba-sar-nijad [Duwasrud], Husparum, Sagadum, Vendidad [Jud-dew-dad], Hadokht, and Stud-yasn.
In all three divisions all three are found; in the Gathic are the Hadha-manthric and Legal, in the Hadha-manthric are the Gathic and Legal, and in the Legal are the Gathic and Hadha-manthric.
In each separately that which is essentially and specially itself is included, and that which is partly another and introduced is included; and the reason of it is that in spiritual and worldly existences, and in worldly and spiritual existences, and in that which is between the two, there are both existences.
The occurrence of the joining of the Washtag part of the Gathas on to the last of the Hadha-manthric is because it is written in connection with the Wishtasp-sast, the last of the Hadha-mathric. 16. The reason of the Hadokht and Yasht being in succession to the Vendidad, the last of the Law, and 'the production of the worldly creation' being between the Hadha-manthric and those spiritual Gathas, is because the spiritual existence likewise, which is spiritual life (ahvo), is the beginning; and the worldly existence is purposed and caused, and a part is preserved (noshiaito), important for the purpose and intended for the spiritual life, the part at the beginning. 17. And the rejoining of the end of the Law, which is about the haoma, to the Gathas, which are the beginning, is a symbol of the existence of the pure influence of the Gathic lore upon the first spiritual state -- that which exists likewise at last -- and of the rejunction of the worldly existence to the spiritual, because it came down from the spiritual to exist at present.
And the reason of the twenty-one-fold partition of the three divisions of the reckoning of revelation is in the distinction which is evident from their composition; also in the three metrical lines of the Ahunwar, which is the basis of the reckoning of revelation, there are twenty-one words (marik). 19. As the three metrical lines of the Ahunwar, which is the basis of the reckoning of revelation, are an emblem of the triple division of the reckoning of revelation; so the twenty-one words of the three lines indicate the twenty-one-fold partition of these three divisions; as it is declared that 'He who is the omniscient creator produced a discourse from every single word.'
As to the sections of the parts, such as the Has and Fargards in the Nasks, it is known there were one thousand, from the testimony and knowledge of the religion owing to the teaching of Zartosht -- whose guardian spirit is reverenced -- in the country of Iran. 21. And after the devastation occurred, owing to the evil-destined and raging villain Alexander, there was not so much of them recovered as would be possible for a high-priest to preserve. 22. And that which the saintly (hu-fravardo) Adarbad Mahraspandan, achieved through their composition and preservation, is known so far as the decrees (chako) in the treatises (madigan) of the country of Iran are preserved as teaching and admonition (pandano).
After writing of each separate Nask, that is, as to what it speaks about more particularly, each Nask is accounted for separately, and what is in its various Has and Fargards comes to be realized; for in these particulars (madigan) any ruggedness of the auspicious and desirable collection is explained. 24. But, first, the class of writing of the various Nasks -- that is, about what they speak -- is here written; the extent of attainment not being adapted to their peculiarity of wonderfulness.

Nask 1: Sudgar (gathic/religious) (2)

Homage to the glory of the good religion of Mazda-worship!
The Sudgar contains particulars about the power of the pure glorifying of the first utterance of Ohrmazd, through thinking, speaking, and acting and about abstaining from the law of very evil and very disturbing people. 3. Glorifying the observances (hunarano) and good works of the good religion and of a like nature, as well as their effectualness; and condemning the faults and sin of him of very evil religion, when all kinds of neglect of the spiritual ceremony and of care for the archangel of the worldly existence are owing to him; also much information about spiritual matters. 4. It has become old (kahunik), and is a witness whose statement extends even unto the renovation of the universe.
Righteousness is perfect excellence.

Nask 2: Warsht-mansr (gathic/religious) (3)

The Warsht-mansr contains particulars about the birth of Zartosht, his attaining the religion, and whatever is on the same subject. 2. A notice (numad) of the priestliness, discipleship, spiritual lordship, priestly authority, and steadfastness which are in his original more concise words of the Gathas. 3. The explanation (Zand) of the statements about everything and also the good arrangement (khush-radako) are such as that which one speaks of thus: -- 'It is the Warsht-mansr which has given forth an exposition upon everything.' 4. So that, in the Warsht-mansr, something is said about everything that is mentioned in the Gathas.
Of righteousness the excellence is perfect.

Nask 3: Bag (gathic/religious) (4)

The Bag contains particulars about the division of the recital of the first saying of revelation, the first creature in that saying, the first occurrence of it, the adaptation of the creature, and the greatness of that saying which is incorporating the creature, owing thereto; also, especially, the intermingling of thought (med) with it. 2. Very comprehensive knowledge about everything, each separately its own offspring, and many an appendage as much connected with it as that which is said concerning the Bag Nask, that 'the Bag of the community (dahman) is heard where it is spoken for the community,' that is, whoever shall do this good work, for him this good work will be done.
Righteousness is perfect excellence.

Nask 4: Damdad (Hadha-manthric/scientific) (5)

Amid the Damdad are particulars about the maintenance of action and the production of the beneficial creatures. 2. First, as to the spiritual existence, and how much and how is the maintenance in the spiritual existence; and the production of the worldly existence therefrom, qualified and constructed for descending (fitodano) into the combat with the destroyer, and accomplishing the associated necessity for the end and circumvention (garang) of destructiveness.
The manner and species of the creation of the creatures; also their material existence, and the character and use of the races and species; and whatever is on the same subject. 4. The reason for their creation, and for their perfection at last. 5. About the adversity, injury, and misery of those creatures, and their secret (nihono) resources and means of attacking and annihilating them; with the preservation or disablement (apicarinidano) of the creatures thereby.
Of righteousness the excellence is perfect excellence.

Nask 5: Nadar (Hadha-manthric/scientific): only the Avesta extant (6)

On account of the Zand of the Nadar not reaching us, the Avesta is retained, for teaching, recital, and ceremony, because it has come unto us with authority.
Of righteousness the excellence is perfect excellence.

Nask 6: Pazag (Hadha-manthric/scientific) (7)

Meat-offering, preparations, and priests for season-festivals (Gahambars); (§10) periods of day and year, Frawardigan days; gathering herbs, chastisement of sinners, 33 chieftainships, apostasy; (§20) almsgiving, summer and winter, calamity of a century, months.

1. The Pazag contains particulars about lawfully slaughtering a sheep, for the ceremonial of fires, waters, and holy-water, in aid of a season festival [gahambar]1 of the Mazda-worshippers; besides this, namely, in what are the skill, and the means for selection, of a man for such work, and the formula (nirang) of the ceremony. 2. And this namely, from which limb of the sheep species is the share of the fires and waters to be taken, and how is the preparation which is to be carried on, and with what Avesta. 3. And whatever is about a season festival [gahambar]; where the appointed place is, when one celebrates it, and when it has fully elapsed; the assembly of the season festival, and the donation for the feast; where and when the celebration is possible, in what proportion the provisions are to be given out, and when to be prepared and divided; where its advantage is, and what benefit there is from it to the good creations both spiritually and materially.

1. The six gahambars or season-festivals are held on the five days ending, respectively, with the 45th, 105th, 180th, 210th, 290th, and 365th days of the religious year.

4. And this, namely, what skill is more suitable for the sacerdotal (rad-pishag) leadership and other priestly authority (radih) each separately. 5. About the business of the sacerdotal leadership, where it is owing to having appointed the place and having gone forth to the assembly of the Mazda-worshippers, and when they are to be made aware that that assembly is more particularly for the arrangement of renunciation of vice and retribution for sin; the needful supply of things for the feast; the selection of the men for the Zot duty and Raspi duty before the day; the Zotis, Raspis, and others who put in action the work for the preparation and giving of the portions; and the cleansing of the body-clothing. 6. As to the selection of the president (pesh-gas) of the feast there is this, namely, what ability is requisite for that presidency. 7. The allotment of the portions, and giving them sooner to those who are sooner in need of them. 8. Scoffing before priestly authorities, who are great and good, and when they do not give a portion to the authorities are cases when the season festivals [Gahambars] are not to be considered as celebrated. 9. This, too, that the Zotis and Raspis are for the Zot duty and Raspi duty, and the other priestly authorities for the control of sin and computation (avar) of the portions; and more on the same subject.

10. About the rotation of the day-watches (gahs), days, months, and seasons of the year -- which are when it is summer and winter -- and the appearances (sahishno) therein which are owing to the motion of the constellations. 11. Where the coming of the righteous guardian spirits (farohar) into the worldly existence occurs, in those ten days which are the end of the winter and termination of the year, because the five Gathic days, among them, are for that purpose; the cessation of that same, as well as its continuance. 12. The great needfulness of the guardian spirits of the righteous in the ceremonial and obeisance of those ten days, and their abundant gratification therefrom; their vexation from want of welcome and want of obeisance; and their ascent from the worldly existences. 13. The extreme importance (frevoanikih) of liberality and bounty at that season; and the proper duty of the priestly authority of a district (shatro) in assisting and interceding for the poor, for the sake of teaching, from the days devoted to the guardian spirits, proper actions among those having guardian spirits.

14. About the period for taking medicinal plants, and whatever is on the same subject. 15. About where there is a household, village, communal, or provincial petitioning for the royal chastisement of sins affecting the soul, each separately; and for whom is the atonement. 16. About the advantage owing to disposal of sin and infliction of chastisement, and the harm owing to not disposing of sin and neglecting the chastisement inflicted.

17. About the first thirty-three chieftainships (radih), around and concealed; that is, which and how many are spiritual, and how many worldly; and which is the second, and which the third, of the spiritual and worldly existences. 18. About the admirableness and great meritoriousness of public observances, and the awfulness and grievous sinfulness of apostasy. 19. And also this, that is, when any one is doubtful, through apostasy, which is the law from the sacred beings in elucidation, and which of the sacred beings is to be entreated for assistance. 20. About this, namely, for which of the women the bringing of a handful of anything, from the property of her husband, to be given away is allowable in what proportion, and how, and for whom; and for whom, when she gives it away, it is allowable for the husband to bring it back.

21. About this, namely, when summer comes on, where does winter run to; and when winter comes on, where does summer go to? 22. About the amount of disaster that has passed by in one century, and the duration of its passing; everything which is connected with the disaster, and whatever is on the same subject. 23. Where and how many months are of such a kind, and how many of such a kind; as well as the religious names of the twelve months, and the reason of the name of each one of them, that is, to which of the sacred beings, in the ceremonial, each one of these twelve months is predominantly appertaining; so also of the thirty days which are in every month, and so also of the five Gathas in every -- year that is, the five Gathic days at the end of the year -- all the sacred beings to whom they are appertaining, and when the righteous guardian spirits (asho farohars) are reverenced.

24. Righteousness is perfect excellence.

Nask 7: Ratushtaiti (Hadha-manthric/scientific) (8)

The Ratushtaiti ['concerning the habits of a priestly master'] contains particulars about the religious and important customs and laws to be enforced [obligatory]. 2. The reason of the worthiness and superexcellence in a sacerdotal leader [Master of Ceremonies], and his possession of a portion of the other authority (patih) of a ruler also; that is, how worthiness is to be distinguished from unworthiness, and superexcellence from unworthiness, in him, namely, in the priestly chieftainship (radih) of Xwaniratha and the other regions, each separately, the first which stood aloof from the Mazda-worshippers.
About the demonstration and notification of the sitting together of the archangels, the ritual and appliances in the ceremonial of the sacred beings, the position and business of the Zotis and Raspis in a ceremonial, and also all the business of the leaders in their duty, each separately and originally. 4. The greatness of the helpfulness (vijidar-dahishnih) in good works, the kinds of helpfulness, and the proximity of Ohrmazd to the thoughts, words, and deeds of the embodied existence.
The excellence of righteousness is perfect.

Nask 8: Barish (Hadha-manthric/scientific) (9)

Good and evil; advantages and disadvantages of the period.

