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OLD PERSIAN TEXTS

The Achaemenian Kings left extensive cuneiform inscriptions in Old Persian dated roughly between 600 BCE and 300 BCE. They also left ruins which have been described as the most grandiose of the ancient world. While it is by no means certain that they were orthodox Zoroastrians, the majority opinion among scholars is that this is very likely. One of the strongest arguments for this is the frequent mention of Ahura Mazda in the inscriptions, which is almost certainly an innovation of Zarathushtra's. Their religion is also described by Herodotus in sufficient detail to leave little doubt that they were basically Zoroastrian.

"Ahura Mazda came to my aid."

It was thanks to Darius the Great that we have been able to decipher the cuneiform script, which had fallen into even deeper oblivion than Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Based on Roland G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953


See UC Berkeley site for an Old Persian syllabary

CONTENTS:


Ariaramnes, Hamadan (AmH).

Slightly incomplete OP text on gold tablet.

Text:Translation:

1 Ariyâramna : xshyathiya : vazraka : xshâyath

2 iya : xshâyathiyânâm : xshâyathiya : Pârsâ

3 : Cishpaish : xshâyathiyahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishah

4 yâ : napâ : thâtiy : Ariyâramna : xshâyathiya

5 : iyam : dahyâushi : Pârsâ : tya adam : dârayâ

6 miy : hya : uvaspâ : umartiyâ : manâ : baga

7 : vazraka : Auramazdâ frâbara : vashnâ : Au

8 ramazdâha : adam xshâyathiya : iyam da

9 hyâush : amiy : thâtiy : Ariyâramna

10 : xshâyathiya : Auramazdâ : manâ : upastâ

11 m : baratuv

1. (1-4). Ariaramnes, the Great King, King of Kings, King in Persia, son of Teispes the King, grandson of Achaemenes.

2. (4-9). Ariaramnes the King says: This country Persia which I hold, which is possessed of good horses, of good men, the Great God Ahuramazda bestowed it upon me. By the favor of Ahuramazda I am king in this country.

3. (9-11). Ariaramnes the King says: May Ahuramazda bear me aid.

Arsames, Hamadan (AsH).

OP text on gold tablet, lower right corner missing.
Text:Translation:
1 Arshâma : xshâyathiya : vazraka : x

2 shâyathiya : xshâyathiyânâm : x

3 shâyathiya : Pârsa : Ariyâramna : xsh

4 âyathiyahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya

5 : thâtiy : Arshâma : xshâyathiya : Au

6 ramazdâ : baga : vazraka : hya : mathish

7 ta : bagânâm : mâm : xshâyathiya

8 m : akunaush : hauv dahyâum : P

9 ârsam : manâ : frâbara : tya ukâram

10 : uvaspam : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : im

11 âm dahyâum : dârayâmiy : mâm :

12 Auramazdâ : pâtuv : utâmaiy : v

13 itham : utâ : imâm : dahyâum : tya :

14 adam : dârayâmiy : hauv : pâtuv

1. (1-4). Arsames, the Great King, King of Kings, King (in) Persia, son (of) Ariaramnes the King, an Achaemenian.

2. (5-14). Arsames the King says: Ahuramazda, great god, the greatest of gods, made me king. He bestowed on me the land Persia, with good people, with good horses. By the favor of Ahuramazda I hold this land. May Ahuramazda protect me, and my royal house, and may he protect this land which I hold.

Cyrus, Murghab (Pasargadae) A. (CMa)

5 or more copies of trilingual inscription on columns and pillars of the palace.
Text:Translation:
1 adam : Kûrush : xshâya

2 thiya : Haxâmanishiya

I am Cyrus the King, an Achaemenian.

Cyrus, Murghab B. (CMb)

Fragments of trilingual inscription which stood above the royal figure in the doorways of the palace.
Text:Translation:
1 Kûrush : xshâyathiya : vazraka : Kabûjiya

2 hyâ : xshâyathiyahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya :

3 thâtiy : yathâ ...

4 ... ... akutâ ...

Cyrus the Great King, son of Cambyses the King, an Achaemenian. He says: When ... made ...

Cyrus, Murghab C. (CMc)

Trilingual inscription on folds of king's garment in 3 doorways of the palace

Text:Translation:
Kûrush : xshâyathiya : vazraka : Haxâmanishiya Cyrus the Great King, an Achaemenian.

Darius, Behishtan (DB), Column 1:

Trilingual inscription on face of a gorge beneath panel of sculptures

Text:Translation:
1 : adam : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : vazraka : xshâyatha : xshâyathiy

2 ânâm : xshâyathiya : Pârsaiy : xshâyathiya : dahyûnâm : Visht

3 âspahyâ : puça : Arshâmahyâ napâ : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy :

4 Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : manâ : pitâ : Vishtâspa : Vishtâspahyâ : pitâ : Arsh

5 âma : Arshâmahyâ : pitâ : Ariyâramna : Ariyâramnahyâ : pitâ: Cishpish : Cishp

6 âish : pitâ : Haxâmanish : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâthiya : avahyarâ

7 diy : vayam : Haxâmanishiyâ : thahyâmahy : hacâ : paruviyata : âmâtâ : ama

8 hy hacâ : paruviyata :hyâ :amâxam : taumâ : xshâyathiyâ : âha : th

9 âtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : VIII : manâ : taumâyâ : tyaiy : paruvam

10 xshâyathiyâ : âha : adam navama : IX : duvitâparanam : vavam : xshâyathi

11 yâ : amahy : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : vashnâ : Auramazd

12 âha : adam : xshâyathiya : amiy : Auzamazdâ : xshaçam : manâ : frâbara : th

13 âtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : imâ : dahyâva : tyâ : manâ : patiyâisha : vashn

14 â : Auramazdâha : adamshâm : xshâyathiya : âham : Pârsa : Ûvja : Bâbirush : A

15 thurâ : Arabâya : Mudrâya : tyaiy : drayahyâ : Sparda : Yauna : Mâda : Armina : Kat

16 patuka : Parthava : Zraka : Haraiva : Uvârazmîy : Bâxtrish : Suguda : Gadâra : Sa

17 ka : Thatagush : Harauvatish : Maka : fraharavam : dahyâva : XXIII : thâtiy : Dâra

18 yavaush : xshâyathiya : imâ : dahyâva : tyâ : manâ : patiyâita : vashnâ : Au

19 ramazdâha : manâ : badakâ : âhatâ : manâ : bâjim : abaratâ : tyashâm : hacâma

20 : athahya : xshapava : raucapativâ : ava : akunavayatâ : thâtiy : Dârayava

21 ush : xshâyathiya : atar : imâ : dahyâva : martiya : hya : âgariya : âha : avam : u

22 bartam : abaram : hya : arika : âha : avam : ufrastam : aparsam : vashnâ : Auramazdâ

23 ha : imâ : dahyâva : tyanâ : manâ : dâtâ : apariyâya : yathâshâm : hacâma : athah

24 ya : avathâ : akunavayatâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : Auramazdâ

25 maiy : ima xshaçam : frâbara : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : yâtâ : ima : xshaçam :

26 hamadârayaiy : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : ima : xshaçam : dârayâmiy : thâ

27 tiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : ima : tya : manâ : kartam : pasâva : yathâ : xsh

28 âyathiya : abavam : Kabûjiya : nâma : Kûraush : puça : amâxam : taumây

29 â : hauvam : idâ : xshâyathiya : âha : avahyâ : Kabûjiyahyâ : brâ

30 tâ : Bardiya : nâma : âha : hamâtâ : hamapitâ : Kabûjiyahyâ : pasâva : Ka

31 bûjiya : avam : Bardiyam : avâja : yathâ : Kabûjiya : Bardiyam : avâja : kârahy

32 â : naiy : azdâ : abava : tya : Bardiya : avajata : pasâva : Kabûjiya : Mudrâyam

33 : ashiyava : yathâ : Kabûjiya : Mudrâyam : ashiyava : pasâva : kâra : arika : abava

34 : pasâva : drauga : dahyauvâ : vasiy : abava : utâ : Pârsaiy : utâ : Mâdaiy : ut

35 â : aniyâuvâ : dahyushuvâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : pa

36 sâva : I martiya : magush : âha : Gaumâta : nâma : hauv : udapatatâ : hacâ : Paishi

37 yâuvâdâyâ : Arakadrish : nâma : kaufa : hacâ : avadasha : Viyaxnahya : mâh

38 yâ : XIV : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : yadiy : udapatatâ : hauv : kârahyâ : avathâ

39 : adurujiya : adam : Bardiya : amiy : hya : Kûraush : puça : Kabûjiyahyâ : br

40 âtâ : pasâva : kâra : haruva : hamiçiya : abava : hacâ : Kabûjiyâ : abiy : avam :

41 ashiyava : utâ : Pârsa : utâ : Mâda : utâ : aniyâ : dahyâva : xshaçam : hauv

42 : agarbâyatâ : Garmapadahya : mâhyâ : IX : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâ : xsha

43 çam : agarbâyatâ : pasâva : Kabûjiya : uvâmarshiyush : amariyatâ : thâtiy

44 : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : aita : xshaçam : tya : Gaumâta : hya : magush : adîn

45 â : Kabûjiyam : aita : xshaçam : hacâ : paruviyata : amâxam : taumâyâ : â

46 ha : pasâva : Gaumâta : hya : adînâ : Kabûjiyam : utâ : Pârsam : utâ

47 : Mâdam : utâ : aniyâ : dahyâva : hauv : âyasatâ : uvâpashiyam : akutâ : hau

48 v : xshâyathiya : abava : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : naiy : âha : martiya :

49 naiy : Pârsa : naiy : Mâda : naiy : amâxam : taumâyâ : kashciy : hya : avam : Gau

50 mâtam : tyam : magum : xshaçam : dîtam : caxriyâ : kârashim : hacâ : darsham : a

51 tarsa : kâram : vasiy : avâjaniyâ : hya : paranam : Bardiyam : adânâ : avahyar

52 âdiy : kâram : avâjaniyâ : mâtyamâm : xshnâsâtiy : tya : adam : naiy : Bard

53 iya : amiy : hya : Kûraush : puça : kashciy : naiy : adarshnaush : cishciy : thastana

54 iy : pariy : Gaumâtam : tyam : magum : yâtâ : adam : arasam : pasâva : adam : Aura

55 maz(d)âm : patiyâvahyaiy : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : Bâgayâdaish :

56 mâhyâ : X : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâ :adam : hadâ : kamnaibish : martiyaibi

57 sh : avam : Gaumâtam : tyam : magum avâjanam : utâ : tyaishaiy : fratamâ : mar

58 tiyâ : anushiyâ : âhatâ : Sikayauvatish : nâmâ : didâ : Nisâya : nâ

59 mâ : dahyâush : Mâdaiy : avadashim : avâjanam : xshaçamshim : adam : adînam : va

60 shnâ : Auramazdâha : adam : xshâyathiya : abavam : Auramazdâ : xshaçam : manâ : fr

61 âbara : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : xshaçam : tya : hacâ : amâxam ta

62 umâyâ : parâbartam : âha : ava : adam : patipadam : akunavam : adamshim : gâtha

63 vâ : avâstâyam : yathâ : paruvamciy : avathâ : adam : akunavam : âyadan

64 â : tyâ : Gaumâta : hya : magush : viyaka : adam : niyaçârayam : kârahyâ : abi

65 carish : gaithâmcâ : mâniyamcâ : vithbishcâ : tyâdish : Gaumâta : hya :

66 magush : adînâ : adam : kâram : gâthavâ : avâstâyam : Pârsamcâ : Mâdamc

67 â : utâ : aniyâ : dahyâva : yathâ : paruvamciy : avathâ : adam : tya : parâbarta

68 m : patiyabaram : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : ima : adam : akunavam : adam : hamataxshaiy :

69 yâtâ : vitham : tyâm : amâxam : gâthavâ : avâstâyam : yathâ : paruvamciy :

70 avathâ : adam : hamataxshaiy : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : yathâ : Gaumâta : hya : magu

71 sh : vitham : tyâm : amâxam : naiy : parâbara : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyath

72 iya : ima : tya : adam : akunavam : pasâva : yathâ : xshâyathiya : abavam : thâtiy

73 : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : yathâ : adam : Gaumâtam : tyam : magum avâjanam : pa

74 sâva : I martiya : Âçina : nâma : Upadarmahyâ : puça : hauv : udapatatâ : Ûvjai

75 y : kârahyâ : avathâ : athaha : adam : Ûvjaiy : xshâyathiya : amiy : pasâva : Ûv

76 jiyâ : hamiçiyâ : abava : abiy : avam : Âçinam : ashiyava : hauv : xshâyathiya

77 abava : Ûvjaiy : utâ : I martiya : Bâbiruviya : Naditabaira : nâma : Ainairahy

78 â : puça : hauv : udapatatâ : Bâbirauv : kâram : avathâ : adurujiya : adam : Nab

79 ukudracara : amiy : hya : Nabunaitahyâ : puça : pasâva : kâra : hya : Bâbiruviya

80 : haruva : abiy : avam : Naditabairam : ashiyava : Bâbirush : hamiçiya : abava : x

81 shaçam : tya : Bâbirauv : hauv : agarbâyatâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâya

82 thiya : pasâva : adam : frâishayam : Ûvjam : hauv : Âçina : basta : anayatâ : abiy : mâ

83 m : adamshim : avâjanam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : pasâva : adam : Bâ

84 birum : ashiyavam : abiy : avam : Naditabairam : hya : Nabukudracara : agaubatâ

85 : kâra : hya : Naditabairahyâ : Tigrâm : adâraya : : avadâ : aishtatâ : utâ

86 abish : nâviyâ : âha : pasâva : adam : kâram : mashkâuvâ : avâkanam : aniyam : usha

87 bârim : akunavam : aniyahyâ : asam : frânayam : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm

88 : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : Tigrâm : viyatarayâmâ : avadâ : avam : kâram :

89 tyam : Naditabairahyâ : adam : ajanam : vasiy : Âçiyâdiyahya : mâhyâ : XXVI : rau

90 cabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâ : hamaranam : akumâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : x

91 shâyathiya : pasâva : adam : Bâbirum : ashiyavam : athiy : Bâbirum : yathâ : naiy : up

92 âyam : Zâzâna : nâma : vardanam : anuv : Ufrâtuvâ : avadâ : hauv : Nadita

93 baira : hya : Nabukudracara : agaubatâ : âish : hadâ : kârâ : patish : mâm : hamaranam :

94 cartanaiy : pasâva hamaranam akumâ : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Aurama

95 zdâha : kâram : tyam : Naditabairahyâ : adam : ajanam : vasiy : aniya : âpiyâ : âhyatâ : â

96 pishim : parâbara : Anâmakahya : mâhyâ : II : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâ : hamaranam akumâ

1. (1.1-3.) I am Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King in Persia, King of countries, son of Hystaspes, grandson of Arsames, an Achaemenian.

2. (1.3-6.) Darius the King says: My father was Hystaspes; Hystaspes' father was Arsames; Arsames' father was Ariaramnes; Ariaramnes' father was Teispes; Teispes' father was Achaemenes.

3. (1.6-8.) Darius the King says: For this reason we are called Achaemenians. From long ago we have been noble. From long ago our family had been kings.

4. (1.8-11.) Darius the King says: there were 8 of our family who were kings before me; I am the ninth; 9 in succession we have been kings.

5. (1.11-2.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda I am King; Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me.

6. (1.12-7.) Darius the King says: These are the countries which came to me; by the favor of Ahuramazda I was king of them: Persia, Elam, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, (those) who are beside the sea, Sardis, Ionia, Media, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangiana, Aria, Chorasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana, Gandara, Scythia, Sattagydia, Arachosia, Maka: in all, 23 provinces.

7. (1.17-20.) Darius the King says: These are the countries which came to me; by the favor of Ahuramazda they were my subjects; they bore tribute to me; what was said to them by me either by night or by day, that was done.

8. (1.20-4.) Darius the King says: Within these countries, the man who was loyal, him I rewarded well; (him) who was evil, him I punished well; by the favor of Ahuramazda these countries showed respect toward my law; as was said to them by me, thus was it done.

9. (1.24-26.) Darius the King says: Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me; Ahuramazda bore me aid until I got possession of this kingdom; by the favor of Ahuramazda I hold this kingdom.

10. (1.26-35.) Darius the King says: This is what was done by me after I became king. A son of Cyrus, Cambyses by name, of our family -- he was king here of that Cambyses there was a brother, Smerdis by name, having the same mother and the same father as Cambyses. Afterwards, Cambyses slew that Smerdis. When Cambyses slew Smerdis, it did not become known to the people that Smerdis had been slain. Afterwards, Cambyses went to Egypt. When Cambyses had gone off to Egypt, after that the people became evil. After that the Lie waxed great in the country, both in Persia and in Media and in the other provinces.

11. (1.35-43.) Darius the King says: Afterwards, there was one man, a Magian, named Gaumata; he rose up from Paishiyauvada. A mountain named Arakadri -- from there 14 days of the month Viyakhna were past when he rose up. He lied to the people thus: "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus, brother of Cambyses." After that, all the people became rebellious from Cambyses, (and) went over to him, both Persia and Media and the other provinces. He seized the kingdom; of the month Garmapada 9 days were past, then he seized the kingdom. After that, Cambyses died by his own hand.

12. (1.43-8.) Darius the King says: This kingdom which Gaumata the Magian took away from Cambyses, this kingdom from long ago had belonged to our family. After that, Gaumata the Magian took (it) from Cambyses; he took to himself both Persia and Media and the other provinces, he made (them) his own possession, he became king.

13. (1.48-61.) Darius the King says: There was not a man, neither a Persian nor a Mede nor anyone of our family, who might make that Gaumata the Magian deprived of the kingdom. The people feared him greatly, (thinking that) he would slay in numbers the people who previously had known Smerdis; for this reason he would slay the people, "lest they know me, that I am not Smerdis the son of Cyrus." Nobody dared say anything about Gaumata the Magian, until I came. After that I sought help of Ahuramazda; Ahuramazda bore me aid; of the month Bagayadi 10 days were past, then I with a few men slew that Gaumata the Magian, and those who were his foremost followers. A fortress named Sikayauvati, a district named Nisaya, in Media -- here I slew him. I took the kingdom from him. By the favor of Ahuramazda I became king; Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me.

14. (1.61-71.) Darius the King says: The kingdom which had been taken away from our family, that I put in its Place; I reestablished it on its foundation. As before, so I made the sanctuaries which Gaumata the Magian destroyed. I restored to the people the pastures and the herds, the household slaves and the houses which Gaumata the Magian took away from them. I reestablished the people on its foundation, both Persia and Media and the other provinces. As before, so I brought back what had been taken away. By the favor of Ahuramazda this I did: I strove until I reestablished our royal house on its foundation as (it was) before. So I strove, by the favor of Ahuramazda, so that Gaumata the Magian did not remove our royal house.

15. (1.71-2.) Darius the King says: This is what I did after I became king.

16. (1.72-81.) Darius the King says: When I had slain Gaumata the Magian, afterwards one man, named Asina, son of Upadarma -- he rose up in Elam. To the people he said thus: "I am king in Elam." Afterwards the Elamites became rebellious, (and) went over to that Asina; he became king in Elam. And one man, a Babylonian, named Nidintu-Bel, son of Ainaira -- he rose up in Babylon; thus he deceived the people: "I am Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus." Afterwards the Babylonian people all went over to that Nidintu-Bel; Babylonia became rebellious; he seized the kingdom in Babylon.

17. (1.81-3). Darius the King says: After that I sent (a message) to Elam. This Acina was led to me bound; I slew him.

