Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East,
volume 24, Clarendon Press, 1885.
- The ninety-second subject is this, that it is necessary to
properly maintain the sacred fire and some one who will work with
assiduity (kahdan) to provide maintenance and sympathy for it.
2. And the supply of its firewood is entirely in such a manner
that they burn this year the firewood of last year. 3. At midnight
they make it blaze up, and put incense upon if in such a manner
that the wind carries off its scent.
- The demons and fiends rush away, because there is the glory
of the sacred fire that we are able to make a living existence
in the midst of this people. 5. For, if no fiend and the glory
of the archangels and the day of the sacred fire had not existed,
it would not have been possible to produce the living existence
any day. 6. And, therefore, it makes it expedient that they supply
a fire-attendant to maintain the firewood and fire, so that a
seeking for its safety ('hafiyat) may come into operation, and
they may know a support and protection for it that would be acceptable.
- The ninety-third subject is this, that it is necessary for
all those of the good religion to practice abstinence from uttering
slander (ghaibat) behind one's back.
- In the commentary of the Vendidad it states, that slander
is the greatest of all sins. 3. Every one who perpetrates slander
about any one is like him who has eaten dead matter -- and the
eating of dead matter is a sin that has likewise been mentioned,
before this, in this book -- but the statement is like this, while
they do not indicate any punishment for it in this world, it does
not go without it in that other world. 4. Therefore it is necessary
for those of the good religion to make an effort, so that they
may guard themselves from this slander.
- In order that they may show thy soul, when resigning life,
the satisfaction (ijza) for the sin, it states, in the commentary
of the Vendidad, as to any one by whom slander is perpetrated,
if the injured person goes before him and begs a righteous gift
from him, and he provides a righteous gift for that. person, the
sin departs from him.
- The ninety-fourth subject is this, when a person confers a
benefit or kindness upon any one, it is necessary that that latter
should understand the value of it, and lay the obligation (minnat)
upon himself; and, if he be able, he should provide a benefit
to that amount (miqdar) for that person.
- It is declared in revelation, that, when a person confers
a benefit upon any one, Ohrmazd gives him ten times as much, as
an equivalent. 3. And, if the other be not understanding the justice
of this, it is related in the commentary of the Avesta in this
manner, that it is a great sin for him. 4. And Ahriman speaks
like this, namely: 'That sinner is akin to me; in the end he will
come into my hands; I will not give him into the hands of any
demon, but I will inflict punishment with my own hands.' 5. And
the chief priest says it is necessary for all Zarathushtrians
that they keep themselves far from this sin.
- The ninety-fifth subject is this, that it is necessary that
it be expedient for all those of the good religion to perform
the salutation of the sun [Khwarshed Niyayesh] three times every
- If one performs it once, it is a good work of one tanapuhr;
if he performs it twice, it is twice as much; and if he performs
it three times, it is thrice as much. 3. And if he does not perform
one repetition, it is a sin of thirty stirs; if he does not perform
two repetitions, it is twice as much sin; and if he does not perform
three repetitions, it is thrice as much sin.
- And it is the same as this with regard to the salutations
of the moon and fire [Mah Niyayesh and Atash Niyayesh]. 5. Therefore
it is expedient, in the religion, for every one of the good religion
to bring the salutations into practice.
- The ninety-sixth subject is this, when any one departs to
that other world it is not proper for others that they should
utter an outcry, maintain grief, and make lamentation and weeping.
2. Because every tear that issues from the eyes becomes one drop
of that river before the Chinwad bridge, and then the soul of
that dead person remains at that place; it is difficult for it
to make a passage there, and it is not able to pass over the Chinwad
bridge. 3. It is therefore necessary that they recite the Avesta
and celebrate the ceremonial, so that the passage of that place
may become easy for it.
- The ninety-seventh subject is this, that it is expedient for
those of the good religion, that they converse, according to their
own ability, in the presence of officiating priests, high-priests,
spiritual chiefs, and priests, and hearken cordially to whatever
they say. 2. And they should understand their statements, and,
during them, they should not utter any reply or question (sual).
- For in the commentary of the Avesta it says, as to every one
who brings altercation ('hujjat) into any statement of the elders
of the religion, 'one breaks out his tongue, or he goes out from
this world abortively (mubattala).'
- The ninety-eighth subject is this, that it is necessary for
all those of the good religion, that they learn the Avesta characters
in the presence of priests and teachers, so as to read, and that
no error may continue in the Niyayeshes and Yashts.
- And it is still more expedient for priests and teachers, that
they teach the Avesta characters to all those of the good religion;
and if a priest, while teaching, shows incompetence (taqzir),
it is a great sin for him. 3. For Ohrmazd, the good and propitious,
spoke to Zartosht thus: 'As to every priest and teacher who commits
a blunder in teaching those of the good religion, I make him just
as far from heaven as the width of the earth.
- The ninety-ninth subject is this, 'that it is not proper for
officiating priests, high-priests, spiritual chiefs, and priests,
that they teach Pahlavi to every one.
- For Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'To whom is it proper
to teach Pahlavi?' 3. And Ohrmazd, the good and propitious, gave
a reply thus: 'To every one who is of thy family (nasl), an officiating
priest, a high-priest, a spiritual chief, and every one who is
an intelligent priest. 4. Besides these that I have mentioned,
if one teaches it to others it is a great sin for him; and if
he has performed many duties and good works, the end for him may
still be hell.'
- The hundredth subject is this, when a person molests or smites
any one who is innocent, it is a sin of one tanapuhr every day
for that person, as long as he lives. 2. And, when he departs
from this world, the angel Mihr and the angel Rashn make up his
account and reckoning. 3. He is full of affliction, and experiences
much regret and penitence, and has no advantage from it. 4. It
is therefore necessary to keep oneself far from this sin.
Go to [Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives
| Sad Dar: Contents