The Barish contains particulars about the invigorating power, truth, and generosity of the many capabilities of instinctive and acquired wisdom. 2. And also the ill-advisedness of falsity, stinginess, and ignorance; and the many defects which are fraternizing with the opponent of capabilities. 3. The blessing and cursing, the good will and ill-will of the good ritual and evil ritual, the good statements and evil statements of Vohuman, Spandarmad, Srosh, Ashishwang [Ard], and many other sacred beings, and of evil thought, lust, wrath, unrighteousness, and many other demons; and whatever is on the same subject.
The destiny, nature, desire, religion, habit, learning, business, and diligence of the period, and whatever is on the same subject, as regards sovereignty, government, priestly authority, justice, and mediation. 5. The union, peace, and promise keeping, and whatever is on the same subject. 6. The law and custom, good works and sin, good repute and evil repute, righteousness and wickedness and whatever is on the same subject. 7. The modesty and pomp, glory and penance (sroshikih), and whatever is on the same subject. 8. The connection through ownership, subordination, service, and religion, and whatever is on the same subject. 9. The suitability and unsuitability, friendship and enmity, and whatever is on the same subject. 10. The handsomeness and ugliness, youth and decrepitude, opulence and destitution, happiness and misery, and whatever is on the same subject. 11. The strength in races and species of things, and whatever is on the same subject. 12. The learning, solving of questions, complete virtue, and whatever is on the same subject. 13. The hunger and thirst, and their remedy, and whatever is on the same subject. 14. The delirium and death, and their expediency. and whatever is on the same subject. 15. The primitive state and tendency of things, precedence and sequence, and whatever is on the same subject. 16. The acceptableness and unacceptableness, gratification and afflictiveness, and whatever is on the same subject. 17. The mightiness (takikih), loquacity, sociality, and whatever is on the same subject. 18. The understanding and mind; the body and soul, the heaven, hell, and future existence; and whatever is on the same subject. 19. The omniscience of the creator Ohrmazd, and all goodness of like motive, the life and glory of a righteous man, and whatever is on the same subject.
And many other arrangements of the creator, through propagation of statements, preparation of sovereignty, maintenance of the body, and preservation of the soul; a statement adapted to that which one mentions thus 'Truly spoken statements are the Barish, Kishkisrub, and Wishtasp-sast.'
The excellence of righteousness is perfect.

Nask 9: Kishkisrub (Hadha-manthric/scientific) (10)

The Kishkisrub contains particulars about the explanation of the ceremonial and ritual of the sacred beings, through what arises its conversion into demon-worship, and information as to cleanness and uncleanness. 2. The preparations and precautions for the Yashts; the tokens and signs of the overflowing and evil owing to the demons at various times, and the cause of their exhaustion and the final victory of the sacred beings. 3. Then the exalting chants of every kind, which Ohrmazd taught to Zartosht, are called the teaching (sasto) of the spirits.
Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.

Nask 10: Wishtasp-sast (Hadha-manthric/scientific) (11)

Particulars about Kay Vishtasp, visit of the archangels to him, and his war with Arjasp.

The Wishtasp-sast is about particulars of every kind relating to Kay Vishtasp; the temper, character, demeanor, knowledge, learning, and law for sovereignty; the government of the creatures, and the advancement of the will of the sacred beings requisite for it.
The creator Ohrmazd sends the archangels on to Kay Vishtasp as evidence about Ohrmazd, and a reminder of Spitaman Zartosht, of the pure goodness of the Mazda-worshipping religion, and of the command for the ruler Vishtasp, as to its triumph, on accepting the religion from Zartosht. 3. The visible coming of the archangels to the metropolis, and, secondly, their domestication (handemanih) at the residence of Vishtasp and his companions; the envoys' explanation of Ohrmazd's message to Vishtasp, and the accepting of the Mazda-worshipping religion by the obedient king Vishtasp.
The outpouring (sarinidano) of Arjasp the Khyon, by the demon of wrath, for war with Vishtasp and disturbance of Zartosht; the arrangements and movements of king Vishtasp for that war, and whatever is on the same subject.
Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.

Nask 11: Washtag (gathic/religious): not extant (12)

The Avesta and commentary of the Washtag have not reached us through any high-priest.
Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.

Nask 12: Chihrdad (legal) (13)

Races and monarchs from Gayomard to Zartosht; (§17) the Sasanians and some leaders of religion.

The Chihrdad contains particulars about the race of mankind; how the formation of the first man, Gayomard, by Ohrmazd was for the manifestation of the bodily form (kerpih); and in what manner the first couple, Mashye and Mashyane arose. 2. About their progeny and lineage during the entire progress of mankind in the central region of Xwaniratha, and the distribution from them into the six regions which are around Xwaniratha. 3. The various races, which are specially enumerated, were ordered to disperse by the attracting or banishing command of the creator, to each separate race, as to the place where it went to; and whose life and soul (nisman) are appointed from yonder world. 4. Also the original description of their descent into the various regions, of those, too, who are on the frontiers of Xwaniratha, and those who also made their habitation in the intermediate places; and the customs of each one of the species of mankind which was produced among the original races.
The original establishment of law and custom; that of village superintendence (dihankanih), for the cultivation and nourishment of the world, based upon the traditional early law (vasarid peshdado); and that of monarchy, for the protection and government of the creatures, upon Hooshang the Peshdadian. 6. A report of the lineage of Hooshang, who was the first, and Tahmurasp who was the second ruler of the seven regions; and an enumeration of reports of lineage from the original creation even unto Yim [Jamshed]. 7. A report of the lineage of Yim, the third ruler of the seven regions; information as to his period, and the progress (sachishno) of time from the original creation till the end of the reign of Yim.
A report of the ill-informed evil ruler of the seven regions, Zohak; his lineage back to Taz, the brother of Hooshang and father of the Taziks (Arabs); information as to him and his period, the progress of time from the end of the good reign of Yim [Jamshed] till the end of the evil reign of Zohak, and the lineage from Yim as far as Faridoon.
A report of Faridoon, the ruler of Xwaniratha; as to the smiting of Zohak, the conquering of the country of Mazendaran, and the allotment of Xwaniratha among his three sons, Salm, Tuj, and Airik; their union with the daughters of Pat-srobo, king of the Arabs and descendant of Tuz, and the lineage and report of them, each separately. 10. The reign of Manuschihar of Iran, descendant (napo) of Airik. 11. The expiating monarch Frasiyav the Turanian, and Auzobo the Tumaspian, monarch of Iran.
The descendant of Manuschihar, Kay Kobad, who was progenitor of the Kayanians and ruler of Iran; and the expiating ruler Kersasp. 13. Kay Us, grandson of Kobad, ruler and maintainer of royalty (kai-dano) in the seven regions. 14. Kay Khosraw who was son of Siyavakhsh and ruler of Xwaniratha. 15. And a special report of many particulars of the races of Iran, Tura, and Salman, even unto the ruler Kay Loharasp and the monarch Kay Vishtasp. 16. The prophet (vakhshvar) of the Mazda-worshipping religion, Zartosht the Spitaman, and the progress of time from the beginning of the reign of Faridoon till the coming of Zartosht to conference with Ohrmazd.
And many races and statements, onwards from that time, are enumerated in the same Nask as having existed, and are characterized by it for existence, such as the Sasanians whom it reckons as the well-created -- and their sovereignty. 18. In the race of Manuschihar, Nodar, Yavist i Friyan, and Namun, son of Spend-shed, is included the father of Avarethrabau, Adarbad Mahraspandan; and its existence, even then, remains for the future. 19. Also about the many qualities of capability and glory of the selfsame sovereignty, which are promoting the renovation of the universe destined for the races; and its fortune and splendor which are shed upon the race, and are not severed from it till the renovation.
About the original knowledge of the professions, care, and industry of the period; the great acquaintance of mankind with the putting aside of injury from the adversary, the preservation of the body, and the deliverance of the soul; the government necessary for the world, even before the coming of Zartosht by order of the creator; the bringing of the word from the sacred beings, and all occurrences to the leaders of religion at various times; and whatever is on the same subjects.
Perfect righteousness is excellence.

Nask 13: Spend (gathic/religious) (14)

Birth and life of Zartosht, his vision of the past, future, and other world; (§12) his posthumous sons, the future apostles.

The Spend contains particulars about the origin and combination of the material existence, guardian spirit [farohar], and soul (nisman) of Zartosht; how the creation of each one occurred in the spiritual existence, and in what mode it was produced for the worldly existence, how their connection with the parents arose, the coming of the parents together, the combination in the mother, and the birth from the mother; and whatever is on the same subject. 2. Also about the arrival of both spirits, the good one for developing, and the evil one for destroying; the victory of the good spirit, and the rearing of Zartosht.
His attainment on maturity, at thirty years of age, to a conference with Ohrmazd; and the occurrence of seven conferences in ten years. 4. Many marvels, owing to him, are published therein, just as there are some which, collected and selected, are noticed by the Denkard manuscript [Book 7].
In seven sections (burino), such as are called Spend, are the seven inquiries, in each instance a single inquiry; and the bestowal of the other Nasks, in these seven inquiries, was through speaking out in each one of the places of conference. 6. About the various inquiries, the period of the sitting and rising on each occasion, the nature of the sitting of the archangels, the coming forward of Zartosht to that domestic conclave (handemanih), his position in that place, what there was to say to him, and what there was to exhibit to him.
The conferring of the wisdom of omniscience upon Zartosht, and what was seen by Zartosht of the past and future, and the perpetual amount of duration therein, through that wisdom. 8. The existence of that wisdom, and what that is which, after having subsisted in it, is again well recognized; such as, owing to it, are the highest and best of places, heaven and the various grades of position and reward of the righteous, according to their worthiness through the practice of good works; the most downward and worst of places, hell and the place of punishment of the wicked, according to their sin; and, between the two, the place of the ever-stationary, [hamistagan] those having equal good works and sin; the Chinwad bridge, at which is the account as to good works and sin; and the future existence, in which is the consummation of every one, righteous and wicked, and the preservation of all good creations from every evil occurs.
Information also as to many other things which are marvelous, and as to a summary of the statements of these seven inquiries, which is derived from knowledge of every kind. 10. Likewise, about the communication of Zartosht's knowledge of the Mazda-worshipping religion to the world, his attracting mankind to the religion, and the ages, after Zartosht, until the renovation of the universe. 11. And about the nature of the advancement of the people of the period, the separation of centuries and millenniums, and the signs, wonders, and perplexity which are manifested in the world at the end of each millennium in the world.
Also as to the birth and arrival of Ushedar, son of Zartosht at the end of the first millennium, and a report of him and his time, and of the many destroyers of the organizers of the period between Zartosht's millennium and the coming of Ushedar. 13. The arrival of Ushedarmah, son of Zartosht, at the end of the second millennium; information about him and his time, and the destroyers of the organizers who were within the millennium of Ushedar. 14. The coming and arrival of Soshyant, son of Zartosht, at the end of the third millennium, the destroyers of the organizers who were within the millennium of Ushedarmah, the arrival of Soshyant, and information about Soshyant and his time. 15. Also, as to the renovation of the universe and the future existence, it is declared that they arise in his time.
Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.

Nask 14: Bagan-yasn (legal) (15)

Worship of the sacred beings and duties of the worshippers.

The Bagan-yasn contains particulars, first, about the worship of Ohrmazd, the highest of divinities (Bagan), and, secondly, of the worship of the angels of other invisible and visible worldly existences, out of whom are likewise the names of the days; also their glory, power, triumph, and marvelousness. 2. Besides, also, many angels who are invoked by name in their worship, and the attention and obeisance due to them.
The worthiness and dispensation of favor for worshippers, and the duty of their many separate recitations unto the angels. 4. The duty of unlimited acquaintance with knowledge about the possessions and arrangements of the period, over which the creator Ohrmazd has appointed them, and they remain to cause industry.
Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.

Nask 15: Nigadum (legal)

Section 1: Patkar-radistan: misery from sin and assault, kinds of assault and magisterial inquiry, (§13) punishment without inquiry, counter-assault (16)

1. The beginning of the law is the Nigadum1 of thirty fargards.2 2. The section Patkar-radistan ('magistrate code')3 is about this, that the ruin and misery (ayoyakih) from the destroyer, for mankind and animals, occurring really apart from the spiritual existence have arisen through the sinfulness even of mankind; and the progress of ruin and misery in the world is owing to unauthorizedly assaulting one another. 3. Advice to mankind about abstaining therefrom, with an estimate of an authorized assault, and, again, for a slight assault and no assault. 4. To stand magisterially, even opposed to the un-magisterial, with freedom from hurt and loss to oneself; and to abstain altogether, likewise, from the most innocuous (anakhrugunotum) assault even upon an unmagisterial person.

1. Corresponding to the fifteenth word, khshathremcha, in the Ahunwar, according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the sixteenth Nask in other Rivayats. This name should probably be Vik-ait-tum, meaning, 'the most separate concerns,' as the Nask refers chiefly to public law; but it is called Niyaram or Niyadam, in the Rivayats.

2. The Rivayats say fifty-four kardah, which number may have been obtained by adding the 'twenty-four particulars,' mentioned in Chap. 20.1, to the thirty fargards stated here.

3. The patkar-rad, or settler of disputes, appears to have held a position somewhere between an arbitrator and a Judge, and which may be approximately defined as that of a magistrate.

5. In all magisterial investigation (patkar-radih) -- of which, when the custom that: exists is established judicially, the substance is two statements, which are verbal and demonstrable, that subsist in different combinations -- there are four species: the verbal and demonstrable, the verbal which is not demonstrable, the demonstrable which is not verbal, and that which is neither verbal nor yet demonstrable. 6. In the arguments (saman) which are allotted as verbal are four species, the dispute having different arguments and different assertions which are for unmagisterial investigation, for one's own priestly authority (rado), for another good man -- three of such- being requisite [4] -- and also for other evidence [5]. 7. And in those which are allotted as demonstrable are six species, and for an unmagisterial person the assertions, like the previous species which are on the same subject, are twelve [6]. 8. Of all unmagisterial proceedings -- which, though it be a custom, is to proceed unauthorizedly -- the species are five [7], which consist in having demonstrated, getting upon, striking [8], having caused a wound, and having slain.