18. (1.83-90). Darius the King says: After that I went off to Babylon, against that Nidintu-Bel who called himself Nebuchadrezzar. The army of Nidintu-Bel held the Tigris; there it took its stand, and on account of the waters (the Tigris) was unfordable. Thereupon (some of) my army I supported on (inflated) skins, others I made camel-borne, for others I brought horses. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda we got across the Tigris. There I smote that army of Nidintu-Bel exceedingly; of the month Asiyadiya 26 days were past, then we fought the battle.

19. (1.90-6). Darius the King says: After that I went off to Babylon. When I had not arrived at Babylon, a town named Zazana, beside the Euphrates -- there this Nidintu-Bel who called himself Nebuchadrezzar came with an army against me, to deliver battle. Thereupon we Joined battle; Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote that army of Nidintu-Bel exceedingly. The rest was thrown into the water, (and) the water carried it away. Of the month Anamaka 2 days were past, then we fought the battle.

DB, COLUMN 2:

Text:Translation:
1 : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : pasâva : Naditabaira : ha

2 dâ : kamnaibish : asabâraibish : amutha : Bâbirum : ashiya

3 va : pasâva : adam : Bâbirum : ashiyavam : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : utâ Bâ

4 birum : agarbâyam : utâ : avam : Naditabairam : agarbâyam : pasâva : ava

5 m : Naditabairam : adam : Bâbirauv : avâjanam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : x

6 shâyathiya : yâtâ : adam : Babirauv : âham : imâ : dahyâva : tyâ : hacâma : ha

7 miçiyâ : abava : Pârsa : Ûvja : Mâda : Athurâ : Mudrâya : Parthava : Margush : Tha

8 tagush : Saka : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : I martiya : Martiya : nâ

9 ma : Cicixrâish : puça : Kuganakâ : nâma : vardanam : Pârsaiy : avadâ : adâraya :

10 hauv : udapatatâ : Ûvjaiy : kârahyâ : avathâ : athaha : adam : Imanish : amiy : Û

11 vjaiy : xshâyathiya : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : adakaiy : adam : ashna

12 iy : âham : abiy : Ûvjam : pasâva : hacâma : atarsa : Ûvjiyâ : avam : Marti

13 yam : agarbâya : hyashâm : mathishta : âha : utâshim : avâjana : thâtiy : D

14 ârayavaush : xshayathiya : I martiya : Fravartish : nâma : Mâda : hauv : udapatat

15 â : Mâdaiy : kârahyâ : avathâ : athaha : adam : Xshathrita : amiy : Uvaxshtrah

16 yâ : taumâyâ : pasâva : kâra : Mâda : hya : uithâpatiy : hauv : hacâma : hamiçiya : a

17 bava : abiy : avam : Fravartim : ashiyava : hauv : xshâyathiya : abava : Mâdaiy :

18 thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : kâra : Pârsa : utâ : Mâda : hya : upâ : mâm : â

19 ha : hauv : kamnam : âha : pasâva : adam : kâram : frâishayam : Vidarna : nâma : Pârsa : man

20 â : badaka : avamshâm : mathishtam : akunavam : avathâshâm : athaham : paraitâ : avam : k

21 âram : tyam : Mâdam : jatâ : hya : manâ : naiy : gaubataiy : pasâva : hauv : Vidarna : ha

22 dâ : kârâ : ashiyava : yathâ : Mâdam : parârasa : Mârush : nâma : vardanam : Mâ

23 daiy : avadâ : hamaranam : akunaush : hadâ : Mâdaibish : hya : Mâdaishuva

24 : mathishta : âha : hauv : adakaiy : naiy : avadâ : âha : Auramazdâmaiy : u

25 pastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : avam : kâram : t

26 yam : hamiçiyam : aja : vasiy : Anâmakahya : mâhyâ : XXVII : raucabish : thakat

27 â : âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam : pasâva : hauv : kâra : hya : manâ : Kapada : nâm

28 â : dahyâush : Mâdaiy : avadâ : mâm : amânaiya : yâtâ : adam : arasam : Mâda

29 m : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : Dâdarshish : nâma : Arminiya : man

30 â : badaka : avam : adam : frâishayam : Arminam : avathâshaiy : athaham : paraidiy : kâ

31 ra : hya : hamiçiva : manâ : naiy : gaubataiy : avam : jadiy : pasâva : Dâdarshi

32 sh : ashiyava : yathâ : Arminam : parârasa : pasâva : hamiçiyâ : hagmati : parai

33 tâ : patish : Dâdarshim : hamaranam : cartanaiy : Zûzahya : nâma : âvahanam : A

34 rminiyaiy : avadâ : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : a

35 bara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : avam : kâram : tyam : hamiçiyam :

36 aja : vasiy : Thûravâharahya : mâhyâ : VIII : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : avath

37 âshâm : hamaranam : kartam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : patiy : duv

38 itîyam : hamiçiyâ : hagmatâ : paraitâ : patish : Dâdarshim : hamaranam : carta

39 naiy : Tigra : nâmâ : didâ : Arminiyaiy : avadâ : hamaranam : akunava : A

40 uramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : a

41 vam : kâram : tyam : hamiçiyam : aja : vasiy : Thûravâharahya : mâhyâ : XVIII

42 : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam : thâtiy : Dâraya

43 vaush : xshâyathiya : patiy : çitîyam : hamiçiyâ : hagmatâ : paraitâ : pat

44 ish : Dâdarshim : hamaranam : cartanaiy : Uyamâ : nâmâ : didâ : Arminiyaiy : a

45 vadâ : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Aurama

46 zdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : avam : kâram : tyam : hamiçiyam : aja : vasiy : Thâigarca

47 ish : mâhyâ : IX : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam : pasâva

48 : Dâdarshish : citâ : mâm : amânaya : Arminiyaiy : yâtâ : adam : arasam : Mâ

49 dam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : pasâva : Vaumisa : nâma : Pârsa : manâ : ba

50 daka : avam : adam : frâishayam : Arminam : avathâshaiy : athaham : paraidiy : kâra :

51 hya : hamiçiya : manâ : naiy : gaubataiy : avam : jadiy : pasâva : Vaumisa : a

52 shiyava : yathâ : Arminam : parârasa : pasâva : hamiçiyâ : hagmatâ : paraitâ : pa

53 tish : Vaumisam hamaranam : cartanaiy : Izalâ : nâmâ : dahyâush : Athurây

54 â : avadâ : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm abara : vashnâ : Au

55 ramazdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : avam : kâram : tyam : hamiçiyam : aja : vasiy :

56 Anâmakahya : mâhyâ : XV : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam :

57 kartam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : patiy : duvitîyam : ham

58 içiyâ : hagmatâ : paraitâ : patish : Vaumisam : hamaranam : cartanaiy : Au

59 tiyâra : nâmâ : dahyâush : Arminiyaiy : avadâ : hamaranam : akunava :

60 Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : kâra : hya : ma

61 nâ : avam : kâram : tyam : hamiçiyam : aja : vasiy : Thûravâharahya : mâh

62 yâ : jiyamnam : patiy : avathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam : pasâva : Vaumisa

63 : citâ : mâm : amânaya : Arminiyâiy : yâtâ : adam : arasam : Mâdam

64 : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : pasâva : adam : nijâyam : hacâ :

65 Bâbiraush : ashiyavam : Mâdam : yathâ : Mâdam : parârasam : Kudurush : nâma :

66 vardanam : Mâdaiy : avadâ : hauv : Fravartish : hya : Mâdaiy : xshâyathiya : a

67 gaubatâ : âish : hadâ : kârâ : patish : mâm : hamaranam : cartanaiy : pasâva hamarana

68 m : akumâ : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : kâram

69 : tyam : Fravartaish : adam : ajanam : vasiy : Adukanaishahya : mâhyâ : XXV : ra

70 ucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâ : hamaranam : akumâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : x

71 shâyathiya : pasâva : hauv : Fravartish : hadâ : kamnaibish : asabâraibish : amutha : Ra

72 gâ : nâmâ : dahyâush : Mâdaiy : avaparâ : ashiyava : pasâva : adam : kâram : f

73 râishayam : nipadiy : Fravartish : âgarbîta : anayatâ : abiy : mâm : ada

74 mshaiy : utâ : nâham : utâ : gaushâ : utâ : hazânam : frâjanam : utâsha

75 iy : I casham : avajam : duvarayâmaiy : basta : adâriya : haruvashim : k

76 âra : avaina : pasâvashim : Hagmatânaiy : uzmayâpatiy : akunavam

77 : utâ : martiyâ : tyaishaiy : fratamâ : anushiyâ : âhatâ : avaiy : Ha

78 gmatânaiy : atar : didâm : frâhajam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xsh

79 âyathiya : I martiya : Ciçataxma : nâma : Asagartiya : hauvmaiy : hamiçiya :

80 abava : kârahyâ : avathâ : athaha : adam : xshâyathiya : amiy : Asagarta

81 iy : Uvaxshtrahyâ : taumâyâ : pasâva : adam : kâram : Pârsam : ut

82 â : Mâdam : frâishayam : Taxmaspâda : nâma : Mâda : manâ : badaka : avam

83 shâm : mathishtam : akunavam : avathâshâm : athaham : paraitâ : k

84 âram : hamiçiyam : hya : manâ : naiy : gaubâtaiy : avam : jatâ : pas

85 âva : Taxmaspâda : hadâ : kârâ : ashiyava : hamaranam : akunaush : had

86 â : Ciçataxmâ : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramaz

87 dâha : kâra : hya : manâ : avam : kâram : tyam : hamiçiyam : aja : utâ : C

88 içataxmam : agarbâya : anaya : abiy : mâm pasâvashaiy : adam : utâ : n

89 âham : utâ : gaushâ : frâjanam : utâshaiy : I casham : avajam : duvarayâ

90 maiy : basta : adâriya : haruvashim : kâra : avaina : pasâvashim Arbairâyâ :

91 uzmayâpatiy : akunavam : thatiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : ima : tya : ma

92 nâ : kartam : Mâdaiy : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : Parthava : utâ : Var

93 kâna : hamiçiyâ : abava : hacâma : Fravartaish : agaubatâ : Vishtâspa : manâ : pitâ : ha

94 uv : Parthavaiy : âha : avam : kâra : avaharda : hamiçiya : abava : pasâva : Vishtâspa :

95 ashiyava : hadâ : kârâ : hyashaiy : anushiya : âha : Vishpauzâtish : nâma : varda

96 nam : Parthavaiy : avadâ : hamaranam : akunaush : hadâ : Parthavaibish : Auramazdâmaiy

97 : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : Vishtâspa : avam : kâram : tyam : hamiçiya

98 m : aja : vasiy : Viyaxnahya : mâhyâ : XXII : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam

20. (2.1-5.) Darius the King says: After that, Nidintu-Bel with a few horsemen fled; he went off to Babylon. Thereupon I went to Babylon. By the favor of Ahuramazda both I seized Babylon and I took that Nidintu-Bel prisoner. After that, I slew that Nidintu-Bel at Babylon.

21. (2.5-8.) Darius the King says: While I was in Babylon, these are the provinces which became rebellious from me: Persia, Elam, Media, Assyria, Egypt, Parthia, Margiana, Sattagydia, Scythia.

22. (2.8-11.) Darius the King says: One man, named Martiya, son of Cincikhri -- a town named Kuganaka, in Persia -- there he abode. He rose up in Elam; to the people thus he said, "I am Imanish, king in Elam."

23. (2.11-3.) Darius the King says: At that time I was near Elam. Thereupon the Elamites were afraid of me; they seized that Martiya who was their chief, and slew him.

24. (2.13-7.) Darius the King says: One man, named Phraortes, a Median -- he rose up in Media. To the people thus he said, "I am Khshathrita, of the family of Cyaxares." Thereafter the Median army which (was) in the palace, became rebellious from me, (and) went over to that Phraortem. He became king in Media.

25. (2.18-29.) Darius the King says: The Persian and Median army which was with me, this was a small (force). Thereupon I sent forth an army. A Persian named Hydarnes, my subject -- I made him chief of them; I said to them thus: "Go forth, smite that Median army which does not call itself mine!" Thereupon this Hydarnes with the army marched off. When he arrived in Media, a town named Maru, in Media -- there he joined battle with the Medes. He who was chief among the Medes, he at that time was not there. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly. Of the month Anamaka 27 days were past, then the battle was fought by them. Thereafter this army of mine, a district named Kampanda, in Media -- there it waited for me until I arrived in Media.

26. (2.29-37.) Darius the King says: An Armenian named Dadarshi, my subject -- I sent him forth to Armenia. I said to him: "Go forth, that rebellious army which does not call itself mine, that do you smite!" Thereupon Dadarshi marched off. When he arrived in Armenia, thereafter the rebels assembled (and) came out against Dadarshi to join battle. A place named Zuzahya, in Armenia -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Thuravahara 8 days were past, then the battle was fought by them.

27. (2.37-42.) Darius the King says: Again a second time the rebels assembled (and) came out against Dadarshi to join battle. A stronghold named Tigra, in Armenia -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Thuravahara 18 days were past, then the battle was fought by them.

28. (2.42-9.) Darius the King says: Again a third time the rebels assembled (and) came out against Dadarshi to join battle. A fortress named Uyama, in Armenia -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Thaigarci 9 days were past, then the battle was fought by them. Thereafter Dadarshi waited for me until I arrived in Media.

29. (2.49-57.) Darius the King says: Thereafter a Persian named Vaumisa, my subject-him I sent forth to Armenia. Thus I said to him: "Go forth; the rebellious army which does not call itself mine -- smite them!" Thereupon Vaumisa marched off. When he arrived in Armenia, then the rebels assembled (and) came out against Vaumisa to join battle. A district named Izala, in Assyria -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Anamaka 15 days were past, then the battle was fought by them.

30. (2.57-63.) Darius the King says: Again a second time the rebels assembled (and) came out against Vaumisa to join battle. A district named Autiyara, in Armenia -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; on the last day of the month Thuravaharâthen the battle was fought by them. After that, Vaumisa waited for me in Armenia until I arrived in Media.

31. (2.64-70.) Darius the King says: Thereafter I went away from Babylon (and) arrived in Media. When I arrived in Media, a town named Kunduru, in Media -- there this Phraortes who called himself king in Media came with an army against me to join battle. Thereafter we joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda that army of Phraortes I smote exceedingly; of the month Adukanaisha 25 days were past, then we fought the battle.

32. (2.70-8.) Darius the King says: Thereafter this Phraortes with a few horsemen fled; a district named Raga, in Media -- along there he went off. Thereafter I sent an army in pursuit; Phraortes, seized, was led to me. I cut off his nose and ears and tongue, and put out one eye; he was kept bound at my palace entrance, all the people saw him. Afterward I impaled him at Ecbatana; and the men who were his foremost followers, those at Ecbatana within the fortress I (flayed and) hung out (their hides, stuffed with straw).

33. (2.78-91.) Darius the King says: One man named Cisantakhma, a Sagartian -- he became rebellious to me; thus he said to the people, "I am king in Sagartia, of the family of Cyaxares." Thereupon I sent off a Persian and Median army; a Mede named Takhmaspada, my subject -- I made him chief of them. I said to them thus: "Go forth; the hostile army which shall not call itself mine, and smite them!" Thereupon Takhmaspada with the army went off; he joined battle with Cisantakhma. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army and took Cisantakhma prisoner, (and) led him to me. Afterwards I cut off both his nose and ears, and put out one eye, he was kept bound at my palace entrance, all the people saw him. Afterwards I impaled him at Arbela.

34. (2.91-2.) Darius the King says: This is what was done by me in Media.

35. (2.92-8.) Darius the King says: Parthia and Hyrcania became rebellious from me, called themselves (adherents) of Phraortes. Hystaspes my father -- he was in Parthia; him the people abandoned, became rebellious. Thereupon Hystaspes went forth with the army which was faithful to him. A town named Vishpauzati, in Parthia -- there he joined battle with the Parthians. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda Hystaspes smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Viyakhna 22 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

DB, COLUMN 3:

Text:Translation:
1 : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : pasâva : adam : kâra

2 m : Pârsam : frâishayam : abiy : Vishtâspam : hacâ : Ragâ

3 yâ : yathâ : hauv : kâra : parârasa : abiy : Vishtâspam

4 : pasâva : Vishtâspa : âyasatâ : avam : kâram : ashiyava : Patigraba

5 nâ : nâma : vardanam : Parthavaiy : avadâ : hamaranam : akunaush : hadâ :

6 hamiçiyaibish : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramaz

7 dâha : Vishtâspa : avam : kâram : tyam : hamiçiyam : aja : vasiy : Ga

8 rmapadahya : mâhya : I : rauca : thakatam : âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam : ka

9 rtam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : pasâva : dahyâush : ma

10 nâ : abava : ima : tya : manâ : kartam : Parthavaiy : thâtiy : Dârayavau

11 sh : xshâyathiya : Margush : nâmâ : dahyâush : hauvmaiy : hamiçiyâ : abava

12 : I martiya : Frâda : nâma : Mârgava : avam : mathishtam : akunavatâ : pasâ

13 va : adam : frâishayam : Dâdarshish : nâma : Pârsa : manâ : badaka : Bâxtriy

14 â : xshaçapâvâ : abiy : avam : avathâshaiy : athaham : paraidiy : ava

15 m : kâram : jadiy : hya : manâ : naiy : gaubataiy : pasâva : Dâdarshish : hadâ : k

16 ârâ : ashiyava : hamaranam : akunaush : hadâ : Mârgavaibish : Auramazd

17 âmaiy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : avam : kâram

18 : tyam : hamiçiyam : aja : vasiy : Âçiyâdiyahya : mâhyâ : XXIII : raucabi

19 sh : thakatâ : âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam : thâtiy : Dârayavau

20 sh : xshâyathiya : pasâva : dahyâush : manâ : abava : ima : tya : ma

21 nâ : kartam : Bâxtriyâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâya

22 thiya : I martiya : Vahyazdâta : nâma : Târavâ : nâma : vardanam

23 : Yautiyâ : nâmâ : dahyâush : Pârsaiy : avadâ : adâraya : ha

24 uv : duivitîyam : udapatatâ : Pârsaiy : kârahyâ : avathâ

25 : athaha : adam : Bardiya : amiy : hya : Kûraush : puça : pasâva

26 : kâra : Pârsa : hya : Vithâpatiy : hacâ : Yadâyâ : frataram : ha

27 uv : hacâma : hamiçiya : abava : abiy : avam : Vahyazdâta

28 m : ashiyava : hauv : xshâyathiya : abava : Pârsaiy : thâ

29 tiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : pasâva : adam : kâram : Pârsa

30 m : utâ : Mâdam : frâishayam : hya : upâ : mâm : âha : Artavard

31 iya : nâma Pârsa : manâ : badaka : avamshâm : mathishtam : aku

32 navam : hya : aniya : kâra : Pârsa : pasâ : manâ : ashiyava : Mâ

33 dam : pasâva : Artavardiya : hadâ : kârâ : ashiyava : Pârsam

34 : yathâ : Pârsam : parârasa : Raxâ : nâma : vardanam : Pârsaiy : a

35 vadâ : hauv : Vahyazdâta : hya : Bardiya : agaubatâ : âish :

36 hadâ : kârâ : patish : Artavardiyam : hamaranam : cartanaiy : pas

37 âva : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : va

38 shnâ : Auramazdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : avam : kâram : tyam : Vahya

39 zdâtahya : aja : vasiy : Thûravâharahya : mâhyâ : XII : raucabish : thaka

40 tâ : âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xsâyathi

41 ya : pasâva : hauv : Vahyazdâta : hadâ : kamnaibish : asabâraibish : a

42 mutha : ashiyava : Paishiyâuvâdâm : hacâ : avadasha : kâram : âyasa

43 tâ : hyâparam : âish : patish : Artavardiyam : hamaranam : cartana

44 iy : Parga : nâma : kaufa : avadâ : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdâma

45 iy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : ava

46 m : kâram : tyam : Vahyazdâtahya : aja : vasiy : Garmapadahya : mâh

47 yâ : V : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam : utâ : ava

48 m Vahyazdâtam : agarbâya : utâ : martiyâ : tyaishaiy : fratam

49 â : anushiyâ : âhata : agarbâya : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xsh

50 âyathiya : pasâva : adam : avarn : Vahyazdâtam : utâ : martiyâ :

51 tyaishaiy : fratamâ : anushiyâ : âhata : Uvâdaicaya : nâma : var

52 danam : Pârsaiy : avadashish : uzmayâpatiy : akunavam : thâ

53 tiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : ima : tya : manâ : kartam : Pârsaiy

54 thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : hauv : Vahyazdâta : hya : Bardiya

55 : agaubatâ : hauv : kâram : frâishaya : Harauvatim : Vivâna :

56 nâma : Pârsa : manâ : badaka : Harauvatiyâ : xshaçapâvâ : abiy : ava

57 m : utâshâm : I martiyarn : mathishtam : akunaush avathâshâm : a

58 thaha : paraitâ : Vivânam : jatâ : utâ : avam : kâram : hya : Dâraya

59 vahaush : xshâyathiyahyâ : gaubataiy : pasâva : hauv : kâra : ashiya

60 va : tyam : Vahyazdâta : frâishaya : abiy : Vivânam : hamaranam : cartanaiy : K

61 âpishakânish : nâmâ : didâ : avadâ : hamaranarn : akunava : Auramazdâmai

62 y : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : avam : kâram : tya

63 m : hamiçiyam : aja : vasiy : Anâmakahya : mâhyâ : XIII : raucabish : thakatâ : âha : a

64 vathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : patiy : h

65 yâparam : hamiçiyâ : hagmatâ : paraitâ : patish : Vivânam : hamaranam : cartana

66 iy : Gadutava : nâmâ : dahyâush : avadâ : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdâma

67 iy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : kâra : hya : manâ : avam : kâram : t

68 yam : hamiçiyam : aja : vasiy : Viyaxnahya : mâhyâ : VII : raucabish : thakatâ :

69 âha : avathâshâm : hamaranam : kartam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya :

70 pasâva : hauv : martiya : hya : avahyâ : kârahyâ : mathishta : âha : tyam : Va

71 hyazdâta : frâishaya : abiy Vivânam : hauv : amutha : hadâ : kamnaib

72 ish : asabâraibish : ashiyava : Arshâdâ : nâmâ : didâ : Harauvatiyâ : a

73 vaparâ : atiyâish : pasâva : Vivâna : hadâ : kârâ : nipadiy : tyaiy : ashiya

74 va : avadâshim : agarbâya : utâ : martiyâ : tyaishaiy : fratamâ : anushiyâ :

75 âhatâ : avâja : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : pasâva : dahyâush : ma

76 nâ : abava : ima : tya : manâ : kartam : Harauvatiyâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâ

77 yathiya : yâtâ : adam : Pârsaiy : u(t)â : Mâdaiy : âham : patiy : duvitîyam :

78 Bâbiruviyâ : hamiçiyâ : abava : hacâma : I martiya : Arxa : nâma : Armini

79 ya : Halditahya : puça : hauv : udapatatâ : Bâbirauv : Dubâla : nâmâ : dahyâ

80 ush : hacâ : avadasha : hauv : kârahyâ : avathâ : adurujiya : adam : Nabukud

81 racara : amiy : hya : Nabunaitahya : puça : pasâva : kâra : Bâbiruviya : hacâma : ha

82 miçiya : abava : abiy : avam : Arxam : ashiyava : Bâbirum : hauv : agarbâyat

83 â : hauv : xshâyathiya : abava : Bâbirauv : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathi

84 ya : pasâva : adam : kâram : frâishayam : Bâbirum : Vidafarnâ : nâma : Pârsa : manâ

85 : badaka : avamshâm : mathishtam : akunavam : avathâshâm : athaham : paraitâ : avam : kâram

86 : Bâbiruviyam : jatâ : hya : manâ : naiy : gaubâtaiy : pasâva : Vidafarnâ : hadâ : kâr

87 â : ashiyava : Bâbirum : Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : vashnâ : Auramaz

88 dâha : Vidafarnâ : Bâbiruviyâ : aja : utâ : bastâ : anaya : Varkazanahya : mâhyâ : XXII : ra

89 ucabish : thakatâ : âha : avathâ : avam : Arxam : hya : Nabukudracara : duruxtam : a

90 gaubatâ : utâ : martiyâ : tyaishaiy : fratamâ : anushiyâ : âhatâ : agarb

91 âya : niyashtâyam : hauv : Arxa : utâ : martiyâ : tyaishaiy : fratamâ : an

92 ushiyâ : âhatâ : Bâbirauv : uz(ma)yâpatiy : akariyatâ

36. (3.1-9.) Darius the King says: After that I sent forth a Persian army to Hystaspes, from Raga. When this army came to Hystaspes, thereupon Hystaspes took that army (and) marched out. A town by name Patigrabana, in Parthia - there he joined battle with the rebels. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda Hystaspes smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Garmapada 1 day was past -- then the battle was fought by them.

37. (3.9-10.) Darius the King says: After that the province became mine. This is what was done by me in Parthia.

38. (3.10-9.) Darius the King says: A province named Margiana -- it became rebellious to me. One man named Frada, a Margian -- him they made chief. Thereupon I sent forth against him a Persian named Dadarshi, my subject, satrap in Bactria. Thus I said to him: "Go forth, smite that army which does not call itself mine!" After that, Dadarshi marched out with the army; he joined battle with the Margians. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Asiyadiya 23 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

39. (3.19-21.) Darius the King says: After that the province became mine. This is what was done by me in Bactria.

40. (3.21-8.) Darius the King says: One man named Vahyazdata -- a town named Tarava, a district named Yautiya, in Persia -- there he abode. He made the second uprising in Persia. To the people he said thus: "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus." Thereupon the Persian army which (was) in the palace, (having come) from Anshan previously -- it became rebellious from me, went over to that Vahyazdata. He became king in Persia.

41. (3.28-40.) Darius the King says: Thereupon I sent forth the Persian and Median army which was by me. A Persian named Artavardiya, my subject -- I made him chief of them. The rest of the Persian army went forth behind me to Media. Thereupon Artavardiya with his army went forth to Persia. When he arrived in Persia, a town named Rakha, in Persia -- there this Vahyazdata who called himself Smerdis came with his army against Artavardiya, to join battle. Thereupon they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that army of Vahyazdata exceedingly; of the month Thuravahara 12 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

42. (3.40-9.) Darius the King says: After that, this Vahyazdata with a few horsemen fled; he went off to Paishiyauvada. From there he got an army; later he came against Artavardiya to join battle. A mountain named Parga -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that army of Vahyasdata exceedingly; of the month Garmapada 5 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them, and that Vahyazdata they took prisoner, and those who were his foremost followers they captured.

43. (3.49-52.) Darius the King says: After that I took that Vahyazdata and those who were his foremost followers -- a town named Uvadaicaya, in Persia -- there I impaled them.

44. (3.52-3.) Darius the King says: This is what was done by me in Persia.

45. (3.54-64.) The King says: This Vahyazdata who called himself Smerdis had sent an army to Arachosia -- a Persian named Vivana, my subject, satrap in Arachosia -- against him; and he had made one man their chief. Thus he said to them: "Go forth; smite Vivana and that army which calls itself King Darius's!" Thereupon this army marched off, which Vahyazdata had sent forth against Vivana to join battle. A fortress named Kapishakani -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Anamaka 13 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

46. (3.64-9.) Darius the King says: Again later the rebels assembled (and) came out against Vivana to join battle. A district named Gandutava -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Viyakhna 7 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

47. (3.69-75.) Darius the King says: After that, this man who was the chief of that army which Vahyazdata had sent forth against Vivana -- he fled with a few horsemen (and) got away. A fortress named Arshada, in Arachosia -- past that he went. Afterwards Vivana with his army went off in pursuit of them; there he took him prisoner and the men who were his foremost followers, (and) slew (them).

48. (3.75-6.) Darius the King says: After that the province became mine. This is what was done by me in Arachosia.

49. (3.76-83.) Darius the King says: While I was in Persia and Media, again a second time the Babylonians became rebellious from me. One man named Arkha, an Armenian, son of Haldita -- he rose up in Babylon. A district named Dubala -- from there he thus lied to the people: "I am Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus." Thereupon the Babylonian people became rebellious from me, (and) went over to that Arkha. He seized Babylon; he became king in Babylon.

50. (3.83-92.) Darius the King says: Thereupon I sent forth an army to Babylon. A Persian named Intaphernes, my subject -- him I made chief of them. Thus I said to them: "Go forth; that Babylonian army smite, which shall not call itself mine!" Thereupon Intaphernes with the army marched off to Babylon. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda Intaphernes smote the Babylonians and led them in bonds; of the month Varkazana 22 days were past -- then that Arkha who falsely called himself Nebuchadrezzar and the men who were his foremost followers he took prisoner. I issued an order: this Arkha and the men who were his foremost followers were impaled at Babylon.

DB, COLUMN 4:

Text:Translation:
1 : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : ima : t

2 ya : manâ : kartam : Bâbirauv : thatiy : D

3 ârayavaush : xshâyathiya : ima : tya : adam : akuna

4 vam : vashna : Auramazdâha : hamahyâyâ : thar

5 da : pasâva : yathâ : xshâyathiya : abavam : XIX : hamaran

6 â : akunavam : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : adamshish : a

7 janam : utâ : IX : xshâyathiyâ : agarbâyam : I Gaumâta :

8 nâma : magush : âha : hauv : adurujiya : avathâ : athaha : adam :

9 Bardiya : amiy : hya : Kûraush : puça : hauv : Pârsam : ha

10 miçiyam : akunaush : I Âçina : nâma : Ûvjiya : hauv : adu

11 rujiya : avathâ : athaha : adam : xshâyathiya : amiy : Ûvjaiy

12 : hauv : Ûvjam : hamiçiyam : akunaush : manâ : I Naditabaira : n

13 âma : Bâbiruviya : hauv : adurujiya : avathâ : athaha :

14 adam : Nabukudracara : amiy : hya : Nabunaitahya : puça :

15 hauv : Bâbirum : hamiçiyam : akunaush : I Martiya : nâ

16 ma : Pârsa : hauv : adurujiya : avathâ : athaha : adam : Imani

17 sh : amiy : Ûvjaiy : xshâyathiya : hauv : Ûvjam : hamiçiya

18 m : akunaush : I Fravartish : nâma : Mâda : hauv : adurujiya

19 : avathâ : athaha : adam : Xshathrita : amiy : Uvaxshtrahya : taumây

20 â : hauv : Mâdam : hamiçiyam : akunaush : I Ciçataxma : nâma : Asa

21 gartiya : hauv : adurujiya : avathâ : athaha : adam : xshâyath

22 iya : amiy : Asagartaiy : Uvaxshtrahya : taumâyâ : hauv

23 : Asagartam : hamiçiyam : akunaush : I Frâda : nâma :

24 Mârgava : hauv : adurujiya : avathâ : athaha : adam :

25 xshâyathiya : amiy : Margauv : hauv : Margum : hamici

26 yam : akunaush : I Vahyazdâta : nâma : Pârsa : hauv : a

27 durujiya : avathâ : athaha : adam : Bardiya : amiy : hya : Kû

28 raush : puça : hauv : Pârsam : hamiçiyam : akunaush : I Ar

29 xa : nâma : Arminiya : hauv : adurujiya : avathâ : athaha : adam : Nab

30 ukudracara : amiy : hya : Nabunaitahya : puça : hauv : Bâbirum : ham

31 içiyam : akunaush : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : imaiy :

32 IX : xshâyathiyâ : adam : agarbâyam : atar : imâ : hamaranâ

33 : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : dahyâva : imâ : tyâ : hamiçiy

34 â : abava : drauga : dish : hamiçiyâ : akunaush : tya : imaiy : kâram : adur

35 ujiyasha : pasâva : dish : Auramazdâ : manâ : dastayâ : akunaush : yathâ : mâm : k

36 âma : avatha : dish : akunavam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathi

37 ya : tuvam : kâ : xshâyathiya : hya : aparam âhy : hacâ : draugâ : darsham :

38 patipayauvâ : martiya : hya : draujana : ahatiy : avam : ufrashtam : parsâ : ya

39 diy : avathâ : maniyâhaiy : dahyâushmaiy : duruvâ : ahati

40 y : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xsâyathiya : ima : tya : adam : akunavam :

41 vashnâ : Auramazdâha : hamahyâyâ : tharda : akunavam : tuvam : kâ : hya

42 : aparam : imâm : dipim : patiparsâhy : tya : manâ : kartam : varnavatâm

43 : thuvâm : mâtya : draugam : maniyâhay : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâ

44 yathiya : Auramazdâha : ragam : vartaiyaiy : yathâ : ima : hashiyam : naiy : duru

45 xtam : adam : akunavam : hamahyâyâ : tharda : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâya

46 thiya : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : utâmaiy : aniyashciy : vasiy : astiy : karta

47 m : ava : ahyâyâ : dipiyâ : naiy : nipishtam : avahyarâdiy : naiy : n

48 ipishtam : mâtya : hya : aparam : imâm : dipim : patiparsâtiy : avah

49 yâ : paruv : thadayâtaiy : tya : manâ : kartam : naishim : ima : varnavâtaiy : d

50 uruxtam : maniyâtaiy : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : tyaiy

51 : paruvâ : xshâyathiyâ : yâtâ : âha : avaishâm : avâ : naiy : astiy : kar

52 tam : yathâ : manâ : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : hamahyâyâ : tharda : kartam : thâ

53 tiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : nûram : thuvâm : varnavatâm : tya : man

54 â : kartam : avathâ : kârahyâ : râdiy : mâ : apagaudaya : yadiy : imâm :

55 hadugâm : naiy : apagaudayâhy : kârahyâ : thâhy : Auramazdâ : thuvâm :

56 daushtâ : biya : utâtaiy : taumâ : vasiy : biyâ : utâ : dargam : jîvâ

57 thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : yadiy : imâm hadugâm : apagaudayâ

58 hy : naiy : thâhy : kârahyâ : Auramazdâtay : jatâ : biyâ : utâtaiy : taum

59 â : mâ : biyâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : ima : tya : adam : akunavam :

60 hamahyâyâ : tharda : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : akunavam : Auramazdâmaiy : upas

61 tâm : abara : utâ : aniyâha : bagâha : tyaiy : hatiy : thâtiy : Dârayavau

62 sh : xshâyathiya : avahyarâdiy : Auramazdâ : upastâm : abara : utâ : ani

63 yâha : bagâha : tyaiy : haijy : yathâ : naiy : arika : âham : naiy : draujana : âham : na

64 iy : zûrakara : âham : naiy : adam : naimaiy : taumâ : upariy : arshtâm : upariy

65 âyam : naiy : shkaurim : naiy : tunuvatam : zûra : akunavam : martiya : hya : hamata

66 xshâta : manâ : vithiyâ : avam : ubartam : abaram : hya : viyanâthaya : avam : ufrasta

67 m : aparsam : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : tuvam : kâ : xshâyathiya :

68 hya : aparam : âhy : martiya : hya : draujana : ahatiy : hyavâ : zurakara : ahat

69 iy : avaiy : mâ : daushtâ : biyâ : ufrashtâdiy : parsâ : thâtiy : Dâra

70 yavaush : xshâyathiya : tuvam : kâ : hya : aparam : imâm : dipim : vainâhy : ty

71 âm : adam : niyapaisham : imaivâ : patikarâ : mâtya : vikanâhy : yâvâ : u

72 tava : âhy : avathâshatâ : paribarâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : ya

73 diy : imâm : dipim : vainâhy : imaivâ : patikarâ : naiydish : vikanâhy : utâ

74 taiy : yâvâ : taumâ : ahatiy : paribarâhadish : Auramazdâ : thuvâm daushtâ : biy

75 â : utâtaiy : taumâ : vasiy : biyâ : utâ : dargam : jîvâ : utâ : tya : kunavâhy

76 : avataiy : Auramazdâ : ucâram : kunautuv : thâitiy : Dârayavaush : xshâ

77 yathiya : yadiy : imâm : dipim : imaivâ : patikarâ : vainâhy : vikanâhadish : ut

78 âtaiy : yâvâ : taumâ : ahatiy : naiydish : paribarâhy : Auramazdâtaiy : jatâ : b

79 iyâ : utâtaiy : taumâ : mâ : biyâ : utâ : tya : kunavâhy : avataiy : Auramazd

80 â : nikatuv : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : imaiy : martiyâ : tyaiy

81 : adakaiy : avadâ : âhatâ : yâtâ : adam : Gaumâtam : tyam : magum : avâjanam :

82 hya : Bardiya : agaubatâ : adakaiy : imaiy : martiyâ : hamataxshatâ : anushiyâ : man

83 â : Vidafarnâ : nâma : Vâyaspârahyâ : puça Pârsa: Utâna : nâma : Thuxrahyâ

84 : puça : Pârsa : Gaubaruva : nâma : Marduniyahyâ : puça : Pârsa : Vidarna : nâma : Ba

85 gâbignahyâ : puça : Pârsa : Bagabuxsha : nâma : Dâtuvahyahyâ : puça : Pârsa :

86 Ardumanish : nâma : Vahaukahyâ : puça : Pârsa : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyath

87 iya : tuvam : kâ : xshâyathiya : hya : aparam : âhy : tyâm : imaishâm : martiyânâ

88 m : taumâm : uba(r)tâm : paribarâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : vashnâ : Au

89 ramazdâha : i(ya)m : dipîmaiy : ty(âm) : adam : akunavam : patisham : ariyâ : âha : utâ : pavast

90 âyâ : utâ : carmâ : grathitâ : âha : patishamaiy : patikaram : akunavam : patisham : uvadâ

91 m : akunavam : utâ : niyapithiya : utâ : patiyafrasiya : paishiyâ : mâm : pasâva : i(mâ)m : d

92 ipim : adam : frâstâyam : vispadâ : atar : dahyâva : kâra : hamâtaxshatâ

51. (4.1-2.) Darius the King says: This is what was done by me in Babylon.

52. (4.2-31.) Darius the King says: This is what I did by the favor of Ahuramazda in one and the same year after that I became king. 19 battles I fought; by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote them and took prisoner 9 kings. One was named Gaumata, a Magian; lied and said, "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus;" he made Persia rebellious. One, named Asina, an Elamite; lied and said, "I am king in Elam;" he made Elam rebellious to me. One, named Nidintu-Bel, a Babylonian; lied and said, "I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus; he made Babylon rebellious. One, named Martiya, a Persian; lied and said, "I am Imanish, king in Elam;" he made Elam rebellious. One, named Phraortes, a Mede; lied and said, "I am Khshathrita, of the family of Cyaxares;" he made Media rebellious. One named Cisantakhma, a Sagartian; lied and said, "I am king in Sagartia, of the family of Cyaxares;" he made Sagartia rebellious. One, named Frada, a Margian; lied and said, "I am king in Margiana;" he made Margiana rebellious. One, named Vahyazdata, a Persian; lied and said, "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus;" he made Persia rebellious. One, named Arkha, an Armenian; lied and said: "I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus;" he made Babylon rebellious.

53. (4.31-2.) Darius the King says: These 9 kings I took prisoner within these battles.

54. (4.33-6.) Darius the King says: These are the provinces which became rebellious. The Lie (druj) made them rebellious, so that these (men) deceived the people. Afterwards Ahuramazda put them into my hand; as was my desire, so I did to them.