4. Evidently referring to arbitrators with an umpire.

5. Reading hano gokayih, but hano is an unusual form. Perhaps agokayih, 'want of evidence,' would be more suitable to the context.

6. So the MS., but 'four' would suit the context better, and the two Pahlavi ciphers do not differ much in shape.

7. These five grades of unauthorized retribution are analogous to the five grades of personal outrage mentioned in Vd. 4.17.

8. Pahl. zatam, 'a blow, assault, striking,' is used throughout, instead of zakham (Pers. za'km), which latter word does not occur in these two books of the Denkard, except in the form zakhamihastano in Bk. 9, Chap. 8.6. The Farhang-i Oim-aevak also uses zatom in the same sense, in its oldest MSS.; and Dd. 5.1 has zatam. Darmesteter suggests that zatam and zakham are both traceable to an original zathma, or zathema.

9. Of those subject to the magistrate (patkar-rado-homond) the twelve species are divided into four sections of three each. 10. One section are the hearing who are seeing, they to whom a dispute which is verbal [is demonstrable; the hearing who are not seeing, they to whom a dispute which is verbal [9]] is not demonstrable; and the seeing who are not hearing, they to whom even a dispute which is demonstrable is not verbal. 11. And with these three, who are in one section, there is magisterial investigation; and the magistrate, unless (bara hat) [10] risk for the body be certain, is then irresistible: which is as though it be said that to restrain by wounding (resh) is not justifiable, but the decision therein is this, that, when they do not change through lawful litigation, and they cannot hold back without wounding, it is justifiable to keep them back even by wounding. 12. One section are the not hearing who are also not seeing, the women, and the children; and with these three, who are in one section, there is no magisterial investigation; and the decision as to the bodies thereof is this, that, unless risk for the body be certain from their complete change, they are then to be completely changed (bara vardishno). 13. One section are the foreigner and him worthy of death, certain of thereby producing a sentence for being executed from the judges; also the highwayman, when he stays on the highway and his destruction is proclaimed, but it is not possible to effect it. 14. With these three, likewise, who are in one section, there is no magisterial investigation, but the decision about them is even this, that when one is utterly destroying their life, one is thereby possessing merit. 15. One section are they who are walking, or coming upon one, unseasonably, or retreating confused into a rugged place, and, when people ask them to speak, they are giving no answer, and they are not suspicious as foreigners. 16. With these three, likewise, who are in one section, there is no magisterial investigation, and the decision about them is this, that when one kills them outright, one does not become sinful thereby.

9. The words in brackets are omitted by mistake in the MS.

10. The ambiguity, mentioned in the latter clause of this section, appears to lie in these words, which mean either 'but if' or 'only if.' Such ambiguity must have existed in the original Pahlavi text of the Nask, and probably indicates that the earlier part of this section is a summary of the Pahlavi version of the original text, while the latter part is a summary of the Pahlavi commentary upon that version. As the same ambiguity occurs, without comment, in § 12, where the meaning seems tolerably certain, it is doubtful if the commentator's opinion can be adopted.

17. As to whatever is on the same subject it introduces many opinions, and also this, that a counter-assault (avaz-zatam) is that which becomes a blow and wound, and is to be so committed when it is possible to produce them again exactly in every single particular.

Section 2: Zatamistan: assault and its consequences, begging and beneficence, perversion, using weapons; conflict through assault, tumult, false-teaching, starving, spells, and threats, by men, women, and children; ill-treatment of slaves, compensation the only atonement, responsibility of fathers for crimes of children (17)

1. The second section is the Zatamistan ('assault code'), particulars about assault (zatam) and the annoyances (veshigano) from assault, such as pain, blood, and unconsciousness; also the sin [1] that a man may commit in a state of unconsciousness. 2 About the seven kinds of symptoms of unconsciousness, and separate decisions about assaults that adults may commit among those who are children; also as regards an assault which proceeds to pain and blood, and as regards that in which the duration of the disposition of wrath abates the pain and blood.

1. Involuntary violations of the ceremonial law.

3. About begging (khvahishno) and beneficence (hu-dahishno) [2], such as those of which one says in particular there are four species: when stinginess (pushih) benefits pride (piko) when pride benefits stinginess when stinginess benefits stinginess, and when pride benefits pride; and there are three other species that originate from these last two, in consultation together, when stinginess and pride benefit stinginess and pride, when stinginess and pride benefit stinginess, and when stinginess and pride benefit pride, all which, together, constitute the seven primary species; many others, too, are traced back to these. 4. Also about seeing the depravity (khang didanô) of a perverting member of the community (kastar dahm) and of the perverter of a member of the community, and whatever is on the same subject.

2. The terms used in this section are not quite certain.

5. About a weapon seizable, and a weapon one brings, there is this, namely, what is the thing which is imperfect (anasporik) as a weapon, what is that which is not, and what is that which is welcome as a weapon; what is that which, when any one forces it back at any one as a weapon, is itself something annoying to him; what is his natural annoyance and what his imparted; and the penalty in property and difference of sentence on a man who is carrying a weapon, due to any weapon he has to carry away.

6. About the six modes of engaging in conflict: through assault, tumult (khvashishnô) [3], false teaching (mitok-sastô) [4], giving no food (atapdadô) [5], speaking with wizard's spells [6], and speaking with threats of danger [7]; and, where there is an engaging in conflict, it then occurs when one has stood up for beginning it and the assault is committed, on one by the other, and not before. 7. And this, too, that engaging in conflict occurs as regards adult with adult, childless women with childless women, pregnant women with pregnant women, and children of seven years with children of seven years -- but, as regards children of seven years in sight of their fathers, it becomes an engaging in conflict of the fathers -- and the decision about it is this, that the atonement for every sin which may be committed through engaging in conflict goes to the priestly authorities.

3. Pers. `hashish. Farh. Oim, p. 34, ll. 6-8, has 'Av. vâiti = Pahl. khvashishnô is that when one runs behind any one for offensiveness.'

4. Farh. Oim, p. 35, ll. 1-4, has 'Av. mithôsâst and its explanation "false teaching" are that when one teaches a false way to any one; even when he unaccustomedly shows it rightly to any one, it is a committal of Mithôsâst by him.'

5. Compare Pers. tabah, tô, tôî. Farh. Oim, p. 38, ll. 2-4, has 'Ataftdâd is that when one keeps back food and drink, whereby there is hunger and thirst.' It is worthy of death (see Chap. 20.97).

6. Farh. Oim, p. 34, ll. 3-5, has 'Av. yâtukhta, through wizard's spells (yâtûk-gôbishnihâ), is that when one shall speak thus: "I will destroy thee through witchcraft;" when one says "through the spirits' lack of good religion' it is of the same kind.'

7. Farh. Oim, p. 34, ll. 5, 6, has 'Av. dudhuwi buzda, threats of danger (saham-numâyishnîh), is that when one speaks thus: "I will strike with worldly weapons."'

8. About the affliction of a pure lord who sees any one who has been useless (abûn) unto his slave, though the slave is beseeching, and does not contend for his ownership. 9. About sin affecting accusers [8] not being atoned for by any other good work, except unto the accuser himself; also about the slaying of a servant together with his lord, and whatever is on the same subject.

8. A sin which injures another person, or any good creation, who must be satisfied by compensation before the sin can be remitted.

10. About slaying by untaught children of seven years, or even of eight years in sight of their fathers; and the criminality of the fathers therein, when it is possible for them to hinder it and they do not hinder it and when it is not possible for them to hinder it.

Section 3: Reshistan: kinds of wounds, scourging, 76 members of the body, effects of assaults, modes of assaulting, description of a wound and the weapon, curing wounds (18)

1. The third section is the Reshistan ('wound code'), particulars about cutting, tearing, cleaving, disemboweling, stabbing, gnawing [1], rupturing, hacking, mutilating, and withering [2]; such as are all called wounds. 2. The upheaving circular movement of a certain serpent-scourge [3], the throwing down of the person, and the flow of blood from the bodies of the people.

1. Or, perhaps, khvâyishnô (compare Pers. `hâyîdan) may mean 'biting.'

2. The last four terms are, in Pahlavi: shkônishnô, khûrdô kardanô, tâshidanô, and khûshînîdanô.

3. The mâr-ganô (Av. khrafstraghna), we are told in Pahl. Vend. 18.6, may be made of anything, but a leather one is good' (see also Bd. 28.22). Intended as a snake-killer, it was misused as a scourge for human beings.

3. How the various members are divided into seventy-six that are more particularly called principal, which are comprised in two classes; two of these, which are clothed and different, one from the other, are female, and some out of the surrounding parts (girvôgânih), which are apart from eight of the principal, that are comprised in the members of the two classes and among those seventy-six -- and which, in like manner, are different one from the other -- are female, and are of different purpose and different design, one from the other.

4. These, too, namely, when any one, through an assault, produces, for any other, stupefaction, swelling, or leanness, blackness [4], or paleness, shortness, or tallness, want of intelligence, much eating, little eating, or moderate eating, indolence, or diligence, or dullness of hearing; or he wishes to speak some words, and they strike him in return; or one altogether diminishes any one's speech, sight, or hearing, wisdom, strength, or semen, milk, or pregnancy; or when one destroys the spleen (spur) or milk of females, or, in revenge (gifar), kills his son outright; or when they would inflict a wound upon a wound, and one's blood goes streaming forth.

4. Assuming that vêshîh, 'excess,' is a miswriting of siyahîh.

5. Also about an assault with one, two, or three weapons, or more, in conjunction; or they may commit it on the spot, or in confederacy, or as a first offense [5]. 6. About the measure of a wound when a two-edged sword (dôbarakô) plunges down, the area (sarâî), walls, and surroundings, and the shape which is plunged; that which is hacked, or cleft, or mutilated, or a torrent of blood streaming; the affliction (vamang) of the furious serpent-scourge (mârvanô) [6], and the length, glitter, and weight of the weapon.

5. These three modes are expressed by Paz. ithrih, hidhih, and apavarâvarshtih, which stand evidently for the original Avesta words ithra, hadha, and apaurvavarshta (see Chap. 21.6).

6. See § 2.

7. The ritual for the departure of a wound and the departure of pain, watching over it for the duration of three nights or a year, its greater wretchedness or less wretchedness, its cure (sporîkîh) or incurableness, and whatever is on the same subject.

8. Trivial enumerations, and decisions upon each separately.

Section 4: Hamemalistan: accuser's code (19)

1. The fourth section, which is also called the law of the Hamêmâlistân ('accuser's code'), contains particulars about accusation, and about the false accusation by any one, regarding any other, as to witchcraft, destroying a righteous man [1], theft, plunder, injuring the existence, minor injury [2] as regards several particular things, taking up a weapon, threatening with it [3], assault, tumult [4], incarcerating [5], false teaching, fettering, making dejected (nigûnô), giving no food, falsehood, speaking with wizard's spells, or with threats of danger, abstracting the increase of laborers' wages, wishing to cut (vurîdanô) and squeeze (pashkhâdanô) anything from anyone, and seizing (majîdanô) it for fire and water, and whatever is on the same subject, 2. Also about the limitation of the accusation of sin therein, the retribution for it, and the dust, or ashes, or flour, for the eyes and the rest of the bodies of human beings, it now [6] speaks henceforth for thirty successive heads [7].

1. Pahl. aharûbôkîh (= Av. ashavagha) must not be confounded with aharûbôîh, 'righteousness' for which aharâyîh is more commonly used.

2. These two kinds of injury, usually written bâîôdôk-zêdô and kâîtyôk-jadô in the Denkard; are mentioned in Farh. Oim, pp. 32, l. 8-34, l. 2, as follows: 'Av. baodhajad = Pahl. bôdô-zêd and Av. baodhô-varshtahê = Pahl. bôdôk-varsht are, as it were "observantly assaulted," and one mentions them most about the assault and injury of anything which is noticeable. Through falsehood other noticeable sin is small, and is subdued through being devoid of an injurer, as the assault and injury of anything through wear is a small sin. Kâîtyô-jed is a sin for mankind, which is a degree of Bôdôk-zed, but less; so also the decree (dastînak) is different from Bôdôk-varsht The principal Bôdôk-zêd, that of animals with observance, the Bôdôk-zêd through wear, and the Kâîtyôk-zêd sin towards people are sins which are hamêmâlân ("affecting accusers"). The dissipating weapon for sin dissipates the sinfulness of the other sin, which is called rûbânîk ("affecting the soul").'