55. (4.36-40.). Darius the King says: You who shall be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from the Lie; the man who shall be a Lie-follower, him do you punish well, if thus you shall think, "May my country be secure!"

56. (4.40-3.) Darius the King says: This is what I did; by the favor of Ahuramazda, in one and the same year I did (it). You who shall hereafter read this inscription let that which has been done by me convince you; do not think it a lie.

57. (4.13-5.) Darius the King says: I turn myself quickly to Ahuramazda, that this (is) true, not false, (which) I did in one and the same year.

58. (4.45-50.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda and of me much else was done; that has not been inscribed in this inscription; for this reason it has not been inscribed, lest whoso shall hereafter read this inscription, to him what has been done by me seem excessive, (and) it not convince him, (but) he think it false.

59. (4.50-2.) Darius the King says: Those who were the former kings, as long as they lived, by them was not done thus as by the favor of Ahuramazda was done by me in one and the same year.

60. (4.52-6.) Darius the King says: Now let that which has been done by me convince you; thus to the people impart, do not conceal it: if this record you shall not conceal, (but) tell it to the people, may Ahuramazda he a friend to you, and may family be to you in abundance, and may you live long!

61. (4.57-9.) Darius the King says: If this record you shall conceal, (and) not tell it to the people, may Ahuramazda be a smiter to you, and may family not be to you!

62. (4.59-61.) Darius the King says: This which I did, in one and the same year by the favor of Ahuramazda I did; Ahuramazda bore me aid, and the other gods who are.

63. (4.61-7.) Darius the King says: For this reason Ahuramazda bore aid, and the other gods who are, because I was not hostile, I was not a Lie-follower, I was not a doer of wrong -- neither I nor my family. According to righteousness I conducted myself. Neither to the weak nor to the powerful did I do wrong. The man who cooperated with my house, him I rewarded well; whoso did injury, him I punished well.

64. (4.67-9.) Darius the King says: You who shall be king hereafter, the man who shall be a Lie-follower or who shall be a doer of wrong -- to them do not be a friend, (but) punish them well.

65. (4.69-72.) Darius the King says: You who shall thereafter behold this inscription which I have inscribed, or these sculptures, do not destroy them, (but) thence onward protect them, as long as you shall be in good strength!

66. (4.72-6.) Darius the King says: If you shall behold this inscription or these sculptures, (and) shall not destroy them and shall protect them as long as to you there is strength, may Ahuramazda be a friend to you, and may family be to you in abundance, and may you live long, and what you shall do, that may Ahuramazda make successful for you!

67. (4.76-80.) Darius the King says: If you shall behold this inscription or these sculptures, (and) shall destroy them and shall not protect them as long as to you there is strength, may Ahuramazda be a smiter to you, and may family not be to you, and what you shall do, that for you may Ahuramazda utterly destroy!

68. (4.80-6.) Darius the King says: These are the men who were there at the time when I slew Gaumata the Magian who called himself Smerdis; at that time these men cooperated as my followers: Intaphernes by name, son of Vayaspara, a Persian; Otanes by name, son of Thukhra, a Persian; Gobryas by name, son of Mardonius, a Persian; Hydarnes by name, son of Bagabigna, a Persian; Megabyzus by name, son of Datuvahya, a Persian; Ardumanish by name, son of Vahauka, a Persian.

69. (4.86-8.) Darius the King says: You who shall be king hereafter, protect well the family of these men.

70. (4.88-92.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda this is the inscription which I made. Besides, it was in Aryan, and on clay tablets and on parchment it was composed. Besides, a sculptured figure of myself I made. Besides, I made my lineage. And it was inscribed and was read off before me. Afterwards this inscription I sent off everywhere among the provinces. The people unitedly worked upon it.

DB, COLUMN 5:

Text:Translation:
1 : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya :

2 ima : tya : adam : akunavam : duvitîyâ

3 mca : çitâmcâ : thardam : pasâva : yathâ : xshâya

4 thiya : abavam : Ûvja : nâmâ : dahyâush : hau

5 v : hamiçiyâ : abava : I martiya : Atamaita : nâma : Û

6 vjiya : avam : mathishtam : akunavatâ : pasâva : ada

7 m : kâram : fraishayam : I martiya : Gaubaruva :

8 nâma : Pârsa : manâ : badaka : avamshâm : mathishtam : aku

9 navam : pasâva : Gaubaruva : hadâ : kârâ : asiyava :

10 Ûvjam : hamaranam : akunaush : hadâ : Ûvjiyaibish : pas

11 âva : Gaubaruva : Ûvjiyâ : avâja : viyamarda :

12 utâ : tyamshâm : mathishtam : agarbâya : anaya : abi

13 y : mâm : utâshim : adam : avâjanam : pasâva : dahyâ

14 ush : manâ : abava : thâtiy Dârayavaush : xshâyathi

15 ya : avaiy : Ûvjiyâ : arikâ : âha : utâshâm : Aurama

16 zdâ : naiy : ayadiya : Auramazdâm : ayadaiy : vashnâ : A

17 uramazdâha : yathâ : mâm : kâma : avathâdish : akunavam

18 : thâtiy Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : hya : Auramazdâ

19 m : yadâtaiy : yânam : avahâ : ahatiy : utâ : jîvah

20 yâ : utâ : martahyâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xsh

21 âyathiya : pasâva : hadâ : kârâ : adam : ashiyavam : abiy : Sak

22 âm : pasâ : Sakâ : tyaiy : xaudâm : tigrâm : barati

23 y : imaiy : Sakâ : hacâma : âisha : yadiy : abiy : draya : a

24 vârasam : parashim : avadâ : hadâ : kârâ : visâ : viyatara

25 yam : pasâva : adam : Sakâ : vasiy : ajanam : aniyam : aga

26 rbâyam : hauv : basta : anayatâ : abiy : mâm : ut

27 âshim : avâjanam : mathishtashâm : Skuxa : nâma : avam : aga

28 rbâya : utâ : anaya : abiy : mâm : avadâ : aniyam : math

29 ishtam : akunavam : yathâ : mâm : kâma : âha : pasâva : da

30 hyâush : manâ : abava : thâtiy Dârayavaush : xshâya

31 thiya : avaiy : Sakâ : arikâ : âha : utâ : naiy : Auramazd

32 âshâm : ayadiya : Aurmazdâm : ayadaiy : vashnâ : Aurama

33 zdâha : yathâ : mâm : kâma : avathâdish : akunavam : thât

34 iy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : hya : Auramazdâm : yadâta

35 iy : avahyâ : yânam : ahatiy : utâ : jîvahyâ : utâ

38 : martahyâ

71. (5.1-14.) Darius the King says: This is what I did in both the second and the third year after I became king. A province named Elam became rebellious. One man named Atamaita, an Elamite -- they made him chief. Thereupon I sent forth an army. One man named Gobryas, a Persian, my subject -- I made him chief of them. After that, Gobryas with the army marched off to Elam; he joined battle with the Elamites. Thereupon Gobryas smote and crushed the Elamites, and captured the chief of them; he led him to me, and I killed him. After that the province became mine.

72. (5.14-7.) Darius the King says: Those Elamites were faithless and by them Ahuramazda was not worshipped. I worshipped Ahuramazda; by the favor of Ahuramazda, as was my desire, thus I did to them.

73. (5.18-20.) Darius the King says: Whoso shall worship Ahuramazda, divine blessing will be upon him, both (while) living and (when) dead.

74. (5.20-30.) Darius the King says: Afterwards with an army I went off to Scythia, after the Scythians who wear the pointed cap. These Scythians went from me. When I arrived at the sea, beyond it then with all my army I crossed. Afterwards, I smote the Scythians exceedingly; another (leader) I took captive; this one was led bound to me, and I slew him. The chief of them, by name Skunkha -- him they seized and led to me. Then I made another their chief, as was my desire. After that, the province became mine.

75. (5.30-3.) Darius the King says: Those Scythians... (= DB 5.15-7).

76. (5.33-6.) . . . (= DB 5.18-20).

TEXT OF DB, MINOR INSCRIPTIONS:

DBa:

Text:Translation:
1 : adam : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : vazraka : xshâya

2 thiya : xshâyathiyânâm : xshâyathiya : Pârsaiy : xsh

3 âyathiya : dahyunam : Vishtâspahyâ : puça :

4 Arshâmahyâ : napâ : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : Dâra

5 yavaush : xshâyathiya : manâ : pitâ : Vishtâspa : Vi

6 shtâspahyâ : pitâ : Arshâma : Arshâmahyâ : pi

7 tâ : Ariyâramna : Ariyâramnahyâ : pitâ :

8 Cishpish : Cispaish : pitâ : Haxâmanish :

9 thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : avahya

10 râdiy : vayam : Haxâmanishiyâ : thahyâ

11 mahy : hacâ : paruviyata : âmâtâ

12 : amahy : hacâ : paruviyata : hyâ : amâ

13 xam : taumâ : xshâyathiyâ : âha : thâ

14 tiy : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : VIII : ma

15 nâ : taumâyâ : tyaiy : paruva

16 m : xshâyathiyâ : âha : adam : na

17 vama : IX : duvitâparanam : vayam : x

18 shâyathiyâ : amahy :

1. (1-4.) ... (= DB 1.1-3).

2. (4-8.) ... (= DB 1.3-6).

3. (9-13.) ... (= DB 1.6-8).

4. (13-8.) ... (= DB 1.8-11).

DBb

Text:Translation:
1 : iyam : Gaumâ

2 ta : hya : magush : a

3 durujiya :

4 avathâ : athaha : adam : Ba

5 rdiya : amiy : hya : K

6 ûraush : puça : adam : xsh

7 âyathiya : amiy :

This is Gaumata the Magian. ... (= DB 4.8-9); I am king.

DBc

Text:Translation:
1 : iyam : Âç

2 ina : adu

3 rujiya :

4 avathâ

5 : athaha : a

6 dam : x

7 shâyath

8 iya : am

9 iy : Û

10 vjaiy :

This is Asina (= DB 4.10-1).

DBd

Text:Translation:
1 : iyam : Naditabaira :

2 adurujiya : ava

3 thâ : athaha : adam : Nab

4 ukudracara : ami

5 y : hya : Nabunaita

6 hya : puça : adam : x

7 shâyathiya : amiy : B

8 âbirauv :

This is Nidintu-Bel. ... (= DB 4.13-4); I am king in Babylon.

DBe

Text:Translation:
1 : iyam : Fra

2 vartish :

3 aduru

4 jiya : ava

5 thâ : athaha : adam :

6 Xshathrita : amiy

7 : Uvaxshtrahya

8 : taumâyâ : adam

9 : xshâyathiya : amiy

10 : Mâ

11 daiy :

This is Phraortes. ... (= DB 4.18-20); I am king in Media.

DBf

Text:Translation:
1 : iyam : Martiya : a

2 durujiya : a

3 vathâ : athaha : a

4 dam : Imanish : am

5 iy : Ûvjaiy : x

6 shâyathi

7 ya :

This is Martiya. ... (= DB 4.16-7).

DBg

Text:Translation:
1 iyam Ciça

2 taxma : ad

3 urujiya

4 : avathâ : a

5 thaha : adam :

6 xshâyathi

7 ya : ami

8 y : Asaga

9 rtaiy : Uva

10 xshtrahya

11 : taumây

12 â

This is Cisantakhma. ... (= DB 4.21-2).

DBh

Text:Translation:
1 : iyam : Vahya

2 zdâta : adu

3 rujiya : ava

4 thâ : athaha : ada

5 m : Bardiya : a

6 miy : hya : K

7 ûraush : puça

8 : adam : xshâ

9 yathiya : amiy

This is Vahyazdata. . . . (= DB 4.26-8); I am king.

DBi

Text:Translation:
1 : iyarn : Arxa

2 : aduruj

3 iya : avathâ :

4 athaha : adam :

5 Nabuku(d)ra

6 cara : amiy :

7 hya : Nabuna

8 itahya : pu

9 ça : adam : xshâ

10 yathiya : amiy

11 : Bâbarauv :

This is Arkha. ... (= DB 4.29-30); I am king in Babylon.

DBj

Text:Translation:
1 : iyam : Frada :

2 aduruji

3 ya : avathâ : athaha

4 : adam : xshâyath

5 iya : amiy : Marga

6 uv :

This is Frada. ... (= DB 4.24-5).

DBk

Text:Translation:
1 : iyam : Sku

2 xa : hya : Saka

This is Skunkha the Scythian.

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS A. (DPa)

Trilingual inscription on doorposts of the inner room of the palace, above figures of Darius and his attendants.

Text:Translation:
1 Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya :

2 vazraka : xshâyathiya : xshâ

3 yathiyânâm : xshâyathiya :

4 dahyûnâm : Vishtâspahy

5 â : puça : Haxâmanishiya : h

6 ya : imam : tacaram : akunaush

Darius the Great king, King of Kings, King of countries, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian, who built this palace.

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS B. (DPb)

Trilingual inscription on garment of Darius

2>
Text:Translation:
Dârayavaush : XSH : vazraka : Vishtâspahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya Darius the Great King, Son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian.

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS C. (DPc)

Trilingual inscription on window cornice, repeated 18 times.

Text:Translation:
ardastâna : athagaina : Dârayavahaush : XSHhyâ : vithiyâ : karta Stone window-frame, made in the house of King Darius.

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS D. (DPd)

OP only on south retaining wall of palace.

Text:Translation:
1 Auramazdâ : vazraka : hya : mathishta : bag

2 ânâm : hauv : Dârayavaum : xshâyathi

3 yam : adadâ : haushaiy : xshaçam : frâba

4 ra : vashnâ : Auramazdâhâ : Dârayavau

5 sh : xshâyathiya : thâtiy : Dârayavaush :

6 xshâyathiya : iyam : dahyâush : Pâr

7 sa : tyâm : manâ : Auramazdâ : frâba

8 ra : hyâ : naibâ : uvaspâ : umarti

9 yâ : vashnâ : Auramazdâhâ : manac

10 â : Dârayavahaush : xshâyathiyahy

11 â : hacâ : aniyanâ : naiy : tarsat

12 iy : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâya

13 thiya : manâ : Auramazdâ : upastâm :

14 baratuv : hadâ : vithaibish : bagai

15 bish : utâ : imâm : dahyâum : Aura

16 mazda : pâtuv : hacâ : hainây

17 â : hacâ : dushiyârâ : hacâ : dra

18 ugâ : abiy : imâm : dahyâum : mâ

19 : âjamiyâ : mâ : hainâ : mâ : dush

20 iyâram : mâ : drauga : aita : adam :

21 yânam : jadiyâmiy : Auramazd

22 âm : hadâ : vithaibish : bagaibish : a

23 itamaiy : yânam : Auramazdâ : dadât

24 uv : hadâ vithaibish : bagaibish :

1. (1-5.) Great Ahuramazda, the greatest of gods -- he created Darius the King, he bestowed on him the kingdom; by the favor of Ahuramazda Darius is King.

2. (5-12.) Darius the King says: This country Persia which Ahuramazda bestowed upon me, good, possessed of good horses, possessed of good men -- by the favor of Ahuramazda and of me, Darius the King, does not feel fear of (any) other.

3. (12-24.) Darius the King says: May Ahuramazda bear me aid, with the gods of the royal house; and may Ahuramazda protect this country from a (hostile) army, from famine, from the Lie! Upon this country may there not come an army, nor famine, nor the Lie; this I pray as a boon from Ahuramazda together with the gods of the royal house. This boon may Ahuramazda together with the gods of the royal house give to me!

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS E. (DPe)

OP only on south retaining wall of palace.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : vaz

2 raka : xshâyathiya : xshâyathiyânâ

3 m : xshâyathya : dahyûnâm : tyai

4 shâm : parûnâm : Vishtâspahyâ :

5 puça : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : Dâra

6 yavaush : xshâyathiya : vashnâ : Aurama

7 zdâhâ : imâ : dahyâva : tyâ : adam

8 : adarshiy : hadâ : anâ : Pârsâ : kâ

9 râ : tyâ : hacâma : atarsa : manâ : bâj

10 im : abara : Ûvja : Mâda : Bâbiru

11 sh : Arabâya : Athurâ : Mudrây

12 â : Armina : Katpatuka : Sparda : Ya

13 unâ : tyaiy : ushkahyâ : utâ : tya

14 iy : drayahyâ : utâ : dahyâva : t

15 yâ : para : draya : Asagarta : Parthava : Zra

16 ka : Haraiva : Bâxtrish : Suguda : Uv

17 ârazmîy : Thatagush : Harauvatish : H

18 idush : Gadâra : Sakâ : Maka : thâtiy

19 : Darayavaush : xshâyathiya : yadiy

20 : avathâ : maniyâhay : hacâ : aniya

21 nâ : mâ : tarsam : imam : Pârsam : kâram : pâdi

22 y : yadiy : kâra : Pârsa : pâta : ahatiy : hyâ :

23 duvaishtam : shiyâtish : axshatâ : hauvci

24 y : Aurâ : nirasâtiy : abiy : imâm : vitham

1. (1-5.) I am Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King of many countries, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian.

2. (5-18.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries which I got into my possession along with this Persian folk, which felt fear of me (and) bore me tribute: Elam, Media, Babylonia, Arabia, Assyria, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sardis, Ionians who are of the mainland and (those) who are by the sea, and countries which are across the sea; Sagartia, Parthia, Drangiana, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Sattagydia, Arachosia, Sind, Gandara, Seythians, Maka.

3. (18-24.) Darius the King says: If you shall think thus, "May I not feel fear of (any) other," protect this Persian people; if the Persian people shall be protected, thereafter for the longest while happiness unbroken -- this will by Ahura come down upon this royal house.

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS H. (DPh)

Trilingual on gold and silver plates.

Text:Translation:
1 Dârayavaushi : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyanâm : XSH

2 : dahyûvnâm : Vishtâspahyâ : puça

3 : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : Dârayavau

4 sh : XSH : ima : xshaçam : tya : adam : dâray

5 âmiy : hacâ : Sakaibish : tyaiy : para

6 Sugdam : amata : yâtâ : â : Kûshâ :

7 hacâ : Hidauv : amata : yâtâ : â : Spa

8 rdâ : tyamaiy : Auramazdâ : frâbara

9 : hya : mathishta : bagânâm : mâm : Au

10 ramazdâ : pâtuv : utâmaiy : vitham

1. (1-3.) Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King of countries, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian.

2. (3-10.) Darius the King says: This is the kingdom which I hold, from the Scythians who are beyond Sogdiana, thence to Ethiopia; from Sind thence to Sardis -- which Ahuramazda the greatest of the gods bestowed upon me. May Ahuramazda protect me, and my royal house.

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS I. (DPi)

Trilingual on doorknob of artifical lapis lazuli.

Text:Translation:
mayûxa : kâsakaina : Dârayavahaush : XSHyâ : vithiyâ : karta Door-knob of precious stone, made in the house of Darius the King.

THE INSCRIPTIONS OF NAQSH-I-RUSTAM.

Inscriptions on south face of steep ridge north of Persepolis

DARIUS, NAQSH-I-RUSTAM A. (DNa)

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : im

2 âm : bumâm : adâ : hya : avam : asm

3 ânam : adâ : hya : martiyam : adâ : h

4 ya : shiyâtim : adâ : martiyahyâ

5 : hya : Dârayavaum : xshâyathiyam : ak

6 unaush : aivam : parûvnâm : xshâyath

7 iyam : aivam : parûvnâm : framâtâ

8 ram : adam : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : va

9 zraka : xshâyathiya : xshâyathiyânâm

10 : xshâyathiya : dahyûnâm : vispazanâ

11 nâm : xshâyathiya : ahyâyâ : bûmi

12 yâ : vazrakâyâ : dûraiapiy : Vishtâs

13 pahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya : Pârsa : P

14 ârsahyâ : puça : Ariya : Ariya : ci

15 ça : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâya

16 thiya : vashnâ : Auramazdâhâ : imâ :

17 dahyâva : tyâ : adam : agarbâyam :

18 apataram : hacâ : Pârsâ : adamshâm :

19 patiyaxshayaiy : manâ : bâjim : abara

20 ha : tvashâm : hacâma : athahya : ava : a

21 kunava : dâtam : tya : manâ : avadish :

22 adâraiya : Mâda : Ûvja : Parthava : Harai

23 va : Bâxtrish : Suguda : Uvârazm

24 ish : Zraka : Harauvatish : Thatagush : Ga

25 dâra : Hidush : Sakâ : haumavargâ : Sa

26 kâ : tigraxaudâ : Bâbirush : A

27 thurâ : Arabâya : Mudrâya : Armina

28 : Katpatuka : Sparda : Yauna : Sakâ : tyaiy : pa

29 radraya : Skudra : Yaunâ : takabarâ : Putây

30 â : Kûshiyâ : Maciyâ : Karkâ : thâtiy : D

31 ârayavaush : xshâyathiya : Auramazdâ : yath

32 â : avaina : imâm : bûmim : yaudatim :

33 pasâvadim : manâ : frâbara : mâm : xshâ

34 yathiyam : akunaush : adam : xshâyathiya

35 : amiy : vashnâ : Auramazdâhâ : a

36 damshim : gâthavâ : niyashâdayam : tyashâ

37 m : adam : athaham : ava : akunava : yathâ : mâm :

38 kâma : âha : yadipatiy : maniyâhaiy : t

39 ya : ciyakaram : âha : avâ : dahyâva

40 : tyâ : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya

41 : adâraya : patikarâ : dîdiy : tyaiy : g

42 âthun : baratiy : avadâ : xshnâsâhy :

43 adataiy : azdâ : bavâtiy : Pârsahyâ :

44 martiyahyâ : dûraiy : arshtish : pa

45 râgmatâ : adataiy : azdâ : bavâti

46 y : Pârsa : martiya : dûrayapiy : hacâ : Pâ

47 rsâ : partaram : patiyajatâ : thâtiy : Dâ

48 rayavaush : xshâyathiya : aita : tya : karta

49 m : ava : visam : vashnâ : Auramazdâhâ : ak

50 unavam : Auramazdâ(ma)iy : upastâm : aba

51 ra : yâtâ : kartam : akunavam : mâm : A

52 uramazdâ : pâtuv : hacâ : gastâ : utâma

53 iy : vitham : utâ : imâm : dahyâum : aita : ada

54 m : Auramazdâm : jadiyâmiy : aitama

55 iy : Auramazdâ : dadâtuv :

56 martiyâ : hyâ : Auramazdâh

57 â : framânâ : hauvtaiy : gas

58 tâ : mâ : thadaya pathim :

59 tyâm : râstâm : mâ

60 : avarada : mâ : stabava

1. (1-8.) A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this earth, who created yonder sky, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Darius king, one king of many, one lord of many.

2. (8-15.) I am Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King of countries containing all kinds of men, King in this great earth far and wide, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian, a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan, having Aryan lineage.

3. (15-30.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries which I seized outside of Persia; I ruled over them; they bore tribute to me; what was said to them by me, that they did; my law -- that held them firm; Media, Elam, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Drangiana, Arachosia, Sattagydia, Gandara, Sind, Amyrgian Scythians, Scythians with pointed caps, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sardis, Ionia, Scythians who are across the sea, Skudra, petasos-wearing Ionians, Libyans, Ethiopians, men of Maka, Carians.

4. (30-47.) Darius the King says: Ahuramazda, when he saw this earth in commotion, thereafter bestowed it upon me, made me king; I am king. By the favor of Ahuramazda I put it down in its place; what I said to them, that they did, as was my desire. If now you shall think that "How many are the countries which King Darius held?" look at the sculptures (of those) who bear the throne, then shall you know, then shall it become known to you: the spear of a Persian man has gone forth far; then shall it become known to you: a Persian man has delivered battle far indeed from Persia.

5. (47-55.) Darius the King says: This which has been done, all that by the will of Ahuramazda I did. Ahuramazda bore me aid, until I did the work. May Ahuramazda protect me from harm, and my royal house, and this land: this I pray of Ahuramazda, this may Ahuramazda give to me!

6. (56-60.) O man, that which is the command of Ahuramazda, let this not seem repugnant to you; do not leave the right path; do not rise in rebellion!

DARIUS, NAQSH-I-RUSTAM B. (DNb)

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : adadâ : i

2 ma : frasham : tya : vainataiy : hya : adadâ : shi

3 yâtim : martiyahyâ : hya : xrathum : ut

4 â : aruvastam : upariy : Dârayavaum : xshâ

5 yathiyam : nîyasaya : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : xshâya

6 thiya : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : avâkaram : a

7 miy : tya : râstam : daushtâ : amiy : mitha : na

8 iy : daushtâ : amiy : naimâ : kâma : tya : skauth

9 ish : tunuvatahyâ : râdiy : mitha : kariyaish

10 : naimâ : ava : kâma : tya : tunuvâ : skauthaish : r

11 âdiy : mitha : kariyaish : tya : râstam : ava : mâm :

12 kâma : martiyam : draujanam : naiy : daushtâ : am

13 iy : naiy : manauvish : amiy : tyâmaiy : dartana

14 yâ : bavatiy : darsham : dârayâmiy : manahâ :

15 uvaipashiyahyâ : darsham : xshayamna : amiy :

16 martiya : hya : hataxshataiy : anudim : hakarta

17 hyâ : avathâdim : paribarâmiy : hya : v

18 inâithayatiy : anudim : vinastahyâ : avath

19 â : parsâmiy : naimâ : kâma : tya : martiya

20 : vinâthayais : naipatimâ : ava : kâma : yadi

21 y : vinâthayaish : naiy : frathiyaish : martiya :

22 tya : patiy : martiyam : thâtiy : ava : mâm :

23 naiy : varnavataiy : yâtâ : uradanâm : hadu

24 gâm : âxshnautiy : martiya : tya : kunau

25 tiy : yadivâ : âbaratiy : anuv : tauman

26 ishaiy : xshnuta : amiy : utâ : mâm : vas

27 iy : kâma : utâ : uxshnaush : amiy : avâkaram

28 camaiy : ushîy : utâ : framânâ : yathâmai

29 y : tya : kartam : vainâhy : yadivâ âxshnav

30 âhy : utâ : vithiyâ : uta : spâthma

31 idayâ : aitamaiy : aruvastam :

32 upariy : manashcâ : ushîcâ : ima : patimai

33 y : aruvastam : tyamaiy : tanûsh : tâvaya

34 tiy : hamaranakara : amiy : ushhamaranakara : hakara

35 mciy : ushîyâ : gâthavâ : vainâtaiy : yaciy :

36 vainâmiy : hamiçiyam : yaciy : naiy : vainâ

37 miy : utâ : ushîbiyâ : utâ : framânâyâ

38 : adakaiy : fratara : maniyaiy : aruvâyâ : ya

39 diy : vainâmiy : hamiçiyam : yathâ : yadiy :

40 naiy : vainâmiy : yâumainish : amiy : u

41 tâ : dastaibiyâ : utâ : pâdaibiyâ : asabâ

42 ra : uvâsabâra : amiy : thanuvaniya : utha

43 nuvaniya : amiy : utâ : pastish : utâ

44 : asabâra : ârshtika : amiy : uvârshtika :

45 utâ : pastish : utâ : asabâra : utâ : ûvnarâ

46 : tyâ :Auramazdâ : upariy : mâm : nîyasaya : utâ

47 dish : atâvayam : bartanaiy : vashnâ : Auramazdâh

48 â : tyamaiy : kartam : imaibish : ûvnaraibish : aku

49 navam : tyâ : mâm : Auramazdâ : upariy : nîyasaya

50 : marîkâ : darsham : azdâ : kushuvâ : ciyâkaram

51 : amiy : ciyâkaramcamaiy : ûvnarâ : ciyâkara

52 mcamaiy : pariyanam : mâtaiy : duruxtam :

53 thadaya : tyataiy : gaushâyâ : xshnnutam : avash

54 ciy : âxshnudiy : tya : partamtaiy : asti

55 y : marîkâ : mâtaiy : avashciy : duruxta

56 m : kunavâtaiy : tya : manâ : kartam : astîy

57 : avashciy : dîdiy : yaciy : nipishtam : mâ :

58 taiy : dâtâ : +++++ : mâ : ++++++âtiy

59 â : ayâu(ma)inish : bavâtiy : marîkâ : xshâyathiya

60 : mâ : raxthatuv : +++++++++++++++ina :

7. (1-5.) A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this excellent work which is seen, who created happiness for man, who bestowed wisdom and activity upon Darius the King.

8a. (5-11.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda I am of such a sort that I am a friend to right, I am not a friend to wrong. It is not my desire that the weak man should have wrong done to him by the mighty; nor is that my desire, that the mighty man should have wrong done to him by the weak.

8b. (11-5.) What is right, that is my desire. I am not a friend to the man who is a Lie-follower. I am not hot-tempered. What things develop in my anger, I hold firmly under control by my thinking power. I am firmly ruling over my own (impulses).

8c. (16-21.) The man who cooperates, him according to his cooperative action, him thus do I reward. Who does harm, him according to the damage thus I punish. It is not my desire that a man should do harm; nor indeed is that my desire, if he should do harm, he should not be punished.

8d. (21-4.) What a man says against a man, that does not convince me, until he satisfies the Ordinance of Good Regulations.

8e. (24-7.) What a man does or performs (for me) according to his (natural) powers, (therewith) I am satisfied, and my pleasure is abundant, and I am well satisfied.

8f. (27-31.) Of such a sort is my understanding and my command: when what has been done by me you shall see or hear of, both in the palace and in the warcamp, this is my activity over and above my thinking power and my understanding.

8g. (31-40.) This indeed is my activity: inasmuch as my body has the strength, as battle-fighter I am a good battle fighter. Once let there be seen with understanding in the place (of battle), what I see (to be) rebellious, what I see (to be) not (rebellious); both with understanding and with command then am I first to think with action, when I see a rebel as well as when I see a not-(rebel).

8h. (40-45.) Trained am I both with hands and with feet. As a horseman I am a good horseman. As a bowman I am a good bowman both afoot and on horseback. As a spearman I am a good spear-man both afoot and on horseback.

8i. (45-9.) And the (physical) skillfulnesses which Ahuramazda has bestowed upon me and I have had the strength to use them -- by the favor of Ahuramazda what has been done by me, I have done with these skillfulnesses which Ahuramazda has bestowed upon me.

9a. (50-5.) O menial, vigorously make you known of what sort I am, and of what sort my skillfulnesses, and of what sort my superiority. Let not that seem false to you, which has been heard by thy ears. That do you hear, which is communicated to you.

9b. (55-60.) O menial, let that not be made (to seem) false to you, which has been done by me. That do you behold, which [has been inscribed]. Let not the laws [be disobeyed] by you. Let not [anyone] be untrained [in obedience]. [O menial], let not the king (feel himself obliged to) inflict punishment (?) [for wrong-doing (?) on the dwellers (in the land) (?)].

DN MINOR INSCRIPTIONS:

DNc

Text:Translation:
1 Gaubaruva : Pâtishuvarish : Dâra

2 yavahaush : xshâyathiyahyâ : arshtbara

Gobryas, a Patischorian, spear-bearer of Darius the King.

DNd

Text:Translation:
1 Aspacanâ : vaçabara : Dârayavahaush : xsh

2 âyathiyahyâ : isuvâm : dârayatiy

Aspatbines, bowbearer, holds the battle-ax of Darius the King.

DN

Text:Translation:
I iyam : Pârsa

II iyam : Mâda

III iyam : Ûvja

IV iyam : Parthava

XV iyam : Sakâ : tigraxaudâ

XVI iyam : Bâbirush

XVII iyam : Athuriya

XXIX iyam : Maciyâ

I: This is the Persian.

II: This is the Mede.

III: This is the Elamite.

IV: This is the Parthian.

XV: This is the Scythian with pointed cap.

XVI: This is the Babylonian.

XVII: This is the Assyrian.

XXIX: This is the man of Maka.

DARIUS, SUSA A. (DSa)

OP only, on two broken clay tablets.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush : XSH : vazraka : XSH XSHyân

2 âm : XSH DHnâm : Vishtâspahyâ : puça : Ha

3 xâmanishaya : thatiy : Dârayavaush : XSH

4 : vashna : AMha : adam : ava : akunavam : tya :

5 akunavam : visahyâ : frasham : thadayâtaiy

1. (1-3.) I am Darius the Great king, King of Kings, King of countries, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian.

2. (3-5.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda I have done that which I have done; to everyone may it seem excellent.

DARIUS, SUSA B. (DSb)

Two clay tablets, one badly damaged.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavau

2 sh : xshâyathiya

3 : vazraka : xshâya

4 thiya : xshâyathi

5 yânâm : xshâya

6 thiya : dahyûnâ

7 m : xshâyathiya :

8 haruvahyâya :

9 bûmiyâ : Visht

10 âspahyâ : puça

11 : Haxâmanishiya

I am ... (= DPa 1-4), King in all the earth, ... (= DPe 4-5).

DARIUS, SUSA C. (DSc)

Triligual on base of column, two copies.

Text:Translation:
adam : Darayavaush XSH : vazraka XSH XSHyânâm : Vishtâspahyâ : puça I am ... (= DPa 1-3, 4-5).

DARIUS, SUSA D. (DSd)

Parts of 2 OP copies on columns.

Text:Translation:
1 adam Dârayavaush XSH vazraka XSH XSHyânâm XSH DHnâm XSH

2 ahyâ BUyâ Vishtâspahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya thâ

3 tiy Dârayavaush XSH vashnâ AMha imam : dacaram akunavam

1. (1-2.) I am... (= DPa 1-4), King in this earth, ...(= DPe 4-5).

2. (2-3.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda I built this palace.

DARIUS, SUSA E. (DSe)

10 OP fragments representing several copies.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hva : imâ

2 m : bûmim : adadâ : hya : avam : as

3 mânam : adadâ : hya : martiyam : ada

4 dâ : hya : shiyâtim : adadâ : mart

5 iyahyâ : hya : Dârayavaum : XSHm : ak

6 unaush : aivam : parûvnâm : XSHm : a

7 ivam : parûvnâm : framâtâram : a

8 dam : Dârayavaush : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHy

9 ânâm : XSH : dahyûnâm : vispazanâ

10 nâm : XSH : ahyâyâ : bûmiyâ : vaz

11 rakâyâ : dûraiy : apiy : Vishtâs

12 pahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya : Pâr

13 sa : Pârsahyâ : puça : Ariya : Ari

14 ya : ciça : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : XSH :

15 vashnâ : Auramazdâhâ : imâ : dahy

16 âva : tyâ : adam : agarbâyam : apata

17 ram : hacâ : Pârsâ : adamshâm : pat

18 iyaxshayaiy : manâ : bâjim : abara :

19 tyashâm : hacâma : athahya : ava : aku

20 nava : dâtam : tya : manâ : avadish : a

21 dâraya : Mâda : Ûja : Parthava : Haraiva :

22 Bâxtrish : Suguda : Uvârazmish

23 : Zraka : Harauvatish : Thatagush : Maci

24 yâ : Gadâra : Hidush : Sakâ : haumava

25 rgâ : Sakâ : tigraxaudâ : Bâbir

26 ush : Athurâ : Arabâya : Mudrâya :

27 Armina : Katpatuka : Sparda : Yaun

28 â : tyaiy : drayahyâ : utâ : tyai

29 y : paradraya : Skudra : Putâyâ :

30 Kûshiyâ : Karkâ : thâtiy : Dâra

31 yavaush : XSH : vasiy : tya : dushkarta

32 m : âha : ava : naibam : akunavam : da

33 hyâva : ayauda : aniya : aniyam :

34 aja : ava : adam : akunavam : vashnâ

35 : Auramazdâhâ : yathâ : aniya : a

36 niyam : naiy : jatiy : cinâ : gâ

37 thavâ : kashciy : astiy : dâtam :

38 tya : manâ : hacâ : avanâ : tarsati

39 y : yathâ : hya : tauvîyâ : tyam : s

40 kauthim : naiy : jatiy : naiy : vi

41 mardatiy : thâtiy : Dâruyavaush :

42 XSH : vashnâ : Auramazdâhâ : dastaka

43 rtam : vasiy : tya : paruvam : naiy

44 : gâthava : kartam : ava : adam gâtha

45 vâ : akunavam : ++++ : nâma : varda

46 nam : didâ : hanatâyâ : avagmat

47 â : paruvam : akartâ : hacâ : ava

48 dasha : â : pasâva : didâm : aniy

49 âm : akunavam : thâtiy : Dârayavau

50 sh : XSH : mâm : AM : pâtuv : hadâ : ba

51 gaibish : utamaiy : vitham : u

52 tâ : tyamaiy : nipishtam

1. (1-7.) ... (= DNa 1-8).

2. (7-14.) ... (= DNa 8-15).

3. (14-30.) ... (= DNa 15-24), men of Maka, ... (= DNa 24-8), Ionians, (those) who are by the sea and (those) who are across the sea, Skudra, Libyans, Ethiopians, Carians.

4. (30-41.) Darius the King says: Much which was ill-done, that I made good. Provinces were in commotion; one man was smiting the other. The following I brought about by the favor of Ahuramazda, that the one does not smite the other at all, each one is in his place. My law -- of that they feel fear, so that the stronger does not smite nor destroy the weak.

5. (41-9.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda, much handiwork which previously had been put out of its place, that I put in its place. A town named ..., (its) wall fallen from age, before this unrepaired -- I built another wall (to serve) from that time into the future.

6. (49-52.) Darius the King says: May Ahuramazda together with the gods protect me, and my royal house, and what has been inscribed by me.

DARIUS, SUSA F. (DSf)

Fragments of many copies on clay and marble tablets, and on glazed tiles of the frieze of the great hall.