3. These two terms are âgêreptô and avôîrishtô (Av. âgereptem and avaoirishtem) which are thus described in Farh. Oim, p. 36, ll. 4-6: 'âgerept, "seized," is that when they shall take up a weapon for smiting an innocent person; avoîrisht, "turning," is that when one turns the weapon upon an innocent person.'

4. See Chap. 17.6, for some of these terms.

5. Pahl. handerêtô which is thus described in Farh. Oim, pp. 34, l. 8-35, l.1: 'Av. handereiti, Pahl. handeretô, is that when, owing to negligence, one keeps any one exhausted; when one would make him fallen who is of the ruined, or him who is a master of arms, and has imprisoned him, the causing of much anguish thereby is the committal of incarceration.' see also § 44.

6. Paz. knîn (= knûn).

7. Of which the details are not mentioned.

3. About the sin of making people eat bodily refuse [8], and bringing it unlawfully to their persons or clothes; and of going to a menstruous woman, or a wizard. 4. About a juvenile and well-behaved woman who comes out from a house of those of the good religion, and is considered as well taught. 5. About falsehood and slander, small and great, and whatever is on the same subject. 6. About the care of a pregnant woman in lawful reclining (khapâk), feasting (jashnô), and work.

8. Pahl. hîkhar (Av. hikhra) is any refuse or dirt from the living body, or any liquid exudation from a corpse.

7. About a householder who does not teach his own household, in order to teach the household of another; and whatever is on the same subject. 8. About a quiet and an unquiet person with equal opinionativeness, and the opinion which they have to form before beginning. 9. About the expediency or inexpediency of the opinion which is announced, and the reason of both. 10. About the man who, for fear of a counter-assault, runs away.

11. Also about not renouncing sin, neglecting complaints, and whatever is on the same subject.

12. The difference of sin in priests from that in any one else, as regards its renunciation. 13. About the expediency of retribution, and the measure of the expediency. 14. About and to what extent is the authority of one's own priestly master, for allowing the sin which any other person may commit as regards a disciple of that same, and that, too, of his disciple affecting the soul.

15. About the chastisement of a judge who is releasing sinners, and whatever is on the same subject. 16. About the justifiableness of a plaintiff in committing illegality. 17. About seizing the purity produced for foreigners, and whatever is on the same subject. 18. About one worthy of death making supplication (lâvakô), cooperation with one worthy of death, and whatever is on the same subject. 19. About confession as regards anything, the object of confession, and whatever is on the same subject. 20. About exhibiting a liking for sin worthy of death.

21. About a blow with a weapon, which is incomplete or not incomplete, when adults or children shall inflict it, or when children with mutual assistance. 22. About a wounded person whose anguish was allayed by medicine, the arising of the anguish again from disease, when he died, and whatever is on the same subject.

23. About taking security (garôbô) from the defendant after the decree of the judges. 24. About the legal proceedings as to an offense when, owing to the incapability of the plaintiff, adjournment has always occurred, and a man would occasion an acceleration of the statement of law (dâdô vâch) and of the procedure of the plaintiff. 25. About appointing a mediator (dâdak-gôbô), and the object of mediation.

26. About an assault (zatam) which is altogether of furious (pûr-tâk) origin. 27. And about a harmless (âzad) assault and striking back fairly to test a weapon, and, when it is not possible fairly, turning it into execution of duty, or giving of scars (pishanj-das), or punishment; a statement of the change, and whatever is on the same subject. 28. About the limit of the punishment of a child for the sin it may commit 29. About seeking an interpretation (pâdô-khân), the limit of interpreting, and whatever is on the same subject. 30. As regards a signal of approving the words of any one, on passing away, are these -- About giving up anything, making a will about it, and renunciation of sin.

31. About committing an assault upon an unknown person at an indefinite time, and whatever is on the same subject. 32. About giving a weapon and telling someone to kill a foreigner who is taken for judicial investigation, and whatever is on the same subject. 33. About the great hinderers [9] who are slain by a righteous man, who the great hinderers are, and unto whom it occurs; when one has to command it as assistance for one or many, or they shall commit the assault in advance or afterwards, and whatever is on the same subject. 34. About the weapon they shall seize it is stated thus: 'I see a man and a sheep, I strike upon this and upon that, and it is gone:' and whatever is upon the same subject.

9. Doubtful: the word can be read freh-gasîgân on its first occurrence, and freh-gashîgânô on its last; but both reading and meaning are very uncertain.

35. About petitioning, and the going of a frontier governor (mar'zhpân) to the feet of tyrants (sâstârânô) to speak of regulations, and whatever is on the same subject. 36. Where and when one strikes a living person he vexes him, and the living person he strikes vexes him when dead; but he who strikes a dead person is vexed alive, and the dead person he strikes vexes him when dead; and whatever is on the same subject.

37. As to wood and useless pith (dîl), that which is for keeping is as far as a dimension that is mentioned, and one, therefore, passes it by not to burn concerning also that wood which is only for the blast of a furnace (gûrîh zîgâ) as firewood, the burning and dimensions and blast of the furnace are stated, and whatever is on the same subject. 38. About the sin through which a man attains from atonement to the sacred-twig [barsom] ordeal (baresmôk-varîh), and from the sacred-twig ordeal to the heat ordeal (garemôk-varîh) which has maintained the worthiness of an assault that is an actual inexcusability (achârîh) [10] to reasoning thought; and whatever is on the same subject.

10. It might be 'inevitability,' but this would render the ordeal unnecessary.

39. About the excellence of physicians, their merit from doing good, and sin from not doing good; the quality that exists as regards medicines, seeking a physician for animals also, and whatever is on the same subject. 40. About a horse, which is new to the saddle (kôfak), being made tailless (kapeh) and not feeding (akhavânô), how it is done, the sin owing to doing it unlawfully and heedlessly, the wound and damage that arise from it, and whatever is on the same subject.

41. About several persons, when anything that is imperfect, or even not imperfect, as a weapon is convenient to them, and a wound occurs, and it is not evident which, or who, threw the weapon, it is not necessary to know its imperfection or lack of imperfection [11]; and whatever is on the same subject. 42. About the three modes for thrusting a weapon are these details, that is, so much of it when one thrusts it on ground that is hard, or soft, or full of ruggednesses (âchârîgânakô); when one shall bear it up aloft, and the amount of the height; and when one impels it again with a sweep, or has to draw up its center at the time of a sweep; and whatever is on the same subject. 43. About an assault and the most hurtful occasion when, for the same reason, they would celebrate a religious rite; the retribution on the spot, and the sentence upon the fourth occasion [12].

11. The fact of the wound being sufficient to prove the unlawfulness of using the weapon.

12. According to Vd. 4.35, if a man wounds another so that the blood comes, and does this for the fourth time, he becomes an outcast and receives the maximum punishment. Also, when a person walks without the sacred girdle or shirt [sudra or kusti] (Vd. 18.59), it is at the fourth step that the demons possess him.

44. About incarcerating (handerêtô) in a frightful and inaccessible (avidarg) place, and among noxious creatures; the quantity of noxious creatures, and whatever is on the same subject. 45. About grasping the tail of an ox, or a horse, on which another sits, to hold it back, and whatever is on the same subject. 46. About threatening danger, wizard's spells [13], and whatever is on the same subject.

13. See Chap. 17.6.

47. About plaints as to the value of a lamb [14], or a sheep [15], or a beast of burden (stôr), or a human being (vîrôk) [16]; either when the plaintiffs are one, or two, or three, or four, or many; how one has to summon the defendant, and how much time there is. 48. About when the controversy (han-bêshinîh) is as to theft (dûjô), and the confession as to plunder (avor); or the controversy is as to plunder, and the confession as to theft; and when the controversy is as to injuring the existence [17], and the confession as to minor injury; or the controversy is as to minor injury, and the confession as to injuring the existence; and when the controversy is as to theft and plunder, and the confession as to injuring the existence and minor injury; or the controversy is as to injuring the existence and minor injury, and the confession as to theft and plunder. 49. And when the controversy is about so much, and the confession about so much of a different kind; when the controversy is about so much, and the confession about more of a different kind; when the controversy is about so much, and the confession about less of a different kind; when the controversy is about so much, and the confession as to more of the same kind; and whatever is on the same subject.

14. Pahl. Av. asperenô (= Pahl. anaspôrîk) 'imperfect, immature;' an epithet for a lamb or kid.

15. Pahl. anûmôyê (Av. anumaya), probably 'bleater,' an epithet for a sheep or goat.

16. These four grades of value are mentioned in Vd. 4.48.

17. See § 1.

50. About the sin of unfriendliness of a master towards a disciple, and whatever is on the same subject 51. About taking a thief of any one's goods (aîshîgânô), conducting him to the judges, and what ever is on the same subject. 52. This, too, that when affliction has come upon a good man, the effort of every one, for removing that affliction, should continue just as though it happened to himself. 53. And when a good man is beaten through malice, the effort of every one, in demanding compensation for him from the smiter, should continue just as though it happened to himself. 54. And this, too, that, when there is no danger for one, the power of affording assistance is thus assistance of the innocent; and, as to the property which may be carried away from him, and of which they shall make no restitution, after as much as a Hasar [18] the carrier off becomes guilty and liable to penalty.

18. A Hasar (Av. hathra) is a measure of distance, as well as of time. This is stated in Farh. Oim, pp. 41, l. 11-42, l. 3, thus: 'Of the Hasar there are also several kinds that express measurement. A medium Hasar on the ground, which they call also a Parasang, is a thousand steps of two feet which have to walk. With the lapse of time of a medium Hasar the day and night are computed.' Again, p 43, ll. 1-3 state that 'of twelve Hasars is the longest day; that day and night in which is the longest day are twelve of the longest Hasars, eighteen of the medium, and twenty-four of the least.' From this it appears that an average Hasar of distance is a thousand paces, or Roman mile; and an average Hasar of time is one hour and twenty minutes.

55. About the distinction of indigenous and foreign (aîr va anaîr) thieves as to cold and the clothing given, and as to sickness and undergoing remedies. 56. About the hands of a foreigner being unfettered for no other reason but care of water and fire, to preserve them from blood, filth, and injury (âsipô). 57. About the sin of not restraining him who is the first assailant of two combatants, as soon as his attack is seen. 58. About teaching the peace of renunciation of sin, the bond of worthiness of him of great power even when proffering union in renunciation with him of little power, and whatever is on the same subject.

59. On the nature of responding about the keeping away from one worthy of death which arises through great judiciousness, the reason of keeping, how to keep, and whatever is on the same subject. 60. And on the nature of responding when they ask in malice about a righteous man, when one knows his whereabouts, and when one does not know. 61. About how one is to give a weapon to generals (hên-gô-padanô) and august frontier governors.

62. About authorizedly shooting an arrow at one worthy of death, which is given again for killing him to any one unto whom the person worthy of death is consigned and becomes supplicating (lânakô) and goes to the middle of the distance, and they shall afford him assistance and enervate him for it, when, through the three words [19] which he utters, they do not deliver him up again. 63. About one worthy of death who is preserved with great judiciousness when the evidence, which they give before that about him, is through another one worthy of death, and whatever is on the same subject. 64. About evidence as to witchcraft and destroying a righteous man, that is, in what proportion it is certain or doubtful. 65. About causing the execution of one worthy of death for entertaining fondness for witchcraft and laughing at witchcraft, and whatever is on the same subject.

19. Possibly humat, hukht, huvarst, 'good thoughts, good words, and good deeds,' which would be accepted as a sign of repentance.

Section 5: (20)

1. In the fifth section are twenty-four particulars [1] about the standing up and going forth of a man with a weapon and angry thoughts towards another man; and also when he takes a beast of burden, saddles it, and sits upon it, takes the rein [2] (ayôkham) in hand and walks away; this, too, that, when he arrives there, he smites that man, or some one else and whatever is on the same subject. 2. About what one has to do when the conversation of two men is of the destruction of a righteous man, of high way robbery, and of the cursing owing thereto; and whatever is on the same subject. 3. About what one has to do when, of two men who are on the same road, one slays a righteous man ; and about the other when he is fearless, and when he is fearful. 4. About preserving one worthy of death when it requisite for medical purposes (bezhashkîh), though the plaintiff is of a different opinion; and whatever is on the same subject.

1. It is not clear whether these twenty-four particulars are to be sought in the details of § 1, or in the whole chapter, or some portion of it.

2. Merely a guess.

5. About the needlessness of plaintiffs and defendants speaking as to the substance (min tanû) of the law, when the witness and judge is the supreme priest; the confidence which they may place in the decision of the supreme priest, due to his own knowledge and evidence, when, moreover, they have not to atone in the body; and the want of confidence in another judge when, moreover, they have to atone in the body, and the needfulness of plaintiffs and defendants speaking on the substance (val tanû) of the law, even when the judge is aware of the law. 6. About unauthorized combatants, become mutually sinful, when, to dissipate (sîkhtanô) a wound of the one, he would make the other one worthy of death. 7. About supplies (pishôn) [3] in traveling together, and their renewal; and whatever is on the same subject.

3. Compare Pers. bishinj, Av. fshaoni. In some cases it might perhaps be read pîkhvô, and be traced to Av. pithwa. The word often occurs, as in § 11, Chap 23.3, 15, 26.10, 27.4, 6, 31.25, 36, 37.5, 7, 32, 41.19, 23, 43.19, and its meaning, 'provision, or nourishment' is well ascertained.

8. About inflicting penalties by magistrates, the assistance of the unmagisterial given to magistrates, the assistance of the magistrates, and the exemption of these latter from atonement to those former; likewise about conversation as to an assault, and whatever is on the same subject. 9. About the evasion of penalty by men at the time when a sin may be committed, and the arrest of their nearest relations being important, in whatever measure implicated therein and impossible to consider innocent; how to confine and make them really coerced to seek a remedy, and whatever is on the same subject. 10. About the powerfulness which comforts in sin where there is any special worthiness, and the reason of any worthiness; the want of power where there is special unworthiness, and the reason of any unworthiness; the production of the good works of one towards another of the powerful, and of the sin of one of those lacking power; and whatever is on the same subject.

11. About the plaint which one has to argue, and for the defendant to dispute; the time for making the statement (gôbô) when the defendant does not come, or comes not to conduct the business; the several peculiarities of plaintiff and defendant, the time for conducting being on the day before yesterday, the firm one and the powerless, the incrimination therein, the death-blow on the exhaustion of the possessions of the plaintiff, and provisions for conducting the legal proceedings; a privileged wife [4] shall be capable of making a plaint for her husband, and of informing the husband of the plaint; when her property is anything whatever, and nothing is manifest as to that wealth, she is to be admitted for evidence; and whatever is on the same subject.

4. One married to her husband with the parents' consent, and never betrothed to another, so that she and her children belong to him in both worlds (See Bd.32.6 n).

12. About the ordeal of those who have atoned, of those undergoing the sacred-twig ordeal, and of those undergoing the heat ordeal, who are pure; the freedom from falsehood of which, each separately, which they, every one of them, request when the ordeal is not that for their own station, but that for the station of others; and whatever is on the same subject. 13. About the object of any evidence, and, on account of the reason of its propriety, the impropriety of any one being without evidence; and whatever is on the same subject. 14. About the reality of a statement due to an ordeal, and so many having gone to the ordeal place for the sake of watching the first-comer and after-comer; the time of performance, the statement, the ceremonial and the invulnerability due to it; the kinds of incrimination, how to protect the limbs by which the ordeal is accomplished, and each one of the formulas (nirang) of protection; the superintendence for observing the ceremonial, and the decision about the acquitted or convicted one. 15. This, too, that is, whose going to the ordeal place is first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth; and by whom is the command to be given. 16. About the business of the ordeal attendants (var aûstîgânô). 17. About incrimination through confession, or some other reason, the reliance restored thereby, and whatever is on the same subject. 18. About a thief destroying life and escaping, the suspicion owing thereto, about any one, as to assisting the thief, and whatever is on the same subject. 19. About there being no ordeal for those confessing, and so also as regards those of good repute; accusation as to the existence of a limit to the good repute, even that which is for the extent of a Yujyast, a Dashmest, an Agoyôst, a Tachar, and a Hasar [5] at the least.

5. The relative lengths of these five measures of distance are stated in Farh. Oim, p. 41, ll. 9-11, as follows: 'So much as two Dashmest (Av. dakhshmaiti) is as much as a Yujyast (Av. yujyasti); so much as two Agoyohast is as much as a so much as two Tachar is as much as an Agoyohast; and so much as two Hasar (Av. hathra) is as much as a Tachar (Av. tachara).' As the average Hasar is a Roman mile (see chap. 19.54 n), the Tachar ('run?') is two, the Agoyost or Agoyohast ('cattle-run?' Av. gaoyaoiti?) is four, the Dashmest ('distance-mark?') is eight, and the Yujyast ('stage?') is sixteen miles. This series of distances is analogous to the Sanskrit series, but more elaborate; the Hasar is best compared with the Krosha as the commonest unit of moderate distance, though less than half its usual length; the Agoyost is nearly the same as the Gavyuta; and the Yujyast is analogous to the Yojana, though nearly double its length

20. About litigation as to a costly article, when a witness of its possession by the one party is combined with non-possession by the other one with no witness, or with its possession by the other one with a single witness; or the witness of one is with the sacred beings, and its possession by the other one is likewise not manifest; when both parties are related (khidyahîk), or both are unrelated (anazdîhîk); and what kind of possession they say is most real. 21. About annulling the decision of a judge, and the time it is done at the court of a chief judge, and also owing to an ordeal for certainty; and whatever is on the same subject. 22. About the litigation of three persons as to property it is declared, so much is given to one on the day Ohrmazd to the day Vohuman [6], to another one on the day Ardwahisht, and possession is not made over to the third one at all.

6. That is, on the first or second day of the Parsi month; and to the other on the third day.

23. About selling property which is not one's own, and whatever is on the same subject. 24. About controversy as to anything which ought not to occur. 25. About any essential dispute that any one has, when agreeing thus: 'I do not have it as my own, but owing to the other person;' and whatever is on the same subject. 26. About the litigation of an Iranian with a foreigner, or with foreigners, of a foreigner with an Iranian, or a slave with a man of the country, as to a costly article; and whatever is on the same subject. 27. About a much-clamoring plaintiff having summoned defendants to the judges regarding a decision, and about the perverted wordiness and mixed verbiage in the legal proceedings; and whatever is on the same subject.

28. About the time for a high-priest of property and possessions, what is the specific necessity for a high-priest, and whatever is on the same subject. 29. About the fitness of a woman for evidence and judgeship when guardian over herself, and the unfitness of a privileged wife [7] who is a foreigner and worthy of death for only a single offense, even with the authority of her husband; and whatever is on the same subject. 30. About the owner of a pledge not depositing the pledge beforehand, and whatever is on the same subject. 31. About giving up the property of partners, and whatever is on the same subject. 32. About the property that any one possesses, and is without any witness as to his ownership and possession of it. 33. About the ordeal of excessive eating (pâûrû-khûrânô) for escaping distress (mûst-karzhîh) by plaintiffs and defendants before driving each other into legal proceedings, and whatever is on the same subject.

7. See § 11 n.

34. About the legal proceedings as to a female [8] they steal from some one, and she becomes a suppliant of a thief; some one takes her by sequestration (hachîdakîh) [9], and they steal her also from him; the original possessor (bûn) sees his own, not knowing she is back alive, when they become disputing about her; and whatever is on the same subject. 35. About property which is in the possession of any one, when someone gives it up to some one else in his sight, and he does not dispute it. 36. About a master teaching a disciple not to go back to legal proceedings, and whatever is on the same subject. 37. About controversy, with any one, as to special property in righteous gifts, and whatever is on the same subject.

8. A slave no doubt.

9. This is the technical term for legal seizure, or sequestration (see Chap. 39).

38. About legal proceedings in which one accomplishes an ordeal three times, and it comes off in one way; and whatever is on the same subject. 39. About the existence of the many kinds of speaking with wizard's spells [10], and those with threats of danger; and about the usage in witchcraft as to the moderate and justifiable production of mutual afflictiveness thereby. 40. About which is the ordeal for one worthy of death, the greatness and littleness of an ordeal, and also this, that is, which are the blessed among twenty of those undergoing ordeals. 41. About the proportion of firewood, and from which tree it ought to be good; and again, too, the several appliances and formulas that are necessary in accomplishing the ordeal. 42. And this, too, that when the man is aware of his own truth, even though he be aware of it, the fire speaks in the words of men thus: 'Walk not on to me! for I chastise during one's progress. 43. About one still mediating in legal proceedings as to a thief who has acted faithfully about quitting confinement and fetters to cause a ceremonial [11], and whatever is on the same subject.

10. See Chap. 17.6.

11. Or it may be 'to provide supplies.'

44. About the wealth of a priest who is not keeping his property in edifices (aûzdeshîkîh) or domains (matâ), but goes on with his occupation; and when he passes away, to whom and how ii has to come. 45. About litigation as to property from the residuary wealth of fathers, about keeping it together (vâham-dâr), and whatever is on the same subject.

46. About the amount of retribution, in confinement, fettering, and punishment, for a lamb [12], a sheep, or a beast of burden, which is stolen; and whatever is on the same subject. 47. About a defendant regarding whom three plaintiffs complain, all three as comrades, one as to a lamb, one as to a sheep, and one as to a beast of burden; and whose answer is first given. 48. About the litigation of three persons as to a costly article which remains apart from then a, he who deposited it being a strong person, and the ownership of not even one of them being certain. 49. About the coming of retribution to three persons who, all three as comrades, have stolen a lamb from one, a sheep from another one, and a beast of burden from a third one.

12. See Chap. 19.47.

50. About the reason of the justifiability, and that also of the unjustifiability, of confining a fellow-countryman for his own theft, and whatever is on the same subject. 51. About the extent of continuance in hearing a defendant, and this, too, as to a plaintiff; also about the time appointed for speaking, and its extent. 52. And about this, namely, when any one has made an accusation about any other, and goes back at the time appointed, and, before a reply is given, he shall make out another accusation about the same man, to which of the two accusations a reply is to be first given. 53. About the reason of the hardship of legal proceedings; about what man it is whose statement is second, third, fourth, and last in conducting legal proceedings; and about the twenty-two stratagems in conducting legal proceedings.

54. About the canceling (pâdyârânîh) of an ordeal, even that which is accomplished with three selected witnesses. 55. About the season of the hot ordeal, and also that of the cold; and whatever is on the same subject. 56. About one, in a procedure, demanding an ordeal, the other one having appointed the time for the supreme priest, and whatever is on the same subject. 57. About the benediction of the supreme priest on making, or changing, a decision; also this, namely, which are the blessings for changing, through their nature, a decision which is made.

58. About evidence of walking upon a water-skin (khîk) and putting something inside it, of assault and wounds, of wealth which they squander (nikizend) and a righteous gift, of a damaged and sequestrated thing; and of rubbing up (pâdô-mâlisnô) and buying it strengthened [13], and at a price. 59. On litigation about the ownership of a wife, cattle, trees, and land; and whatever is on the same subject. 60. About the certainty of the statement of several leaders of an affair, as to that on which their affair depends, and of the supreme priest, or three witnesses, in every legal proceeding. 61. About incrimination (aîrikhtakîh) of several kinds as to statements in legal proceedings, and whatever is on the same subject. 62. About the modes of action for eradicating the deceptions (frêvôânô-fitâr) of apostates, and whatever is on the same subject.

13. Paz. aôganghen for Av. aoganghem = aojanghem (see also Chap. 41.17, 18).

63. About cases where the virtuousness of the thoughts, words, and deeds of mankind is all derived from the virtuousness of the beneficent spirit, and mankind themselves shall render it their own, and, in that way, its reward reaches them; and their viciousness is all derived from the viciousness of the evil spirit, and mankind themselves shall render it their own, and, in that way, its bridge penalty [14] reaches them.

14. The decision announced at the Chinwad bridge (see Chap. 14.8), as to the fate of the soul until the renovation of the universe, after the account of its good works and sins has been accurately balanced.

64. About the injuriousness due to unrenounced sinfulness, that is, what is injured by the first, second, third, fourth, or fifth unrenounced Aredush sin [15]. 65. About where and which is the speaking with threats of danger [16], and which is the taking up of a weapon (âgêreptô), not the turning it down, that becomes a tanapuhr sin [17]; also the sin which is owing to such sin.

15. Farh. Oim, p. 36, ll. 6, 7, has when through sinfulness one lays a weapon upon a sinner, the name is Aredush.'

16. See Chaps. 17.6, 19.1.

17. Whereby a person becomes an outcast and worthy of death. According to Vend. 4.67-72, 75-78, 81-84, this occurs on the eighth committal of an Agerepto, on the seventh of an Avoirishto, and on the sixth of an Aredush; or on the first committal of any of the three, if the criminal refuses to atone for it.

66. About the case where one has to atone, and who does it; he who undergoes the sacred-twig [barsom] ordeal has atoned best; and which is the least heat ordeal. 67. About two men having seized property together, and having together, at the time, demanded a judge and ordeal about it; and when one seizes the property some time earlier, and the other one demands the judge and ordeal earlier; and whatever is on the same subject. 68. About some one carrying off the property of a person from the custody of another person in sight of the same, and he who kept it before is, within a Hasar [18], a witness before the judge as to its custody or possession; and also when the witness of it has not come within the Hasar; and whatever is on the same subject.

18. Eighty minutes on the average (see Chap. 19.54 n), but varying from one hour to two, according to the duration of daylight.