Text:Translation:
1 baga vazraka Auramazdâ : hya : imâm : bûmim : a

2 dâ : hya : avam : asmânam : adâ : hya : martiyam : adâ

3 : hya : shiyâtim : adâ : martiyahyâ : hya : Dâra

4 yavaum : XSHyam : akunaush : aivam : parûnâm : XSH

5 yam : aivam : parûnâm : framâtâram : adam : Dâra

6 yavaush : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyânam : XSH : DHnâm : XSH

7 : ahyâyâ : BUyâ : Vishtâspahyâ : puca : Haxâma

8 nishiya : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : XSH : Auramazdâ :

9 hya : mathishta : bagânâm : hauv : mâm : adâ : ha

10 uv : mâm : XSHyam : akunaush : haumaiy : ima : xsha

11 çam : frâbara : tya : vazrakam : tya : uvaspam : uma

12 rtiyam : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : hya : manâ : pitâ

13 : Vishtâspa : utâ : Arshâma : hya : manâ : niyâka :

14 tyâ : ubâ : ajîvatam : yadiy : Auramazdâ : mâ

15 m : XSHyam : akunaush : ahyâyâ : BUyâ : Auramazd

16 âm : avathâ : kâma : âha : haruvahyâyâ : BUyâ : mar

17 tiyam : mâm : avarnavatâ : mâm : XSHyam : akunaush :

18 haruvahâyâ : BUyâ : adam : Auramazdâm : ayadaiy :

19 Auramazdâmaiy : upastâm : abara : tyamaiy : fram

20 âtam : cartanaiy : ava : ucâramaiy : akunaush : t

21 ya : adam : akunavam : visam : vashnâ : Auramazdâha :

22 akunavam : ima : hadish : tya : Çûshâyâ : akunavam :

23 hacâciy : dûradasha : arjanamshaiy : abariya : frava

24 ta : BU : akaniya : yâtâ : athagam : BUyâ : avârasam :

25 yathâ : katam : abava : pasâva : thikâ : avaniya : aniyâ :

26 XL : arashanish : barshnâ : aniyâ : XX : arashnish : barsh

27 nâ : upariy : avâm : thikâm : hadish : frâsahya

28 : utâ : tya : BU : akaniya : fravata : utâ : tya : thikâ :

29 avaniya : utâ : tya : ishtish : ajaniya : kâra : hya : Bâ

30 biruviya : hauv : akunaush : tharmish : hya : nau

31 caina : hauv : Labanâna : nâma : kaufa : hacâ : avanâ : aba

32 riya : kâra : hya : Athuriya : haudim : abara : yâtâ :

33 Bâbirauv : hacâ : Bâbirauv : Karkâ : utâ : Yau

34 nâ : abara : yâtâ : Çushâyâ : yakâ : hacâ : Gadârâ

35 : abariya : utâ : hacâ : Karmânâ : daraniyam : hacâ

36 : Spardâ : utâ : hacâ : Bâxtriyâ : abariya : tya

37 : idâ : akariya : kâsaka : hya : kapautaka : utâ : sikab

38 rush : hya : idâ : karta : hauv : hacâ : Sugudâ : aba

39 riya : kâsaka : hya : axshaina : hauv : hacâ : Uvâraz

40 miyâ : abariya : hya : idâ : karta : ardatam : utâ : a

41 sâ : dâruv : hacâ : Mudrâyâ : abariya : ar

42 janam : tyanâ : didâ : pishtâ : ava : hacâ : Yaun

43 â : abariya : pirush : hya : idâ : karta : haca : Kûsh

44 â : utâ : hacâ : Hidauv : utâ : hacâ : Harauvat

45 iyâ : abariya : stûnâ : athagainiya : tyâ : id

46 â : kartâ : Abirâdush : nâma : âvahanam : Ûjaiy

47 : hacâ : avadasha : abariya : martiyâ : karnuvakâ : t

48 yaiy : athagam : akunavatâ : avaiy : Yaunâ : utâ

49 : Spardiyâ : martiyâ : dâraniyakarâ : tyaiy : daran

50 iyam : akunavasha : avaiy : Mâdâ : utâ : Mudrây

51 â : martiyâ : tyaiy : dâruv : akunavasha : avaiy :

52 Spardiyâ : utâ : Mudrâyâ : martiyâ : tyaiy

53 : agurum : akunavasha : avaiy : Bâbiruviy

54 â : martiyâ : tyaiy : didâm : apitha : avaiy : Mâd

55 â : utâ : Mudrâyâ : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : XSH :

56 Çûshâyâ : paruv : frasham : framâtam : paruv : frasha

57 m : âha : mâm : Auramazdâ : pâtuv : utâ : V

58 ishtâspam : hya : manâ : pitâ : utamaiy : DHum

1. (1-5.) ... (= DNa 1-8).

2. (5-8.) ... (= DSd 1-2).

3a. (8-12.) Darius the King says: Ahuramazda, the greatest of the gods -- he created me; he made me king; he bestowed upon me this kingdom, great, possessed of good horses, possessed of good men.

3h. (12-5.) By the favor of Ahuramazda my father Hystaspes and Arsames my grandfather -- these both were living when Ahuramazda made me king in this earth.

3c. (15-8.) To Ahuramazda thus was the desire: he chose me as (his) man in all the earth; he made me king in all the earth.

3d. (18-22.) I worshipped Ahuramazda. Ahuramazda bore me aid. What was by me commanded to do, that he made successful for me. What I did, all by the favor of Ahuramazda I did.

3e. (22-7.) This palace which I built at Susa, from afar its ornamentation was brought. Downward the earth was dug, until I reached rock in the earth. When the excavation had been made, then rubble was packed down, some 40 cubits in depth, another (part) 20 cubits in depth. On that rubble the palace was constructed.

3f. (28-30.) And that the earth was dug downward, and that the rubble was packed down, and that the sun-dried brick was molded, the Babylonian people -- it did (these tasks).

3g. (30-5.) The cedar timber, this -- a mountain named Lebanon -- from there was brought. The Assyrian people, it brought it to Babylon; from Babylon the Carians and the Ionians brought it to Susa. The yakâ-timber was brought from Gandara and from Carmania.

3h. (35-40.) The gold was brought from Sardis and from Bactria, which here was wrought. The precious stone lapis lazuli and carnelian which was wrought here, this was brought from Sogdiana. The precious stone turquois, this was brought from Chorasmia, which was wrought here.

3i. (40-5.) The silver and the ebony were brought from Egypt. The ornamentation with which the wall was adorned, that from Ionia was brought. The ivory which was wrought here, was brought from Ethiopia and from Sind and from Arachosia.

3j. (45-9.) The stone columns which were here wrought, a village named Abiradu, in Elam -- from there were brought. The stone-cutters who wrought the stone, those were Ionians and Sardians.

3k. (49-55.) The goldsmiths who wrought the gold, those were Medes and Egyptians. The men who wrought the wood, those were Sardians and Egyptians. The men who wrought the baked brick, those were Babylonians. The men who adorned the wall, those were Medes and Egyptians.

4. (55-8.) Darius the King says: At Susa a very excellent (work) was ordered, a very excellent (work) was (brought to completion). Me may Ahuramazda protect, and Hystaspes my father, and my country.

DARIUS, SUSA G. (DSg)

Parts of 2 OP copies on columns.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush XSH vazraka XSH XSHyânâm XSH DHnâm XSH ah

2 yayâ BUyâ : Vishtâspahyâ puça Haxâamanishiya thât

3 iy : Dârayavaush XSH vithiyâ imâ stûnâ adam akunavam

1. (1-2.) ... (= DSd 1-2).

2. (2-3.) Darius the King says: In (my) house I made these columns.

DARIUS, SUSA I. (DSi)

OP and Elam. on column.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush XSH : vazraka : XSH XSHyânâm : XSH DHnâm : XSH a

2 hyâyâ BUyâ : Vishtâspahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya : th

3 âtiy : Dârayavaush XSH : yathâ : AM : mâm : XSHyam akunaush :

4 ahyâyâ BUyâ : vashnâ : AMha : visam : naibam : akunavam

1. (1-2.) ... (= DSd 1-2).

2. (2-4.) Darius the King says: After Ahuramazda made me king in this earth, by the favor of Ahuramazda everything (that) I did (was) good.

DARIUS, SUSA J. (DSj)

Trilingual on column.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush XSH : vazraka XSH XSHyânâm : XSH ahyâyâ BUyâ : Vishtâspahyâ :

2 puça : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : Dârayavaush XSH : visam : tya : adam : akunava

3 m : aniyathâ : naiy : akunavam : yathâ : AM m : kâma: âha : avathâ: akunava

4 m : mâm : AM : daushtâ : âha : tya : akunavam : avamaiy : visam : ucâram : âha :thâ

5 tiy : Dârayavaush XSH : vashnâ AMhâ : hya : ima : hadish : vainâtiy : tya : manâ : ka

6 rtam : visahyâ : frasham : thadayâtaiy : mâm : AM L pâtuv : utamaiy : DHum

1. (1-2.) (= DSd 1-2, with an omission).

2. (2-4.) Darius the King says: All that I did, I did not do otherwise, (but) as was Ahuramazda's desire, so I did. Ahuramazda was a friend to me; what I did, all that was successful for me.

3. (4-6.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda, to every one who shall see this palace which has been built by me, may it seem excellent. Me may Ahuramazda protect, and my country.

DARIUS, SUSA K. (DSk)

OP only on a baked clay brick.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHy

2 ânâm : XSH : DHnâm : Vishtâspahyâ :

3 puça : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : Dâ

4 rayavaush : XSH : manâ : AM : AMha : adam : Amm :

5 ayadaiy : AMmaiy : upastâm : baratuv

1. (1-3.) I am ... (= DPa 1-5).

2. (3-5.) Darius the King says: Ahuramazda is mine, I am Ahuramazda's. I worshipped Ahuramazda; may Ahuramazda bear me aid.

DARIUS, SUSA L. (DSl)

OP inscription on baked clay brick.

Text:Translation:
1 thâtiy : Dârayavaush : x

2 shâyathiya : vashnâ : Aura

3 mazdâha : tya : amaniyai

4 y : kunavânaiy : avamai

5 y : visam : ucâram : âha :

Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda, what I thought I will do, all that was successful for me.

DARIUS, SUSA M. (DSm)

Trilingual inscription on enameled bricks forming a frieze in one of the halls.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyânam :

2 XSH : DHnâm : Vishtâspahyâ : puça : Haxâmanisiya :

3 thâtiy : Dârayavaush : XSH : AMmaiy : xshaçam : frâbara :

4 tya : vazrakam : tya : umartiyam : mâm : xshâyathiyam :

5 ahyâyâ : bûmiyâ : akunaush : vashnâ : AMhâ : imâ : dah

6 yâva : tyaishâm : adam : xshâyathiya : abavam: Pârsa :

7 Ûja : Bâbirush: Athurâ : Arabâya : Mudrâya : Sparda :

8 Yauna : Mâda : Armina : Katpatuka : Parthava : Zraka :

9 Haraiva : Uvârazmish : Bâxtrish : Suguda : Gadâra :

10 Thatagush : Harauvatish : Hidush : Skudra : Yaunâ : taka

11 barâ : .....

1. (1-2.) I am ... (DPa 1-5).

2. (3-11.) Darius the king says: Ahuramazda bestowed upon me the kingdom, great, possessed of good men; he made me king in this earth. By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries of which I became king: Persia, Elarn, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Sardis, Ionia, Media, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangiana, Aria, Chorasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana, Gandara, Sattagydia, Arachosia, Sind, Skudra, petasos-wearing Ionians, ...

DARIUS, SUSA N. (DSn)

Trilingual, small fragments of an inscription on the garment of a statue.

Text:Translation:
1 imam : patikaram : Dârayavaush : XSH : niyashtâya : cartanaiy : +++...

2 ... +++na : Dârayavaum : XSHyam : AM : pâtuv : utâ : tya : kartam

This Sculpture Darius the King commanded to make; ... May Ahuramazda protect Darius the King, and what was made (by him).

DARIUS, SUSA O. (DSo)

OP and Akk. on a marble plaque.

Text:Translation:
1 +++++ +++++ +++++ nasha

2 tam : akunavam : thâtiy : Dâ

3 rayavaush : XSH : vashnâ : AMha : Çûsh

4 âyâ : idâ : frasham : akunavam

... I made. Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda, I constructed here at Susa an excellent (building).

DARIUS, SUSA P. (DSp)

OP frag. on marble plaque.

Text:Translation:
1 Auramazdâ : vazraka : hya : mathishta : bagânâm : hauv : Dâ

2 rayavaum : XSHyam : adâ : haushaiy : xshaçam : frâbara : tya : nai

3 bam : tya : uratharam : uvaspam : umartiyam : ....

Great Ahuramazda, the greatest of the gods -- he created Darius the King, he bestowed upon him the kingdom, good, possessed of good charioteers, of good horses, of good men ...

DARIUS, SUSA Q. (DSq)

Two frags. on marble plaque.

Text:Translation:
1 ... a ...

2 ... : Dârayavaush : XSH : ... : casham : ...

3 ..... : adâna : .... ... nasatâ ...

4 .... m : mâ : ka ... ... : mâ : yâ ...

....... Darius the King ... eye ... he knew ... let not ... let not ...

DARIUS, SUSA S. (DSs)

OP on marble plaque.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : frasham : ah

2 yâyâ : bûmiyâ : kunautiy : hya : mart

3 iyarn : ahyâyâ : bûmiyâ : kunau

4 tiy : hya : shiyâtim : kunautiy :

5 martiyahyâ : hya : uvaspâ : urathâcâ :

6 kunautiy : manâ : haudish : frâbara : mâm : Au

7 ramazdâ : pâtuv : utâ : tyamaiy : kartam :

A great god is Ahuramazda, who makes excellence in this earth, who makes man in this earth, who makes happiness for man, who makes good horses and good chariots. On me he bestowed them. May Ahuramazda protect me and what has been built by me.

DARIUS, SUSA T. (DSt)

OP on both sides of a marble plaque.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vasraka: Auramazdâ : hya : imâ

2 m : bûmim : adâ : hya : avam : as

3 mânam : adâ : hya : martiyam : a

4 dâ : hya : shiyâtim : adâ : mart

5 iyahyâ : hya : Dârayavaum : xsh

6 âyathiyam : akunaush : thâti

7 y : Dârayavaush : XSH : mâm : Auramaz

8 dâ : pâtuv : hadâ : bagaibish

9 : utamaiy : vitham : utâ : thuv

10 âm : kâ : XSH : hya : aparam : âhy

1. (1-6.) ... (= DNa 1-6).

2. (6-10.) ... (= DSe 49-51) and you, whoever shall be king hereafter.

DARIUS, SUSA Y. (DSy)

Trilingual on base of a column.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush XSH : vazraka XSH XSHyânâm

2 XSH DHyunâm XSH : ahyâyâ BUyâ : Vi

3 shtâspahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya

... (= DSd 1-2).

DZ = DARIUS, SUEZ INSCRIPTIONS.

Granite stele, not far from the 33d kilometer-stone commemorating Darius's opening of a canal between the Red Sea and the Nile.

DARIUS, SUEZ A. (DZa)

Text:Translation:
1 Dâ 2 raya 3 va 4 ush Darius.

DARIUS, SUEZ B. (DZb)

Text:Translation:
1 Dârayavaush : XSH : vazraka

2 : XSH : XSHyânâm : XSH : dahy

3 ûnâm : XSH : ahyâyâ :

4 bûmiyâ : vazrakâyâ :

5 Vishtâspahyâ pu

6 ça: Haxâmanishiya

... (= DNa 8-12, lacking two words)

DARIUS, SUEZ C. (DZc)

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : avam : asmânam : adâ : hya : imâm : bûm

2 im : adâ : hya : martiyam : adâ : hya : shiyâtim : adâ : martiyahy

3 â : hya : Dârayavaum : XSHyam : akunaush : hya : Dârayavahaush : XSHyâ : xshaça

4 m : frâbara : tya : vazrakam : tya : uvaspam : umartiyam : adam : Dârayavaush :

5 XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyânâm : XSH : dahyûnâm : vipazanânâm : XSH : ahyây

6 â : bûmiyâ : vazrakâyâ : dûraiy : apiy : Vishtâspahyâ : puça : Ha

7 xâmanishiya : thâtiy : Dârayavaush : XSH : adam: Pârsa : amiy : hacâ : Pâ

8 rsâ : Mudrâyam : agarbâyam : adam : niyashtâyam : imâm : yauviyâ

9 m : katanaiy : hacâ : Pirâva : nâma : rauta : tya : Mudrâyaiy : danuvatiy : ab

10 iy : draya : tya : hacâ : Pârsâ : aitiy : pasâva : iyam : yauviyâ : akaniya :

11 avathâ : yathâ : adam : niyashtâyam : utâ : nâva : âyatâ : hacâ : Mudrâ

12 yâ : tara : imâm : yauviyâm : abiy : Pârsam : avathâ : yathâ : mâm : kâma : âha

1. (1-4.) ... (= DNa 1-6, with one change of order); who upon Darius the King ... (= Dsf 11-2).

2. (4-7.) ... (=Dna 8-13).

3. (7-12.) Darius the King says: I am a Persian; from Persia I seized Egypt; I gave order to dig this canal from a river named Nile which flows in Egypt, to the sea which goes from Persia. Afterward this canal was dug thus as I had ordered, and ships went from Egypt through this canal to Persia thus as was my desire.

DARIUS, ELVEND. (DE)

Trilingual in niche cut in the face of Mt. Elvend, SW of Hamadan

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ

2 : hya : imâm : bûmim :

3 adâ : hya : avam : asmâ

4 nam : adâ : hya : martiya

5 m : adâ : hya : shiyâti

6 m : adâ : martiyahyâ :

7 hya : Dârayavaum : xshâya

8 thiyam : akunaush : aiva

9 m : parûnâm : xshâyath

10 iyam : aivam : parûnâm

11 : framâtâram : adam :

12 Dârayavaush : xshâyathi

13 ya : vazraka : xshâyathiya :

14 xshâyathiyânâm : xsh

15 âyathiya : dahyûnâm : pa

16 ruzanânâm : xshâyath

17 iya : ahyâyâ : bûmiy

18 â : vazrakâyâ : dûraiy

19 : apiy : Vishtâspahy

20 â : puça : Haxâmanishiya

1. (1-11.) ... (= DNa 1-8).

2. (11-20.) ... (= DNa 8-10), containing many men, ... (= DNa 11-3).

DARIUS, HAMADAN. (DH)

Trilingual, duplicates on gold and silver plates.

Text:Translation:
1 Dârayavaush : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyanâm : XSH : dahy

2 ûvnâm : Vishtâspahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya :

3 thâtiy : Dârayavaush : XSH : ima : xshaçam : tya : ada

4 m : dârayâmiy : hacâ : Sakaibish : tyaiy : pa

5 ra : Sugdam : amata : yâtâ : â : Kûshâ : hacâ : Hida

6 uv : amata : yâtâ : â : Spardâ : tyamaiy : Aurama

7 zdâ : frâbara : hya : mathishta : bagânâm : m

8 âm : Auramazdâ : pâtuv : utâmaiy : vitham

1. (1-2.) ... (= DPh 1-3).

2. (3-8.) ... (= DPh 3-10).

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS A. (XPa)

Trilingual engraving on inner walls of the great doorway.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : imâm : bûmim : a

2 dâ : hya : avam : asmânam : adâ : hya : martiyam :

3 adâ : hya : shiyâtim : adâ : martiyahyâ : hya

4 : Xshayârshâm : xshâyathiyam : akunaush : aivam :

5 parûnâm : xshâyathiyam : aivam : parûnâm : fram

6 âtâram : adam : Xshayârshâ : xshâyathiya : vazraka :

7 xshâyathiya : xshâyathiyânâm : xshâyathiya : dahy

8 ûnâm : paruv : zanânâm : xshâyathiya : ahyây

9 â : bûmiyâ : vazrakâyâ : dûraiy : apiy : Dâ

10 rayavahaush : xshâyathiyahyâ : puça : Hâxâmanish

11 iya : thâtiy : Xshayârshâ : xshâyathiya : vashnâ :

12 Auramazdâhâ : imam : duvarthim : visadahyum

13 : adam : akunavam : vasiy : aniyashciy : naibam

14 : kartam : anâ : Pârsâ : tya : adam : akunavam :

15 utamaiy : tya : pitâ : akunaush : tyapatiy : ka

16 rtam : vainataiy : naibam : ava : visam : vashnâ : A

17 uramazdâhâ : akumâ : thâtiy : Xshayârshâ :

18 xshâyathiya : mâm : Auramazdâ : pâtuv : utamai

19 y : xshaçam : utâ : tya : manâ : kartam : utâ : tyamai

20 y : piça : kartam : avashciy : Auramazdâ : pâtuv

1. (1-6.) ... (= DNa 1-4), who made Darius king, one king of many, one lord of many.

2. (6-11.) I am Xerxes, ... (= DE 12-9), son of King Darius, an Achaemenian.

3. (11-7.) Xerxes the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda, this Colonnade of All Lands, I built. Much other good (construction) was built within this (city) Persepolis, which I built and which my father built. Whatever good construction is seen, all that by the favor of Ahuramazda we built.