69. About cases where the decision of the judge is to be made from the Avesta and Zand [19], or from the common consent of the good [20], and whatever is on the same subject. 70. About the justifiable selling of a man, a sheep, or a beast of burden, as free from defect when its defect is not obvious; also about the symptoms of their defects. 71. About the case where and how far a decision, about which one is in dispute, is a solitary statement, or more.

19. That is, from the scriptural law and its commentary.

20. That is, according to precedents recorded by the priesthood.

72. About the object of the appointment of a judge, the eminence of an appointed judge, and whatever is on the same subject. 73. About the reasonableness of the severity and want of severity of judges. 74. And this, too, that the judgeship is to be given to him who is acquainted with the law (âkâs-dâd) [21]; and the object of acquaintance with the law. 75. About the case where there are a supreme judge of the law, a plaint, a defense, an arrangement of legal proceedings, and an award; and through what sin it becomes injustice. 76. And this, too, that the justice of him who may therein commit falsehood, as regards so many essential decisions, is injustice.

21. This term is explained in an extract from some Nask (compare Chap. 43.9) quoted in Farh. Oim, pp. 17, l. 9-18, l. 5, as follows: 'Av. kô asti tkaêshô vivishdâtô, which is the judge who is acquainted with the law? Av. yô aêta pairi arethra frazânaiti, he who thoroughly understands the adjudication from the statements [even though he does not easily understand many of the statements, and though it be not easy as regards the statements which are not numerous, is an official who is acquainted with the law (kardâr-i âkâs-dâd); and he who does not thoroughly understand the adjudication from the statements, even though the statements are not numerous, and if be not easy for him as regards them, is to be still considered as unacquainted with the law (anâkâs-dâd)i.'

77. About the many who may seize wealth, which is the property of some one, with their own hands; and, when they litigate about it, he says it is his own property, whereby they are convicted. 78. About incrimination of five kinds as to whatever property is on the spot, or at a distance (pavan hasar); and whatever is on the same subject. 79. About putting apart, keeping apart [22], and two apart before being put away; also about litigation as to keeping apart, and whatever is on the same subject. 80. And when some one has to deliver property which is a person's own to some one else, in the sight of him whose own it is, and he who is seizing upon it disputes about it as his own property; and whatever is on the same subject.

22. Compare § 115.

81. About disputing the debts of fathers when one of their associates is confessing them, and the rest have come, and it is possible for them to dispute them, but they do not dispute. 82. And about the progress of a dispute of one of the associates as to the whole debt of one's fathers. 83. About the possibility of children being worthy of death, for wizard's spells, when with their guardian; and a woman being so when guardian of herself. 84. About a case where the amount of a lamb (mîdat-î asperenô) is the lowest, and the amount of a human being (vîrôk mozd) is the highest [23]. 85. About theft and plunder as regards one's own property, when one brings it away from the possession of some one without dispute. 86. About the triumph of him who, falsely investigating, may act judicially by illegally-issued incentives, when he institutes legal proceedings for the sake of appearances [24]; as distinguished from him who is truly seeking and truly investigating.

23. The minimum and maximum grades of value mentioned in Chap. 19.47. Here it is evident that mîdat and mozd are synonyms, the former being, no doubt, the Zvarish, or Semitic, equivalent of the latter, compare Chald. ...

24. Pahl. khâkûnîhâ, literally 'through making a dust.'

87. About the statements of a litigation of man and wife, which is justifiably brought on [25]. 88. And also this, namely, when she sees herself injured, or defense is possible by means of that which is discharged by two fingers [26], it is justifiable when they shall institute no litigation but seizing. 89. About the person who has become privileged to give away a daughter to a husband, her father having passed away. 90. About the sin of making a damsel (kanîk) weary of her husband. 91. About the sin as regards property in this action, either produced where the action for this purpose is really devoid of illiberality (adahishnîh), or to commit in order that they shall give me a wife even when they do not give her on that account. 92. About the sin of giving a girl (kanîk) for a girl, or other living thing, or of speaking thus: 'Do thou go in unto my sister, or daughter, while I, too, will go in unto thine.' 93. And the sin as regards the person of my wife, too, which is owing to that sin. 94. About one obtaining back the value which he gives away for a girl, when the girl is not that value in wedlock. 95. About a girl who, after fifteen years of age, is not given to a husband; and her father, to satisfy her menstrual excitement (dashtân-mêyah vijârdanô), and to sustain it, becomes sinful and harbors a paramour; and whatever is on the same subject.

25. Or it may be 'of a man and a woman who is domineeringly plundered.'

26. That is, in some very easy way. The intention was probably to discourage petty disputes between man and wife, by not interfering with the stronger party when aggrieved.

96. About having given food, and anything except a wife, to any one who praises the Mazda-worshippers' religion of another, even though it be through fear; also this, that it is only he, when he has thereby become quite of the same tenets with the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, to whom the gift of a wife worthy of a man (vîr masâî) is then to be presented.

97. About committing the sin of giving no food [27], which is one of those worthy of death. 98. About the duty imposed of chastising a wizard for the Tanapuhr sin [28] of assisting a demon [29], so that one's duty is manifold, and to be accomplished during several years.

27. See Chap. 17.6.

28. See § 65.

29. Reading dêv-vijîn which is miswritten ...

99. About the day and night which are longest, medium, and shortest; that is, how many Hasars [30] they are, each separately; and, as to their occurrence, in what control is the appointed time which is really theirs, each one, as to period. 100. About the Parasang [31] which is the longest, medium, and shortest; and whatever is owing to their subdivision.

30. See Chap. 19.54 n.

31. A distance of four Hasars (Bd. 16.7), or as far as a far-seeing man can distinguish a black ox from a white one (Bd. 26.2). It is usually from 3 1/2 to 4 English miles, but in Pahlavi texts it often stands for a Hasar, or Roman mile, both being measures for long distances.

101. About the work and fodder (vâsân) [32] of an injured beast of burden, by day and night. 102. About a sheep which kills a person, and whether its owner be innocent, or sinful, through not putting a tether (band) upon it; and the reason of the sinfulness and innocence therein. 103. About the period that extends from certainty to dubiousness, even though it be for the supreme priest, or one provides three witnesses; and how long it is. 104. About the multitude of witnesses who give no evidence, together with the judge who is unjustly deciding.

32. Or 'rations' (vâyagân).

105. About the injuriousness (âzgârîkîh), for the priestly authorities, of anything that is given to the unworthy. 106. About what kind of gift, that is given, was accepted; that is, how, when given by one when another claims it, it returns to him; how, and in what proportion, when the other does not claim it, its expediency does not arise; and whatever is on the same subject. 107. About a case where there is property of several kinds which a man has given away as a righteous gift, and it is allowable. 108. About the case where whatever is given and reaches some one, when he gives it and does not say how it was given, it becomes a righteous gift. 109. And about its not having become a gift, through fear of whatever is its danger.

110. About the theft and extortion of him who does not maintain the wives and children of persons in his control, to preserve and nourish them, through fear. 111. About the allotment of punishment for the limbs of sinners, and upon which limbs is the allotment. 112. About the atonement for sin where it is most irksome. 113. About the amount of retribution for an assault (zatam) which may be committed upon one worthy of death who is preserved through great judiciousness.

114. About Ohrmazd having given all prosperity to Zartosht and the disciples of Zartosht; the theft and extortion which have arisen in a man when he has not given to a worthy person any of the prosperity that has befallen him; and whatever is on the same subject. 115. About how an animate being is situated who is in a place apart (aham), and when he dies in innocence and keeping apart [33], his wound being also through duty; and whatever is on the same subject. 116. About the advantage and pleasure of keeping a promise (mitro-dârîh), and the gravity, harm, and vexation owing to various degrees of promise breaking (mitrôk-drujih); also how a promise is kept. 117. About the grievous sinfulness of strife, insincerity (avâkhîh), and slander, and the harm that proceeds therefrom; also the frost (pazd) and punishment provided for them [34], and whatever is on the same subject.

33. Compare § 79.

34. In hell (compare AV. 40.7).

118. About having given frontier people [35] as hostages (garôbô) to foreigners who have demanded a ransom (navishnô). 119. About taking up (lâlâ gêrefstanô) anything whatever that is precious to a foreigner, and has become of exceeding value, when they give it up as a ransom [36] to Iran; the extreme value of a youth (tigil) when they shall carry him off as a hostage from the foreigners, in place of ransom; and how they are to keep both. 120. About the grievous sinfulness of a man stealing back his ransom from foreigners, though it be his own son. 121. About the sinfulness of the governor (sardâr) of a province through any harm that occurs in the province owing to his elevation and evil commands.

35. Pahl. rnar'zânân, which might be supposed to be a defective writing of margar'jânân, 'those worthy of death' (the two letters equivalent to rga being omitted), but see Chap. 21.13.

36. The MS. pâk is evidently a defective writing for navâk, which is written correctly in the next clause of this section.

122. About the existence of so many thieves assisting a thief with special ransom, and what kind of reward (navishnô) one is to use with thieves, to deceive with great judiciousness. 123. About attaching to the neck of a thief the thing which was stolen by him, for his personal identification, and conducting him to the judges. 124. About the non-atonement of thieves, by any amount of anything whatever, without confession as regards their own sin. 125. About the assistance to possession which is claimed by any one from the authorities (padân), when his property is stolen or extorted.

126. About the grievous sinfulness and deceitfulness of many kinds which occur when a woman who is given away with her concurrence, and her acceptance is announced, is given to another man; and whatever is on the same subject. 127. About the unjustifiability of the wisdom of a man, through which he took away property in dispute, from him who was ignorant, before there was certainty about it. 128. About making intercession in a dispute, for him who is ignorant, with the judge and other authorities and chiefs, even including the king of kings [37], when there is no intercessor for him. 129. About the reason of the fitness of a man for sovereignty, and the lodgment of Ohrmazd upon the limited (tang) person of him who is a good ruler.

37. The Persian monarch.

130. About the five special ordinances (dâdistân) that are certain; these are without ordeal, because they are to be considered as certain, and the penalties thereof are to be fully inflicted. 131. About investigation after confession. 132. About squandering (nikizand) wealth of which the custom (dastôbar) of maintaining is begging for it. 133. About the progress (sachishnô) of legal proceedings not having occurred, which is not demanded on account of the existence of want of power, and the number of kinds of that want of power. 134. About a woman without a guardian, when she takes a paramour, and whatever is on the same subject.

135. About bringing a written statement into judicial proceedings, and whatever is on the same subject. 136. About the sin of frightening any one from his place, when he shall move on account of that fright, and the amount of movement and harm which will come upon him therefrom. 137. The delivery back of that which is extorted from one's hands or keeping; that is, how it is to be considered as delivered.

138. About the obviousness of a minor adjudication from that which is greater. 139. About the extreme benefit and peace, even in this world, through a wife and children and grandchildren, and also the prosperity, as regards produce and even wealth thereby, taking away the disputes that arise. 140. About the grievous sinfulness of wealth acquired through unnatural intercourse [38], the annihilation of the spiritual faculties (maînôgânô). 141. About a decree in which the decision is of three descriptions, about three persons. 142. About a tree which, when stolen away, is the death-blow (mât) of a hundred pure birds (vâê), and a thousand birds arise.

38. Vâmkûnîh, compare Pers. bâmûn. It cannot be 'making loans, or money-lending,' because that would be spelt âvâm-kûnîh.

143. About a sin which, owing to deceiving previously, has to increase (frâzh mastanô) its extent, and to fully taste the most extreme. crime of a dagger (dahrakô) of several of the smallest finger breadths. 144. About the sin of defiling four-footed females. 145. About keeping back one of the combatants from fighting, and whatever is on the same subject. 146. About counter-assaults of eight kinds, assault when an infidel shall commit it upon one of the good religion, and whatever is on the same subject. 147. About a counter-assault of a heretic (dûsh-dênô) when an arch-heretic (sarîtar-dênô) is slain.

148. About not leaving any property in the keeping of one worthy of death. 149. About such numbers of abettors of sin being with the sinner, and whatever is on the same subjects. 150. About the injury of a plaint and defense, and the dwelling, property, and feast of the good, by that person who extols the presidency which is given him, but who is not fit for the presidency. 151. About the sinfulness of a judge when he shall make a decision for any one according to his origin. 152. About the grievous sinfulness of delivering the person of an Iranian to a foreigner, and whatever is on the same subject.

153. About the greatness of the gift of a righteous man, as compared with (min) the gift of another, for Rashn [39], the just, to proclaim among the creatures and to accept. 154. This, too, that, when they encounter an apostate and it is necessary to hold a controversy, though there be danger for the hands or feet, or though even for the head, there is to be no refraining from asserting that which is true.

39. The angel of justice who weighs the good works of the departed soul against its sins, in order to decide its fate till the end of time.

155. This, too, that he who does not assert, on account of fondness for wealth, or dislike for his own people, vexes water and fire and the righteous man, and disturbs even the reposing archangels from their thrones.

156. About the grievous sinfulness of making the righteous dissevered (aûshkâftakô). 157. About the bad properties produced by the evil spirit, adjudication attentive to lying evidence and false, in opposition to Rashn, the just, and through discontent at the advantage due to Rashn, owing to the impossibility of the occurrence of those mischiefs being produced at Rashn's judgment seat, there where they do not give decisions for the wretched for the sake of the aristocratic multitude (âzâd hâvandîh râî). 158. And about the aristocratic multitude which comes to Rashn owing to taking bribes, and went with a complaint to Ohrmazd, and whatever is on the same subject. 159. About a just judge who is appointed one of an assembly for the opposition of thieves, oppressors, and destroyers of the righteous.

160. About the possibility of the coming of every one, through diligence, to the best existence. 161. About the superiority (masîh) of true justice over (min) other good works, and the grievous sinfulness owing to false justice, and when they shall not deliver a sentence with a full understanding of the true from the false.

162. About solemnizing and learning by heart (narm kardanô) the Gathas, the Hadokht [40], and the Washtag [41], through knowing the foundations (pâyakân) thereof; the sin owing to not knowing them, and whatever proceeds therefrom. 163. About the greatness of the law through decrees and judgments from other discourses (srôbân).

40. Here written Hâdôîtô; the name of the twentieth Nask (see Chap. 45).

41. The name of the eleventh Nask (see Chap. 12).

164. About property of seven kinds, of which one says that it is not allowable to take it as security for other property. 165. About ten friends with different assertions on the same subject.

166. And about the apportionment of this discourse there are complete decisions of several other kinds, and into those, too, it advances and thereby introduces much adjudication which takes heed, in every one, of words and deeds of many kinds, and is specifically and also intelligibly apportioned.

167. Perfect excellence is righteousness.

16. Duwasrud Nask (legal)

First section (21).

1. The first of eighteen sections of the Ganabâ-sar-nijad [1] contains particulars about the thief, with his arrest as the special thief of that which is seized (tereftô) by him; the premeditated sin, the imprisonment and fettering, the punishment appointed for atonement of the sin, the execution of the duty, and the amount of the reward (navishn); the amount of speciality in the ransom (navâk) of every one, each separately the act and place of punishment, what is the person who is strangling and the mode, how those who are therein strangling are drawn forth (nazhî-aîtô) successively, and which is set to work first.

1. Corresponding to the sixteenth word, ahurai, in the Ahunwar, according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the eighteenth Nask in other Rivayats. Ganabâ-sar-nijad means 'the thief's head downstricken;' but it is misread Dvâsrûjad, Dvâsrûnjad, Dvâsrûjîd, or Dvâsrôb, in the Rivayats, which also state that it contained sixty-five kardah, or subdivisions, which agree with the numbers of sections mentioned in Chaps. 21, 23, 24. This Nask is evidently named from the contents of its first section, and possibly from its initial words.

2. About a person whose offending limbs are bound, the degree of tightness of the binding and fettering, and the formula (nirang) of being bound for the sin of theft. 3. About imprisonment, and the imprisonment which accusers have to provide, at their own expense, if they are those who are privileged; and whatever is on the same subject. 4. The number of places for fetters, and those which the thief, whoever he is, possesses, each separately. 5. How far, how, and for what putting on of fetters (garov-dahishnîh) those accusers have to provide a thief's fetters, too, at their own expense, if they are those who are privileged; the place for the requisite privileged putting on of fetters, the sin owing to putting on more fetters of a different kind, and that which is owing to neglecting the putting on of the fetters which they have to provide; the limit as regards the deserving of more fettering, the number of grades of theft beyond the limit of deserving fettering, and those which are below the limit of deserving fettering.

6. About the kinds of theft, and the excessive sinfulness of a thief through cutting [2] and wounding the body; the undiscoverableness which is specially as regards a thief at a distance (pavan hasar), he who is on the spot being he who is within one step; theft, with plunder, injuring the existence [3], minor injury, and other sins, may be in confederacy [4] beforehand or afterwards. 7. About the thievish design of a theft which is not abetted (lâ ham), a theft with equal shares, and a theft with different shares.

2. Assuming that gûdanô stands for khûdanô.

3. See Chap. 19.1.

4. Paz. hidhih, probably for a Pahl. adjective hadak from Av. hadha, and referring to accomplices before and after the fact (see Chap. 18.5).

8. About the sin of assisting a thief (dûj aîyyârak), of making investigation and releasing, of a sentence of acquittal, and of a listener to a thief; he who is a giver of assistance to a thief is carried off for theft; also decisions about theft by a child, by a childless woman, and by her who is pregnant; likewise their maintenance and earnings (vindishnô) in retributive work, and the work of a pregnant thief.

9. About the accumulated property of the innumerable which they would keep away from thieves, both the thief by means of his hands, and him who is a thief not by means of his hands. 10. About the testimony of a thief, that is, for what it is admissible when [5] he advances as a thief; how at the time when it is necessary to seize and bind him, and how at the time when it is necessary to flatter (nivâkhtanô) and deceive. him until one attains to absolute power (kâm-kârîh) thereby. 11. About rewards (navishnô) with thieves. 12. About the difference of theft from plunder.

5. Assuming that mûn stands for amat, their Iranian equivalents being nearly alike, and the latter word being used in the succeeding clauses.

13. About property which any one, carrying it off, has to bring back to its owners; such as that which the frontier people may take away from foreigners, that which the judge may take away from thieves, and the share which he may take away from any one not interfering [6] with thieves. 14. And about protectors and defenders of a thief, and also many other legal decisions as regards theft.

6. Av. asterethwãn. The share being a bribe for purchasing non-interference. In each case the property into be restored to its original owner who had been robbed by the foreigners or thieves.

Second section (22).

1. The second section is miscellaneous (ham-dâdakô): about the authority for the inquiry (khvâst-radakîh) of a father into the sin of a grown-up son, when unaware of the sin of his son at the time it is committed; that of a son into that of a father, and of others grown-up, as to one another, when they are not abettors of the sin; and that of a husband into the sin of a wife, when not and when [1] cooperating and unrestraining. 2. About arrival at the period for the teaching of children by a guardian or father, and the mode of his teaching; the period at which the sin of a child has reached a beginning, the extent of the sin of childhood, the retribution in childhood, and that also at maturity; the sin due to not teaching a child who is to be taught, and whatever is on the same subject.

1. Perhaps the repetition of the word amat, 'and when' is a blunder of the copyist.

3. About the freedom from slaughter which is to keep away the destruction of the world; and what is the mode of distributing the property of a man of the valiant after his slaughter. 4. About the sin of having given implements of slaughter to a woman, a child, or a foreigner. 5. About a woman who, as regards two men worthy of death, demands the head of the one, and is seeking a son in the other one.

6. About a warrior, without provisions (atûshakô) who, on the march, has come upon pasture, corn, and sheep whose shepherd [2] is a stranger to him, and whatever is on the same subject. 7. About considering property inexpedient, and the decision thereon.

2. The Pahlavi word is written ... twenty-four times, and ... once, in this Book, but its reading is not quite certain. It means 'shepherd' throughout Chaps. 23, 39, and in 31.17, 31, 40.3; but is used for 'herdsman' in 39.3, and for 'follower' in 31.2. This last meaning is strongly in favor of the reading pasîg, for pasîk, 'following,' an adjectival form derived from pas, 'after,' which, when used as a noun, would imply 'one who follows,' as drovers and shepherds are accustomed to do, with a few local exceptions. The Pahlavi spelling of the word is uniformly inconsistent with the reading pâs, 'guard, protector;' and it seems hazardous to trace it to a possible Avesta adjective pasvya, from pasu, 'a sheep,' because the latter word becomes pâh in Pahlavi. The word also occurs in Pahl. Vend. 15.116; it is a transcript of Av. fshenghî and fshenghyô in Yas 31.10 b, 49.9 a, and of fshê in Vend. 13.10, 11; so that it may perhaps be read fsheg, or fshê as a mere transcript from the Avesta.

8. About the amount of delay of a judge on becoming aware that the plaintiff is falsely petitioning and the defendant is falsely confessing. 9. About the amount of delay of the judge, and in the court of justice (dâd gâs); and whatever is on the same subject. 10. About a decision regarding a judge who explained a doubtful opinion as a certainty, and that which is certain as a doubtful decision, and would make an undecided matter decided. 11. About the opinion as to certainty and that as to doubtfulness, making a decision, and whatever is on the same subject.

12. About the business of commissioned judges, from him who is lowest to him who is highest, one above the other one. 13. Decisions about adjudication; that which is legal when two judges are together, that which is legal with either one judge or two judges together, and whatever is on the same subject. 14. About the statements of a decision regarding interpretations (pâdô-khânânô) [3], and whatever is on the same subject. 15. About the proportion of the time of judges for decision, that for summoning witnesses to the judges, and that for the proceedings (sachishnô). 16. About the judge who is doubly satisfied [4], and him who is not doubly satisfied; also the time from a judge's not being doubly satisfied till his being doubly satisfied. 17. About a judge of four customs, and his decision thereon; one who knows the decree and would act to effect it, and one who knows it and would not act. 18. About the supremacy of a judge as to adjudication so far as there is a false decision therein; how it is when he is at a distance (pavan hasar), and how it is when he is on the spot; he who is at a distance becomes a superior therein, when he comes back to the place of justice before the end of a Hasar [5]. 19. About other false teaching of a judge which is manifest therefrom, and the retribution for the false teaching; the false summoning, false investigation, and false evidence of the complainant (mûst-hômônd) having been his own, and a separate atonement unto the afflicted one has to atone for the affair; it having been mitigated by no good work. 20. About the trouble of adjudication to the priestly authorities (radân). 21. About the proficiency of a woman or child who is acquainted with the law [6], for a judgeship, being above that of a full-grown man unacquainted with the law.

3. Pahl. pâdô-khân = Pers. pâî`hvân.

4. Paz. vayôzusht, Av. vayôzushtô = dvayôzushtô. Farh. Oim, p. 43, ll. 10-12, has 'the Vayôzushtô, who is a judge, explains this, so that the petitioner who is doubtful is a hearer of certainty; it is, as one says, deliberately weighed.'

5. See Chap. 20.68.

6. See Chap. 20.74.

22. About assisting the want of one's own disciple for a master for the recited law, and the sin due to not assisting, such as that when, wanting assistance, it is allowable for the afflicted one. to beg an assistant from foreigners, and according to his petition is the bringing of a foreigner for assistance; and whatever is on the same subject. 23. About the supremacy of Rashn [7] the righteous.

7. See Chap. 20.153.

24. About several persons who are engaged in legal proceedings about the keeping and non-division of property not their own, and the decision as regards for whom one has in keeping that property which is not his own. 25. About actions which are not in-consistent and those which are inconsistent. 26. About the decision of a judge of congregational actions.

27. About the offense which accusers would commit, as regards the law, by means of the law, it being not allowable to commit it with their own hands; also as regards any one's property, about which there is a dispute, even though with a certainty as to its ownership.

Pasush-haurvastan section (23).

1. One section of the next twelve is the Pasush-haurvastan ('shepherd's-dog code'), about the shepherd who is selecting a shepherd's dog for the sheep, and the shepherd with various shepherd's dogs; about the shepherd's comprehension of their serviceability, one with the other, and whatever is on the same subject. 2. The extent of authorized efficiency (shalît-gârîkîh) accomplished by the shepherd's-dog nature of a shepherd's dog, after his being appointed by the shepherd.

3. About the shepherd's preparing the means of bedding [1] for the shepherd's dog, giving the amount of the price of the daily food of a shepherd's dog, provisions for the dog in the winter, and the preparation of a fire beforehand which it is necessary to make in the sheepfold (pâh-hastô). 4. About the mode of preparing the appointed fireplace of the sheepfold, the position of the shepherd's dog and the dog's fire, the means of lodging and provisioning the shepherd's dog in the sheepfold, the sin owing to the occasions when one proceeds to provide another mode, and whatever is on the same subject.

1. Or 'covering,' jâmakô.

5. About the diligence of the shepherd's dog, and about his being guardian of the sheep asleep at night in flocks [2] dreading distress; the dog, their protection, is not provided with bedding, nor with pillow, and they are happy; every night he has to come out,, through the whole flock, three times, besides when one of the guards (padânô), who is apprehensive, counts them, who, every day at dawn, has to walk out among the sheep, with good words, to inspect them, to apply remedies properly to the sheep that are sick, wounded, bruised,. Or defective, and to be their guardian; also the sin owing to worrying them, and whatever is on the same subject. 6. About that which is to be done by him as regards the breeding of the sheep, and likewise for the sake of the young ones; and the sin when he does not do it, or shall act otherwise. 7. About his fully understanding where and which is the sheep for each young one. 8. About his habit and means of keeping away the thief and the wolf from the sheep, and the preservation of the sheep thereby when an awful cloud and wind and rain arise, or when the position of those distressed ones, at the fords of rivers, comes opposite a locality (nisishno) of bad footing; when it is not possible for him to save all, he has to save the greater in value, or the more in number.