4. (17-20.) Xerxes the King says: May Ahuramazda protect me, and my kingdom, and what was built by me, and what was built by my father, that also may Ahuramazda protect.

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS B. (XPb)

OP on north side of the colonnade hall of Xerxes with copy on east side.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ

2 : hya : imâm : bûmim :

3 adâ : hya : avam : asmâ

4 nam : adâ : hya : martiya

5 m : adâ : hya : shiyâti

6 m : adâ : martiyahyâ :

7 hya : Xshayârshâm : xshâ

8 yathiyam : akunaush : ai

9 vam : parûnâm : xshâyath

10 iyam : aivam : parûnâm

11 : framâtâram : adam : X

12 shayârshâ : xshâyathiya :

13 vazraka : xshâyathiya : xsh

14 âyathiyânâm : xshâyath

15 iya : dahyûnâm : paruv

16 zanânâm : xshâyathiya :

17 ahiyâyâ : bûmiyâ :

18 vazrakâyâ : dûraiy : a

19 piy : Dârayavahaush : xsh

20 âiyathiyahyâ : puça : Hax

21 âmanishiya : thâtiy : X

22 shayârshâ : xshâyathiya :

23 vazraka : tya : manâ : karta

24 m : idâ : utâ : tyamaiy

25 : apataram : kartam : ava : v

20 isam : vashnâ : Auramazdâ

27 ha : akunavam : mâm : Aura

28 mazdâ : pâtuv : hadâ : ba

29 gaibish : utâmaiy : xshaça

30 m : utâ : tyamaiy : kartam

1. (1-11.) ... (=XPa 1-6).

2. (11-21.) ... (= XPa 6-11).

3. (21-30.) Xerxes the Great King says: What has been built by me here, and what has been built by me at a distance (from here), all that by the favor of Ahuramazda I built. Me may Ahuramazda together with the gods protect, and my kingdom, and what has been built by me.

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS C. (XPc)

Trilingual on west pillar of the portico of Darius's palace, with copies on south boundary wall of the terrace, an on the east pillar of the portico.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : imâm : bûmim :

2 adâ : hya : avam : asmânam : adâ : hya : marti

3 yam : adâ : hya : shiyâtim : adâ : martiyahyâ

4 : hya : Xshayârshâm : XSHm : akunaush : aivam : pa

5 rûnâm : XSHm : aivam : parûnâm : framâtâram

6 : adam : Xshayârshâ : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHânâm : XSH :

7 dahyûnâm : paruv : zanânâm : XSH : ahyâyâ : b

8 ûmiyâ : vazrakâyâ : dûraiy : apiy : Dârayava

9 haush : XSHhyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : X

10 shayârshâ : XSH : vazraka : vashnâ : Aurahya Mazdâha : i

11 ma : hadish : Dârayavaush : XSH : akunaush : hya : manâ :

12 pitâ : mâm : Auramazdâ : pâtuv : hadâ : baga

13 ibish : upâ : tyamaiy : kartam : utâ : tyamaiy :

14 piça : Dârayavahaush : XSHhyâ : kartam : avashciy

15 : Auramazdâ : pâtuv : hadâ : bagaibish

1. (1-5.) ... (=XPa 1-6).

2. (6-9.) ... (= XPa 6-11).

3. (9-15.) Xerxes the Great King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda this palace Darius the King built, who was my father. May Ahuramazda together with the gods protect me, and what was built by me, and what was built by my father Darius the King, that also may Ahuramazda together with the gods protect.

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS D. (XPd)

Trilingual, 2 copies on pillars of Xerxes' palace, 2 more on walls beside the steps of front terrace.

Text:Translation:
1 baga vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : i

2 mâm : bûmim : adâ : hya : avam

3 : asmânam : adâ : hya : martiya

4 m : adâ : hya : shiyâtim : adâ : mar

5 tiyahyâ : hya : Xshayârshâm : x

6 shâyathiyam : akunaush : aivam : par

7 ûnâm : xshâyathiyam : aivam : parû

8 nâm : framâtâram : adam : Xshayârsh

9 â : xshâyathiya : vazraka : xshâyathiya :

10 xshâyathiyânâm : xshâyathiya : dahy

11 ûnâm : paruvzanânâm : xshâyathiya

12 : ahiyâyâ : bûmiyâ : vazrakâyâ

13 : dûraiy : apiy : Dârayavahaush : xsh

14 âyathiyahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya :

15 thâtiy : Xshayârshâ : xshâyathiya : va

16 zraka : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : ima : had

17 ish : adam : akunavam : mâm : Auramaz

18 dâ pâtuv : hadâ : bagaibish : utama

19 iy : xshaçam : utâ : tyamaiy : kartam

1. (1-8.) ... (= XPa 1-6).

2. (8-14.) ... (= Xpa 6-11).

3. (15-9.) Xerxes the Great King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda this palace I built. ... (= XPb 27-30).

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS E. (XPe)

Trilingual, in duplicate on door posts, above sculptures of the king. Numerous copies on doors and windows.

Text:Translation:
1 Xshayârshâ : xshâyathiya : vazra

2 ka : xshâyathiya : xshâyathiyâ

3 nâm : Dârayavahaush : xshâyath

4 iyahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya :

... (= Xpa 6-7, 9-11).

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS F. (XPf)

OP and Akk. on limestone tablet simulating a clay tablet.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : imâ

2 m :bûmim : adâ : hya : avam : asm

3 ânam : adâ : hya : martiyam : adâ :

4 hya : shiyâtim : adâ : martiyahy

5 â : hya : Xshayârshâm : xshâyathiyam

6 : akunaush : aivam : parûnâm : xsh

7 âyathiyam : aivam parûnâm : fram

8 âtâram : adam : Xshayârshâ : xshâ

9 yathiya : vazraka : xshâyathiya : xshâ

10 yathiyânâm : xshâyathiya : dahyû

11 nâm : paruv : zanânâm : xshâyath

12 iya : ahyâyâ : bûmiyâ : vazrak

13 âyâ : dûraiy : apiy : Dârayavaha

14 ush : xshâyathiyahyâ : puça : Haxâ

15 manishiya : thâtiy : Xshayârshâ :

16 xshâyathiya : manâ : pitâ : Dâraya

17 vaush : Dârayavahaush : pitâ : Vish

18 tâspa : nâma : âha : Vishtâspahy

19 â : pitâ : Arshâma : nâma : âha : u

20 tâ : Vishtâspa : utâ : Arshâma :

21 ubâ : ajîvatam : aciy : Auramaz

22 dâm : avathâ : kâma : âha : Dârayava

23 um : hya : manâ : pitâ : avam : xsh

24 âyathiyam : akunaush : ahyâyâ :

25 bûmiyâ : yathâ : Dârayavahaush : xsh

26 âyathiya : abava : vasiy : tya : frathara

27 m : akunaush : thâtiy : Xshayârshâ

28 : xshâyathiya : Dârayavaush : puçâ :

29 aniyaiciy : âhatâ : Auramazdâm

30 : avatha : kâma : âha : Dârayavaushi : hya

31 : manâ : pitâ : pasâ : tanûm : mâm

32 : mathishtam : akunaush : yathâmaiy

33 : pitâ : Dârayavaush : gâthavâ : a

34 shiyava : vashnâ : Auramazdahâ : ada

35 m : xshâyathiya : abavam : piça : gâ

36 thavâ : yathâ : adam : xshâyathiya : a

37 bavam : vasiy : tya : fratharam : aku

38 navam : tyamaiy : piça : kartam : âha

39 : ava : adam : apayaiy : utâ : ani

40 ya : kartam : abîjâvayam : tyapati

41 y : adam : akunavam : utamaiy : tya

42 : pitâ : akunaush : ava : visam :

43 vashnâ : Auramazdahâ : akumâ : th

44 âtiy : Xshayârshâ : xshâyathiya :

45 mâm : Auramazdâ : pâtuv : utama

46 iy : xshaçam : utâ : tya : manâ : kar

47 tam : utâ : tyamaiy : piça : kartam

48 : avashciy : Auramazdâ : pâtuv

1. (1-8.) ... (=XPa 1-6).

2. (8-15.) ... (= Xpa 6-11).

3. (15-27.) Xerxes the King says: My father was Darius; Darius's father was named Hystaspes; Hystaspes's father was named Arsames. Both Hystaspes and Arsames were both living, at that time -- thus to Ahuramazda was the desire -- Darius, who was my father, him he made king on this earth. When Darius became king, he built much excellent (construction).

4. (27-43.) Xerxes the King says: Other sons of Darius there were, (but) -- thus to Ahuramaida was the desire -- Darius my father made me the greatest after himself. When my father Darius went away from the throne, by the will of Ahuramazda I became king on my father's throne. When I became king, I built much excellent (construction). What had been built by my father, that I protected, and other building I added. What moreover I built, and what my father built, all that by the favor of Ahuramazda we built.

5. (43-48.) ... (= XPa 17-20).

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS G. (XPg)

Ornamental plaque in colored enameled bricks.

Text:Translation:
1 thâtiy : xshayârshâ :

2 xshâyathiya : vazraka : vash

3 nâ : Auramazdâha : vasi

4 y : tya : naibam : akunau

5 sh : utâ : frâmâyatâ :

6 Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya

7 : hya : manâ : pitâ : vash

8 nâpiy : Auramazdâha

9 : adam : abiyajâvayam

10 : abiy : ava : kartam :

11 utâ : frataram : akuna

12 vam : mâm : Auramazdâ

13 : pâtuv : hadâ : bagai

14 bish : utamaiy : xshaçam

Xerxes the Great King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda, King Darius my father built and ordered (to be built) much good (construction). By the favor also of Ahuramazda I added to that construction and built further (buildings). ... (= XPb 27-30).

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS H. (XPh)

The Daiva Inscription: Trilingual, on stone tablets, 2 copies.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : imâm : bûm

2 im : adâ : hya : avam : asmânam : adâ : hya

3 : martiyam : adâ : hya : shiyâtim : adâ :

4 martiyahyâ : hya : Xshayârshâm : xshâyathi

5 yam : akunaush : aivam : parûnâm : xshâyath

6 iyam : aivam : parûnâm : framâtâram : ada

7 m : Xshayârshâ : xshâyathiya : vazraka : xshâya

8 thiya : xshâyathiyânâm : xshâyathiya : dahy

9 ûnâm : paruv : zanânâm : xshâyathiya : ah

10 yâyâ : bûmiyâ : vazrakâyâ : dûraiy : a

11 piy : Dârayavahaush : xshâyathiyahyâ : puça

12 : Haxâmanishiya : Pârsa : Pârsahyâ : puça

13 : Ariya : Ariyaciça : thâtiy : Xshayârshâ

14 : xshâyathiya : vashnâ : Auramazdahâ : imâ :

15 dahyâva : tyaishâm : adam : xshâyathiya : âh

16 âm : apataram : hacâ : Pârsâ : adamshâm :

17 patiyaxshayaiy : manâ : bâjim : abaraha : t

18 yashâm : hacâma : athahiya : ava : akunava : d

19 âtam : tya : manâ : avadish : adâraya : Mâda

20 : Ûja : Harauvatish : Armina : Zraka : Parthava

21 : Haraiva : Bâxtrish : Sugda : Uvârazmi

22 sh : Bâbirush : Athurâ : Thatagush : Sparda

23 : Mudrâya : Yaunâ : tya : drayahiyâ : dâ

24 rayatiy : utâ : tyaiy : paradraya : dârayat

25 iy : Maciyâ : Arabâya : Gadâra : Hidush :

26 Katpatuka : Dahâ : Sakâ : haumavargâ : Sakâ

27 : tigraxaudâ : Skudrâ : Âkaufaciyâ :

28 Putâyâ : Karkâ : Kûshiya : thâtiy : Xsha

29 yârshâ : xshâyathiya : yathâ : tya : adam : x

30 shâyathiya : abavam : astiy : atar : aitâ

31 : dahyâva : tyaiy : upariy : nipishtâ : a

32 yauda : pasâvamaiy : Auramazdâ : upastâm :

33 abara : vashnâ : Auramazdahâ : ava : dahyâvam

34 : adam : ajanam : utashim : gâthavâ : nîdâda

35 yam : utâ : atar : aitâ : dahyâva : âha : yad

36 âtya : paruvam : daivâ : ayadiya : pasâva : va

37 shnâ : Auramazdahâ : adam: avam: daivadâna

38 m : viyakanam : utâ : patiyazbayam : daivâ :

39 mâ : yadiyaisha : yadâyâ : paruvam : daivâ :

40 ayadiya : avadâ : adam : Auramazdâm : ayada

41 iy : artâcâ : brazmaniya : utâ : aniyash

42 ca : âha : tya : dushkartam : akariya : ava : ada

43 m : naibam : akunavam : aita : tya : adam : ak

44 unavam : visam : vashnâ : Auramazdahâ : aku

45 navam : Auramazdâmaiy upastâm : abara : y

46 âtâ : kartam : akunavam : tuva : kâ : hya :

47 apara : yadimaniyâiy : shiyâta : ahaniy

48 : jîva : utâ : marta : artâvâ : ahaniy :

49 avanâ : dâtâ : parîdiy : tya : Auramazd

50 â : nivashtâya : Auramazdâm : yadaishâ : a

51 rtâcâ : brazmaniya : martiya : hya : avan

52 â : dâtâ : pariyaita : tya : Auramazdâ : n

53 îshtâya : utâ : Auramazdâm : yadataiy : a

54 rtâcâ : brazmaniya hauv : utâ : jîva :

55 shiyâta : bavatiy : utâ : marta : artâvâ

56 : bavatiy : thâtiy : Xshayârshâ : xshâyath

57 iya : mâm : Auramazdâ : pâtuv : hacâ : ga

58 stâ : utamaiy : vitham : utâ : imâm : dah

59 yâvam : aita : adam : Auramazdâm : jadiy

60 âmiy : aitamaiy : Auramazdâ : dadâtuv

1. (1-6.) ... (= XPa 1-6).

2. (6-13.) ... (=XPa 6-11, DNa 13-5).

3. (13-28.) Xerxes the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries of which I was king ... (= DNa 18-22); Media, Elam, Arachosia, Armenia, Drangiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Babylonia, Assyria, Sattagydia, Sardis, Egypt, Ionians, those who dwell by the sea and those who dwell across the sea, men of Maka, Arabia, Gandara, Sind, Cappadocia, Dahae, Amyrgian Scythians, Pointed-Cap Scythians, Skudra, men of Akaufaka, Libyans, Carians, Ethiopians.

4a. (28-35.) Xerxes the King says: When that I became king, there is among these countries which are inscribed above (one which) was in commotion. Afterwards Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote that country and put it down in its place.

4b. (35-41.) And among these countries there was (a place) where previously false gods [[Daevas]] were worshipped. Afterwards, by the favor of Ahuramazda, I destroyed that sanctuary of the demons, and I made proclamation, "The demons shall not be worshipped!" Where previously the demons were worshipped, there I worshipped Ahuramazda and Arta [[Asha]] reverent(ly).

4c. (41-6.) And there was other (business) that had been done ill; that I made good. That which I did, all I did by the favor of Ahuramazda. Ahuramazda bore me aid, until I completed the work.

4d. (46-56.) Thou who (shall be) hereafter, if you shall think, "Happy may I be when living, and when dead may I be blessed," have respect for that law which Ahuramazda has established; worship Ahuramazda and Arta reverent(ly). The man who has respect for that law which Ahuramazda has established, and worships Ahuramazda and Arta reverent(ly), he both becomes happy while living, and becomes blessed when dead.

5. (56-60.) Xerxes the King says: ... (= DNa 51-5).

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS I. (XPi)

OP and Elamite on doorknob, from harem building.

Text:Translation:
mayûxa : kâsakaina : Xshayârshâha : XSHhyâ : vithiyâ : karta

... (= DPi) of Xerxes.

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS J. (XPj)

Trilingual, on bases of at least 5 columns.

Text:Translation:
adam : Xshayârshâ : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyânâm : XSH : DHyûnâm : XSH : ahyâyâ : bûmiyâ : Dârayavahaush : XSHyahyâ : Puça : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : Xshayârshâ : XSH : imam : tacaram : adam : akunavam

1. (1-3.) ... (= XPa 6-11, with two omissions).

2. (3-4.) Xerxes the King says: This palace I built.

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS K. (XPk)

OP and Elam. on the king's garment, middle door of the tacara.

Text:Translation:
Xshayârshâ : Dârayavahaush : XSHyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya

Xerxes, son of King Darius, an Achaemenian.

XERXES, SUSA A. (XSa)

Trilingual on base of column

Text:Translation:
1 thâtiy : Xshayârshâ : xshâyathiya : vashnâ : Auramazdâha : ima :

2 hadish : Dârayavaush : xshâyathiya : akunaush : hya : manâ : pitâ

... (= XPc 9-12, with slight omissions).

XERXES, SUSA C. (XSc)

OP on fragmentary marble tablet.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Xshayârshâ : xshâyathiya : vazraka : xshâyathiya : xshâyathiyânâm : xshâya

2 thiya : dahyûnâm : Dârayavahaush : xshâyathiyahyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya : thât

3 iy : Xshayâshâ : xshâyathiya : ima : hadish : akunâm : pasâva : yathâ : adam : xshâya

4 thiya : abavam : aita : adam : yânam jadiyâmiy : Auramazdâm : mâm : Au

5 ramazdâ : pâtuv : hadâ : bagaibish : utamaiy : xshaçam : utâ : tyamaiy : kartam

1. (1-2.) ... (= XPa 6-8, 9-11).

2. (2-5.) Xerxes the King says: I built this palace after I became king. This I ask as a boon from Ahuramazda: ... (= XPb 27-30).

XERXES, ELVEND. (XE)

Trilingual, to the right of Darius's inscription.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ :

2 hya : mathishta : bagânâm :

3 hya : imâm : bûmim : ad

4 â : hya : avam : asmânam :

5 adâ : hya : martiyam : ad

6 â : hya : shiyâtim : adâ

7 : martiyahyâ : hya : Xsha

8 yârshâm : xshâyathiyam :

9 akunaush : aivam : parûn

10 âm : xshâyathiyam : aivam

11 : parûnâm : framâtâram

12 : adam : Xshayârshâ : xshâ

13 yathiya : vazraka : xshâyathi

14 ya : xshâyathiyânâm : xsh

15 âyathiya : dahyûnâm : par

16 uzanânâm : xshâyathiya :

17 ahiyâyâ : bumiyâ : va

18 zrakâyâ : dûraiy : apiy

19 : Dârayavahaush : xshâyathiya

20 hyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya

1. (1-11.) ... (= XPa 1-6).

2. (12-20.) ... (= XPa 6-11).

XERXES, VAN. (XV)

Trilingual, in niche on precipitous rocky wall of the castle.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : mathi

2 shta : bagânâm : hya : imâm : bûm

3 im : adâ : hya : avam : asmânam :

4 adâ : hya : martiyam : adâ : hya :

5 shiyâtim : adâ : martiyahyâ :

6 hya : Xshayârshâm : xshâyathiyam

7 : akunaush : aivam : parûnâm : x

8 shâyathiyam : aivam : parûnâm :

9 framâtâram : adam : Xshayârshâ :

10 xshâyathiya : vazraka : xshâyathiya :

11 xshâyathiyânâm : xshâyathiya : da

12 hyûnâm : paruv : zanânâm : xsh

13 âyathiya : ahyâyâ : bûmiyâ : va

14 zrakâyâ : dûraiy : apiy : Dâraya

15 vahaush : xshâyathiyahyâ : puça : Ha

16 xâmanishiya : thâtiy : Xshayârshâ

17 : xshâyathiya : Dârayavaush : xshâya

18 thiya : hya : manâ : pitâ : hauv : va

19 shnâ : Auramazdâha : vasiy : tya :

20 naibam : akunaush : utâ : ima : st

21 ânam : hauv : niyashtâya : katanaiy

22 : yaniy : dipim : naiy : nipisht

23 âm : akunaush : pasâva : adam : ni

24 yashtâyam : imâm : dipim : nipa

25 ishtanaiy : mâm : Auramazdâ : pâ

26 tuv : hadâ : bagaibish : utâmai

27 y : xshaçam : utâ : tyamaiy : kartam

1. (1-9.) A great god is Ahuramazda, the greatest of gods, ... (= XPa 1-6).