2. Paz. pasîvãn for pasûvãn (pl of pasu).

9. About his having guarded a sheep from the pasture of others and the retribution for the sin of not having guarded as to the eating and damaging of the corn and pasture of others by the sheep. 10. About the extent of preservation by the shepherd's dog's driving the sheep from the corn and pasture of others of various species, such as that which one calls the very stupid (gôltar) pig; there is, moreover, the specified pasture as regards those sheep, but the pig, which feeds upon its own predecessors, is also that which may commit another sin, for it feeds upon even its progeny at birth.

11. About the indication of an assembly place (garang) for the sheep, in a warm or cool locality, by the shepherd's dog. 12. About the characteristics of sheep from one to four years of age. 13. About the village (vis) of the shepherd, where the shepherd's dog is known when he arrives; how it is when a sheep has to be kept out of the sheepfold by the shepherd's dog, and how it is when it has to be driven by him to the village of the heedful shepherd. 14. About the coming of the shepherd unto a sheep, and the path from the village which the shepherd has provided for [3] the flock.

3. Assuming that valman stands for val.

15. About a shepherd when he withholds the daily food of a shepherd's dog. and the exhaustion of life thereby; after the fourth deprival of food (atapak-dâdô) [4] it is allowable for the shepherd's dog to kill a sheep for nourishment. 16. About a sheep, which comes astray into the flock to be slaughtered, being the perquisite of the butcher (bâhar-i kûshtâr), and that of the shepherd's dog being its dog [5] and the appointed number of one sheep. 17. About their extent of movement, and their pregnancy and growing old (bâr va-khasân). 13. About the sin of the shepherd, as regards the shepherd's dog, through injustice as to work, reward, and chastisement; and of the shepherd's dog, as regards the shepherd, through improperly tending a sheep, or worrying it by exertion; also his chastisement, and the payment that occurs for the incompetence and unworthiness therein; besides adjudications between the shepherd and shepherd's dog.

4. See Chap. 17.6.

5. The dog who allowed the sheep to stray being thus punished, by becoming the prey of the dog into whose flock the sheep strayed, also receives a sheep as his share of the butchering.

19. About the instruction which the shepherd gives to the shepherd's dog, through reminders (pavan ayâdîhâ), to control a sheep, when, the shepherd's dog having heard some musical notes (srûdô gâsânô), the instruction took place in the form of words; and, when the notes were not heard, even by a blow (zatam), the means of that instructor being a blow. 20. About the peculiarity of the shepherd's dog as regards its employment (rôjkâr) at the periods of satisfying menstrual excitement, solemnizing the season-festivals [[Gahambars]], and other important good works.

Storistan section (24).

1. The first section of the last thirty-five is the Storistan ('beast-of-burden code'), particulars about the sin, affecting the soul, due to unlawfully striking and wounding as regards beasts of burden and cattle; and the retribution and compensation for it to one's own cattle, that in case of a beast of burden and that in case of a sheep (anûmâê), during life. 2. That which arises when one smites them with a brand (dakhshak); that when smites them on the flank, and that when it is in front of them; that when their flanks are so smitten is complete smiting. 3. Of the smiting, too, of other members, the smiting in front, though the smiting be such as when one so smites for smiting on the flank, is not complete smiting. 4. And that which amounts to as much as a complete smiting, when one so smites as for smiting on the flank, is such as that when one casts off the skin, and that when one casts off the flesh, thereby, that when one is cutting it, or that when wounds (khîmân) or serpent-scourging (mârvanô) [1] are upon it.

1. See Chap. 18.2, 6; or it may be muharvanô, 'cauterizing.'

5. It is also about making the dog which drives the sheep (pasûsh-haûrvô) dumb. 6. About bruising the limbs and plucking the feathers of birds, such as the case when it is complete smiting, and such as that when it is not complete smiting. 7. And unlawfully destroying as regards fish, such as when it would make their flesh inedible. 8. An account as to noticeably and worryingly beating cattle, about decrees of whatever kinds as to each separate beating worryingly that is to be considered as noticeable beating, and many decrees as to whatever is on the same subject. 9. About the retribution for making clothing of skins and woven wool (tadakô), and the sin of any one owing to kindling a fire therewith, or roasting flesh which is stolen or plundered.

10. About the good work of all that is wise activity, and the reward of the happy place [2]; the sin of everything that is ignorant activity, and the bridge penalty of the evil place [3]; connected there-with, to make him who is righteous develops in wisdom, and to make him who is wicked diminish in ignorance, is the world.

2. Heaven.

3. Falling into hell owing to the narrowness of the Chinwad bridge to the other world, occasioned by an excess of sin over good works (see Dd. 21.5-7).

Ar'jistan section (25).

1. The second section is the Ar'jistan ('value code'), particulars about the value of small consumption of animate, and also that of inanimate, property; with the desirability of information thereon, each separately. 2. The value of not destroying a righteous man even for a decree and justice, and of atonement for injuring the existence [1] of the fire of Warharan [2].

1. See Chap. 19.1.

2. The sacred Warharan fire.

Arateshtaristan section (26).

1. The third section is the Arateshtaristan ('warrior code'), particulars about the worthiness of destroying a wolf; and, among wolves, the greater need of destroying (zanishntarîh) those with two legs than those with four legs.

2. About selecting the daily supplies of warriors, the beasts of burden, clothing, and equipment of warriors, and other appurtenances (avârîgânakîh) which are to be given to them; also selecting a horse and accouterments (zênô-afzâr) for each one. 3. About having a man's horse trained before one sends him to smite enemies. 4. About the efficacy of the resources and care of a warrior in the destruction which enemies occasion; also the army and the slaughter of war. 5. About the sin of the village and abode of the warriors on the occurrence of a battle, and what is the retribution for wounds and damage; what is that which is disfiguring (apîrâyak) therein, and what is that which is worthy of death therein.

6. About the characteristics of the wearing of armor (zênâvandîh) and not wearing of armor by warriors. 7. About the rank of the general (sipâh-padô), and other officers (padân) over the troops, as to daily supplies, pay, and dignity; also their subordinates (azhîrag), and the number of troopers (gûrd) to each one of the officers. 8. About the anxieties of a trooper for the protection of person and family. 9. About the number of troopers when the king of kings goes to battle. 10. About the proportion of daily provision for two warriors, the meat and milk and bread thereof, which are for the sake of providing guidance and causing contests of the warriors in that good eating; also the reason of certifying (gôvâîk) its distribution and weighing, the beast of burden of the original village (bûn kôkîh) [1], and its means of being sent unto the troops. 11. About cutting the herbs for the veterinary surgeon (stôr bezhashkô), the store of accouterments, and other things which are necessary with an army. 12. About the feeding of warriors on the day of battle, the meat and whatsoever are their eatables; even so the food of the horses.

1. Whence the supplies come.

13. About the wealth which foreigners bring away, and this which is declared thereof, that is, 'I, too, am assisting even the wolf.' 14. About the display of esteem by warriors together, the union of friendship one with the other, obedient unto their commander of the troops, and mindfully resigning themselves to death, there being seen a spiritual reward, without doubt, in the future existence.

15. About the choice of a commander over the troops;. also as to his coming and understanding the habits of his troops, each separately, through the capability of skill which is theirs. 16. About estimating the strength and resources of the troops, with those of their enemies; that is, how the battle is to be engaged in, or how the case is when it is to be avoided. 7. About the provision of anything requisite [2] which warriors shall leave for safety when there is danger in the neighborhood from a distant stronghold, or danger to a neighboring stronghold from afar. 18. About the case where, when it is necessary to engage in battle, the horse of a warrior has not arrived, and it is allowable to seize upon several horses from a herd of horses. 19. About the watchful sentinel (nigâhakô pâspânô), and of what kind is the information from which this is manifest, to the army and commander of the troops, that the enemy is well dead, or fled.

2. Or 'of value;' khvâstakô having both meanings.

20. About a demonstration whereby they produce terror and apprehension in the enemy. 21. About an altercation of the commander of the troops with foreigners before a battle; altercation also through an envoy, and calling them into subjection to the king of kings and the religion of the sacred beings [[Yazads]]. 22. About admonition to the troops, and declaring the share and arrangement of special duty of each one in the fight; announcing to the troops the recompense of the active, telling and informing the troops of the reason of being worthy of death, of the worthiness of destroying foreigners, of the command of the sacred beings as to their destruction when they shall not accept the Iranian nationality (Aîrîh), and the equally great reward and recompense for their destruction announced by revelation, the legal code (dâdistânîkîh) of Iran.

23. About not uttering words of irritation on the day of battle, and not mentioning, among the troops, any intelligence which gives the troops apprehension, but only that which is agreeable and pleasing, through giving heartiness and increasing the strength. 24. About the sacred ceremonial on the day of battle and evil deeds of war; -- a twig of the sacred twigs [[barsom]] of that ceremonial, and the Avesta as regards fighting, being the first arrow well delivered into the mark shot at; -- the consecration of the water which is nearest to the place of battle, even by bringing holy water; and the sequence of the fight, that is, with which arms and appliances it is first to be fought, and successively unto those which are the last.

25. About the proportion of those who keep the arms (zâê) for the combatants, and, after a victory over foreigners, are taking away the hostages and captives, out of the foreigners, from the combatants; also their return from them. 26. At what degree of distance from them they have to carry the arms and appliances and the restoratives for the unfatigued and the fatigued; and, the accouterments being deposited, a warm bath prepared, and relaxation of the body effected, the reward of merit is given. 27. One has to search offenders, to bring restoratives for the unfatigued and the fatigued, to deliver the accouterments back to the arsenal (ganjô), to allot the share of the hostage brought back to his own people, and also much else on the same subject.

Fourth section: miscellaneous (27).

1. The fourth section is miscellaneous: about a warm bath being in a house of what kind, the position of security of the fireplace, the watchfulness to be upheld there, and whatever is on the same subject. 2. About the strength that a horse has to exert for the sake of the earth, and that which is to be exerted in that mode for the sake of fire. 3. About food and other matters which may be prepared with fire, and the security of the fire in like manner. 4. About fire which, even on the road, is free from throwing away, bodily refuse [1] and dead matter [2], and from the injury and harm owing thereto; the various safeguards of fire from being given to an infidel (ag-dênô) or a child; the distance of the fire from a rivulet [3]; the penalty for throwing it away, or other sin as regards it; and the proportion of nourishment and preparation for the fire in summer, and also in winter.

1. See Chap. 19.3.

2. Any solid portion of a corpse, or carcass, of a human being, dog, or other animal.

3. Which might extinguish it and, thereby, render the person who had charge of the fire grievously sinful.

5. About picketing (barâ nishâstanô) a horse, that is, how it is justifiable when it is in water and dust, how it is so when really in very distressing bodily refuse, and how it is so when even in bodily refuse that is tolerable. 6. About the proportion of nourishment for mankind, fire, and cattle. 7. About receiving a guest, the praise of liberality, and the grandeur of the liberal, the contempt for stinginess, and the want of the wanderer.

8. About the mode of wearing garments in a dwelling of Mazda-worshippers, even so far as a bandage of four rags for protection [4]; the care of them each separately, the wages of the makers and ornamenters of each one, and whatever is on the same subject. 9. About having procured a street-keeper (kûgpânô) for the Mazda-worshippers, the business of the street-keeper thereof, and whatever is on the same subject.

4. Reading vad-ich vand-i-î 4 lôtô-î pânakîh, and taking lôtô as equivalent to Pers. latah. We might suppose that the phrase meant 'a belt of the four strings (rûdô) of protection,' but the number would not correspond to the three times the sacred thread-girdle [[kusti]] passes round the waist, nor would the material of rûdô 'catgut,' be appropriate for the girdle.

10. About preparing in the summer a store for the winter. 11. About reaping a field of corn, the Avesta [5] for the first reaping, and having consecrated the first sheaf with the dedication (shnûman) to Ohrmazd the lord. 12. About the union of those of the good religion together, both in removing want and in union even with infidels in that which is not detrimental to the religion, and whatever is on the same subject. 13. About duty as regards the produce of plants and animals; first, suitable eating; and secondly, moderate eating and avoidance of profusion.

5. The scriptural formula to be recited in its original language.

14. About possessions which belong to the nobles, and those which belong to the multitude; in what manner that which belongs to the multitude has to come into the possession of the nobles; and whatever is on the same subject. 15. About the enviousness (zigûrîh) of the beast of burden, ox, and sheep, and also of people; that is, in how many of the multitudes, each separately, it is produced; and whatever is on the same subject. 16. And also much other adjudication and information on similar intelligence.

17. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.