2. (9-16.) ... (- XPa 6-11).

3. (16-27.) Xerxes the King says: King Darius, who was my father -- he by the favor of Ahuramazda built much good (construction), and this niche he gave orders to dig out, where he did not cause an inscription (to be) engraved. Afterwards I gave order to engrave this inscription. ... (= XPb 27-30).

XERXES, HAMADAN. (XH)

OP on fragment of silver pitcher.

Text:Translation:
Xshayârshâha : XSHhyâ : vithiyâ : kartam

(Pitcher) made in the house of Xerxes the King.

ARTAXERXES I, PERSEPOLIS A. (A1Pa)

OP and Akk. on marble block found in the court before palace.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya :

2 imâm : bûmim : adâ : hya : ava

3 m : asmânam : adâ : hya . marti

4 yam : adâ : hya : shiyâtim : ad

5 â : martiyahyâ : hya Artaxshaç

6 âm : xshâyathiyam : akunaush : a

7 ivam : parûnâm : xshâyathiyam :

8 aivam : parûnâm : framâtâram

9 : adam : Artaxshaçâ : xshâyathiya

10 : vazraka : xshâyathiya : xshâyathi

11 yânâm : xshâyathiya : dahyûnâ

12 m : paruzanânâm : xshâyathiya :

13 ahyâyâ : bûmiyâ : vazrak

14 âyâ : dûraiy : apiy : Xshay

15 ârshahyâ : xshâyathiyahyâ : pu

16 ça : Dârayavahaush : napâ : Haxâmanishiya

17 : thâtiy: Artaxshaçâ : xshâ

18 yathiya : vazraka : vashnâ : Au

19 ramazdahâ : ima : hadish : Xshayâ

20 rshâ : xshâyathiya : hya : manâ : pi

21 tâ : frataram : pasâva : adam : aku

22 navam : mâm : Auramazdâ : pât

23 uv : hadâ : bagaibish : utamaiy :

24 xshaçam : utâ : tyamaiy : kartam

1. (1-8.) ... (= DNa 1-4), who made Artaxerxes king, one king of many, one lord of many.

2. (9-16.) I am Artaxerxes, ... (= DE 12-9), son of Xerxes the King, grandson of Darius, an Achaemenian.

3. (17-24.) Artaxerxes the Great King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda, this palace Xerxes the King, my father, previously (began to build), afterwards I built (to completion). ... (= XPb 27-30).

ARTAXERXES I, INCERTO LOCO. (A1I)

OP on silver dishes, 4 copies.

Text:Translation:
Artaxshaçâ : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyânâm : XSH : DHyûnâm : Xshayârshahyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Xshayârshahyâ : Dârayavaushahyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya : hya : imam : bâtugara : siyamam : vithiyâ : karta

Artaxerxes the Great King, King of Kings, King of Countries, son of Xerxes the King, of Xerxes (who was) son of Darius the King; in whose royal house this silver saucer was made.

DARIUS II, SUSA A. (D2Sa)

OP on base of column.

Text:Translation:
1 imam : apadânam : stûnâya : athagainam :

2 Dârayavaush : XSH : vazraka : akunaush : Dâraya

3 vaum : XSHm : AM pâtuv : hadâ : BGibish

This palace, of stone in its column(s), Darius the Great King built; Darius the King may Ahuramazda together with the gods protect.

DARIUS II, SUSA B. (D2Sb)

2 copies on base of columns, OP and Akk.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyânâm : XSH : DHyûnâm XSH : a

2 hyâyâ : BUyâ : Artaxshaçahyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Haxâmanishiya :

3 thâtiy : Dârayavaush : XSH : ima : hadish : Artaxshaçâ : paranam : akunaush :

4 hya : manâ : pitâ : ima : hadish : pasâva : vashnâ : AMha : adam : akunavam

1. (1-2.) ... (= DNa 8-12, with one omission), son of Artaxerxes the King, an Achaemenian.

2. (3-4.) Darius the King says: This palace Artaxerxes previously built, who was my father; this palace, by the favor of Ahuramazda, I afterwards built (to completion).

ARTAXERXES II, SUSA A. (A2Sa)

Trilingual on bases of 4 columns.

Text:Translation:
1 thâtiy : Artaxshaçâ : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyânâm : XSH : DHyûnâm : XSH : ahyâyâ : BUyâ : Dârayavaushahyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : D

2 ârayavaushahyâ : Artaxshaçâhyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Artaxshaçâhyâ : Xshayârcahyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Xshayârcahyâ : Dâra

3 yavaushahyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Dârayavaushahyâ : Vishtâspahyâ : puça : Haxamânashiya : imam : apadâna : Dârayavaush : apanayâkama : ak

4 unash : abayapara : upâ : Artaxshaçâm : nayâkama : ++++ : vashnâ : AM : Anahata : utâ : Mithra : imam : apadâna : adam : akunâm : AM : A

5 nahata : utâ : Mithra : mâm : pâtuv : hacâ : vispâ : gastâ : upâ : imam : tya : akunâm : mâ : vijanâtiy : mâ : vinâthayâtiy

Artaxerxes the Great King, King of Kings, King of Countries, King in this earth, son of Darius the King, of Darius (who was) son of Artaxerxes the King, of Artaxerxes (who was) son of Xerxes the King, of Xerxes (who was) son of Darius the King, of Darius (who was) son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian, says: This palace Darius my great-great-grandfather built; later under Artaxerxes my grandfather it was burned; by the favor of Ahuramazda, Anahita, and Mithra, this palace I built. May Ahuramazda, Anahita, and Mithra protect me from all evil, and that which I have built may they not shatter nor harm.

ARTAXERXES II, SUSA B. (A2Sb)

Trilingual on base of column.

Text:Translation:
adam : Artaxshaçâ : XSH : vazraka : XSH XSHyânâ : XSH : Dârayavaush : XSHhyâ : Puça

... (= A2Sa 1, with omissions).

ARTAXERXES II, SUSA C. (A2Sc)

OP on stone tablet.

Text:Translation:
0 Dârayavaushahyâ : XSHhyâ : puça :

0 Dârayavaushahyâ : Vishtâspahyâ : puça

1 : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : Artaxshaçâ :

2 xshâyathiya : vazraka : xshâyathiya : x

3 shâyathiyanâm : xshâyathiya : dahyûn

4 âm : xshâyathiya : ahyâyâ : bûmiyâ : i

5 mâm : hadish : utâ : imâm : usta

6 canâm : tya : athagainâm : ta +++++

7 ..... ..... ..... .. : Auramazdâ :

8 .....

1. (0-1.) ... (= A2Sa 2-3).

2. (1-7.) ... (= A2Sa 1): This palace and this stone staircase ... Ahuramazda ...

ARTAXERXES II, SUSA D (A2Sd)

Trilingual on base of column, with fragments of other copies.

(COPIES BA, DB, DC).

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Artaxshaçâ : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyânâm : XSH : DHyûnâm : XSH : ahyâyâ :

2 BUyâ : Dârayavaush : XSHâhya : puça : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : Artaxshaçâ : XSH :

3 vashnâ : AMhâ : imâm : hadish : tya : jivadiy : paradayadâm : adam : akunavâm : AM : Anah

4 ita : utâ : Mitra : mâm : pâtuv : hacâ : vispâ : gastâ : utamaiy : kartam

1. (1-2.) ... (= A2Sa 1), an Achaemenian.

2. (2-4.) Artaxerxes the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda this is the palace which I built in my lifetime as a pleasant retreat. May Ahuramazda, Anahita, and Mithra protect me from all evil, and my building.

ARTAXERXES II, HAMADAN A. (A2Ha)

Trilingual on fragment of column base.

Text:Translation:
1 thâtiy : Artaxshaçâ : XSH : vazraka : XSH : XSHyânâm : XSH : DHyûnâm : XSH : ah

2 yâyâ : BUyâ : Dârayavashahyâ : XSHhyâ : puça: Dârayavashahyâ : Artaxshathra

3 hyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Artaxshathrahyâ : Xshayârshahyâ : XSHhyâ : Xshayâr

4 shahyâ : Dârayavashahyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Dârayavashahyâ : Vishtâspahyâ : puça :

5 : Haxâmanishiya : imam : apadâna : vashnâ : AM : Anahata : utâ : Mitra : adam : akun

6 âm : AM : Anahata : utâ : Mitra : mâm : pâtuv : hacâ : vispâ : gastâ : ut

7 â : imam : tya : akunâ : mâ : vijanâtiy : mâ : vinâthayâtiy

1. (1-5.) ... (= A2Sa 1-3).

2. (5-7.) ... (= A2Sa 4-5).

ARTAXERXES II, HAMADAN B. (A2Hb)

OP on base of column.

Text:Translation:
apadânam : stûnâya : athagainam : Artaxshaçâ : XSH : vazraka : akunaush : hya : Dârayavaush : XSH : puçâ : Haxâmanishiya : Mitra : mâm : pâtuv

This palace, of stone in its column(s), Artaxerxes the Great King built, the son of Darius the King, an Achaemenian. May Mithra protect me ...

ARTAXERXES II, HAMADAN C. (A2Hc)

OP on gold tablet.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya : mathishta :

2 bagânâm : hya : imâm : bûmim : adâ :

3 hya : avam : asmânam : adâ : hya : martiya

4 m : adâ : hya : shiyâtim : adâ : martiyahy

5 â : hya : Artaxshaçâm : XSHm : akunaush : ai

6 vam : parûnâm : XSHm : aivam : parûnâm :

7 framâtâram : thâtiy : Artaxshaçâ : XSH : va

8 zraka : XSH : XSHyânâm : XSH : DHyûnâm : XSH

9 : ahyâyâ : BUyâ : adam : Dârayavaushahy

10 â : XSHhyâ : puça : Dârayavaushahyâ : Artax

11 shaçâhyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Artaxshaçâhy

12 â : Xshayârshâhyâ : XSHhyâ : puça : Xshay

13 ârshâhyâ : Dârayavaushahyâ : XSHhyâ : p

14 uça : Dârayavaushahyâ : Vishtâspahyâ : nâ

15 ma : puça : Haxâmanishiya : thâtiy : Artaxsha

16 çâ : XSH : vashnâ : Auramazdâhâ : adam : XSH : a

17 hyâyâ : BUyâ : vazrakâyâ : dûraiy : a

18 piy : amiy : Auramazdâ : xshaçam : manâ : frâba

19 ra : mâm : Auramazdâ : pâtuv : utâ : xshaça

20 m : tyamaiy : frâbara : utâmaiy : vitham

1. (1-7.) A great god is Ahuramazda, the greatest of gods, ... (= A1Pa 1-8).

2. (7-15.) ... (= A2Sa 1): I (am) ... (= A2Sa 1-2), son of Hystaspes by name, an Achaemenian.

3. (15-20.) Artaxerxes the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda I am king in this great earth far and wide; Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me. May Ahuramazda protect me, and the kingdom which he bestowed upon me, and my royal house.

ARTAXERXES II OR III, PERSEPOLIS. (A?P)

Trilingual, labeling the throne-bearers of the south tomb.

Text:Translation:
1 iyam : Pârsâ :

2 iyam : Mâda :

3 iyam : Ûvja :

4 iyam : Parthava :

8 iyam : Uvârazmiya

9 iyam : Zrakâ

10 iyam : Harauvatiya

11 iyam : Thataguiya

12 iyam : Gadâraya :

13 iyam : Hiduya

14 iyam : Sakâ : haumavargâ :

15 iyam : Sakâ : tigraxaudâ :

16 iyam : Bâbirush :

17 iyam : Athuriya

18 iyam : Arabâya

19 iyam : Mudrâya

20 iyam : Arminiya

21 iyam : Katpatuka :

22 imay : Spardiya

23 iyam : Yaunâ :

24 iyam : Sakâ : paradraiya :

25 iyam : Skudra :

26 iyam : Yauna : takabarâ :

27 iyam : Putâya :

28 iyam : Kûshâya

29 iyam : Maciya

30 iyam : Karka :

1. This is the Persian. 2. This is the Mede. 3. This is the Elamite. 4. This is the Parthian. [5-7. This is the Arian, the Bactrian, the Sogdian.] 8. This is the Chorasmian. 9. This is the Drangian. 10. This is the Arachosian.

11. This is the Sattagydian. 12. This is the Gandarian. 13. This is the man of Sind. 14. This is the Amyrgian Scythian. 15. This is the Pointed-Cap Scythian. 16. This is the Babylonian. 17. This is the Assyrian. 18. This is the Arab. 19. This is the Egyptian. 20. This is the Armenian.

21. This is the Cappadocian. 22. This is the Sardian. 23. This is the Ionian. 24. This is the Scythian across the sea. 25. This is the Skudrian. 26. This is the Petasos-Wearing lonian. 27. This is the Libyan. 28. This is the Ethiopian. 29. This is the man of Maka. 30. This is the Carian.

ARTAXERXES III. PERSEPOLIS A, B, C, D. (A3Pa)

OP, 3 copies on north wall of terrace of palace of Artaxerxes, 1 copy on palace of Darius.

Text:Translation:
1 baga : vazraka : Auramazdâ : hya :

2 imâm : bûmâm : adâ : hya : a

3 vam : asmânâm : adâ : hya : marti

4 yam : adâ : hya : shâyatâm : adâ : marti

5 ihyâ : hya : mâm : Artaxshaçâ : xshâya

6 thiya : akunaush : aivam parûvnâm :

7 xshâyathiyam : aivam : parûvnâm

8 : framatâram : thâtiy : Artaxsaçâ :

9 xshâyathiya : vasraka : xshâyathiya

10 : xshâyathiyanâm : xshâyathiya :

11 DHyûnâm : xshâyathiya : ahyâyâ : BUyâ : ada

12 m : Artaxshaçâ : xshâya

13 thiya : puça : Artaxshaçâ : Darayavau

14 sh : xshâyathiya : puça : Dârayavaush : A

15 rtaxshaçâ : xshâyathiya : puça : Artaxsha

16 çâ : Xshayârshâ : xshâyathiya : puça : X

17 shayârshâ : Dârayavaush : xshâyath

18 iya : puça : Dârayavaush : Vishtâspa

19 hyâ : nâma : puça : Vishtâspahyâ :

20 Arshâma : nâma : puça : Haxâmanishi

21 ya : thâtiy : Artaxshaçâ : xshâyathi

22 ya : imam : ustashanâm : athaganâm : mâ

23 m : upâ : mâm : kartâ : thâtiy : Arta

24 xshaçâ : xshâyathiya : mâm : Auramazdâ :

25 utâ : Mithra : baga : pâtuv : utâ : imâ

26 m : DHyaum : utâ : tya : mâm : kartâ :

1. (1-8.) ... (= DNa 1-4), who made me, Artaxerxes, king, ... (= DNa 6-8).

2. (8-21.) ... (= A2Sa 1): I am the son (of) Artaxerxes the King, (of) Artaxerxes (who was) the son (of) Darius the King, (of) Darius (who was) the son (of) Artaxerxes the King, (of) Artaxerxes (who was) the son (of) Xerxes the King, (of) Xerxes (who was) the son (of) Darius the King, (of) Darius (who was) the son of Hystaspes by name, of Hystaspes (who was) the son (of) Arsames by name, an Achaemenian.

3. (21-3.) Artaxerxes the King says: This stone staircase was built by me in my time.

4. (23-6.) Artaxerxes the King says: May Ahuramazda and the god Mithra protect me, and this country, and what was built by me.

INSCRIPTIONS ON WEIGHTS.

Trilingual inscription on blunt pyramid of dark green diorite.

DARIUS, WEIGHT A. (Wa)

Text:Translation:
1 II karshâ

2 adam : Dâra

3 yavaush : xsh

4 âyathiya : va

5 zraka : Vish

6 tâspahyâ

7 : puça : Hax

8 âmanishiya

II (units) by weight. ... (= Wb 1-2, 7-9):

DARIUS, WEIGHT B. (Wb)

Trilingual inscription on blunt pyramid of dark green.

Text:Translation:
1 adam : Dârayavaush : x

2 shâyathiya : vazraka : x

3 shâyathiya : xshâyath

4 iyânâm : xshâyath

5 iya : dahyûnâm : xsh

6 âyathiya : ahyâyâ

7 : bûmiyâ : Vishtâ

8 spahyâ : puça : Haxâ

9 manishiya

... (= DSf 5-8).

DARIUS, WEIGHT C. (Wc)

Trilingual inscription on blunt pyramid of grayish-green diorite, found in Treasurt at Persepolis.

Text:Translation:
1 CXX karshayâ

2 adam : Dârayavaush : x

3 shâyathiya : vazraka : x

4 shâyathiya : xshâyath

5 iyânâm : xshâyath

6 iya : dahyûnâm : x

7 shâyathiya : ahyây

8 â : bûmiyâ : Visht

9 âspahyâ : puça : Hax

10 âmanishiya

120 (units) in weight.

... (= Wb 1-9).

DARIUS, WEIGHT D. (Wd)

Trilingual inscription on blunt pyramid of grayish-green diorite, found in Treasury at Persepolis.

Text:Translation:
1 LX karshayâ

2 adam : Dârayavaush :

3 xshâyathiya : vazraka :

4 xshâyathiya : xshâyath

5 iyânâm : xshâyath

6 iya : dahyûnâm : xsh

7 âyathiya : ahyâyâ

8 : bûmiyâ : Vishtâ

9 spahyâ : puça : Hax

10 âmanishiya

60 (units) in weight. ... (= Wb 1-9).

INSCRIPTIONS ON SEALS

Text:Translation:
DARIUS, SEAL A: (SDa)
adam : Darayavaush XSH I (am) Darius the King.
DARIUS, SEAL B: (SDb)
adam : Dârayavaush I (am) Darius.
XERXES, SEAL A: (SXa)
1 Xshayârshâ

2 : XSH : vazraka

Xerxes the Great King.
XERXES, SEAL B: (SXb)
1 adam : Xshay

2 ârshâ : XSH

I (am) Xerxes the King.
XERXES, SEAL C: (SXc)
1 adam : Xshayârshâ : XSH

2 .....

I (am) Xerxes the King.
SEAL A: (Sa)
1 Arsha

2 ka : n

3 âma :

4 Âthi

5 yâba

6 ushna

7 hyâ :

8 puça

Arshaka by name, son of Athiyabaushna.
SEAL B: (Sb)
1 Hadaxaya

2 .........

3 thadatha : ...

???
SEAL C: (Sc)
Vashdâsaka ???
SEAL D: (Sd)
Vahyavishdâpaya ???
SEAL E: (Se)
1 ma : Xa 2 rsha 3 dashyâ ???
SEAL F: (Sf)
1 upâ 2 Arta 3 xshaç 4 âm Under Artaxerxes.

VASE INSCRIPTIONS.

Text:Translation:
XERXES, VASE: (XVs)
Xshayârshâ : XSH : vazraka Xerxes the Great King.
ARTAXERXES, VASE A: (AVsa)
Ardaxcashca : XSH : vazraka Artaxerxes the Great King.
ARTAXERXES, VASES B, C, D: (AVsb-d)
Artaxshaçâ : xshâyathiya Artaxerxes the King.


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