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Dadestan-i Denig ('Religious Decisions')

Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, volume 18, Oxford University Press, 1882.


CHAPTER 42.

1.
As to the forty-first question and reply, that which you ask is thus: As to him who remains in the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, whom men shall make the protection and assistance of the good religion, who shall save men from a foreign faith and irreligion (akdinoih), and then holds back some of those who have the idea that they should go over to a foreign faith and irreligion, and they do not go over to the foreign faith, but become steadfast in the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, what is then the nature of the decision of the angels about him, and what is the nature of their (the men's) good works and sin?
2.
The reply is this, that he is much extolled, happy, exalted, of great good works and abundant recompense, and the path to the best existence, prepared (frarasto) by his righteousness, is wide; the delight of his soul becomes complete, and its hope is great. 3. And every good work that is manifested in the good religion by those who are transferred by him from a foreign faith and irreligion, and which they shall do thereafter -- when, through the perseverance and praise exercised by him who is protected by the religion, they are saved from irreligion -- becomes his as much as though it had been set going by him himself, and he has the same praise and the same good works with them. 4. Of the extent (samano) and amount of such good works there is no writing a second time, unless his acquaintance with the full computation of the good works due to their number is continuous; but when in the same way they are practicing and steadfast in sin it shall not be assigned to him. 5. Then his position in righteousness is very grand, and in the world he has himself great eminence, applause, and dignity.
6.
And as much as that which is an improper law and a law worthy of death is a punishing of the soul, and the disconnected words and perversion (vashtakih), due also to the perfidy (rangishno) of the fiend who has come, are such that in his time the religious rites (dino) performed are rites of grievous vexation and fear, so that which is a proper law, like the great glorification in spirit and the connected words of the high-priests, is the arrival of the good spirit as much as a virtue worthy of recompense and full of hope. 7. Even as that which is said thus: 'Of men who are practices of good deeds the manifestation is then in their children.'

CHAPTER 43.

1.
As to the forty-second question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Regarding a man who is consecrating a sacred cake [dron], and the fire is his household attendant (khavag-i mano) from afar, when he sees it, at how many steps is it improper? 2. When they consecrate a sacred cake by light of a lamp, why do they not say the words 'tava athro (for thee, the fire),' as by another fire? 3. And of the propitiatory dedications (shnumanoiha) to the period of the day (gah), the day, and the month of the consecration of the sacred cake, which is that which when earlier or later is also then not proper, and which is that which is proper? 4. When they shall accomplish the consecration of a sacred cake [dron] with one more dedication than those of the thirty days of the months in the year, how is it necessary to act so that it may not enter too early; and which is the one more dedication which, when they shall make it, is proper, which is that which is not proper, and which is that which is earlier and later?
5.
The reply is this, that at forty-eight feet from the sacred twigs [baresma] to the fire -- which would be about nine reeds, if of a medium man -- even though one sees the fire and does not say 'tava athro,' it is proper. 6. And a lamp also has the same contingency (ham-brah) as a fire; and by our teaching they do not consecrate a sacred cake [dron] at a lamp on which there is no burning of firewood, but they should cause a burning of firewood on that at which they consecrate a sacred cake, and they say 'tava athro.'
7.
And there is a propitiatory dedication for each separate consecration of a sacred cake [dron], and not again from the first to the last; and the first is the nearest to the first day, Ohrmazd, just as Adar ('fire') and Aban ('waters') are other days in the series; and the last is the day Anagran, because in the same series the day Anagran is the latest. 8. When the seven archangels [Amahraspandan] are in the propitiatory dedication it is proper to put the seven archangels first in their own order, then the period of the day [gah], then the day. then the month of the consecration, and, afterwards, the other dedications in such order as they are written.
9.
And as to the earlier which they should put later, one is when they shall put a dedication before the seven archangels [Amahraspandan], one is that when they shall put the day before the period of the day [gah], one is when they shall put the month before the day, and one is that when a dedication, distinct from the seven archangels, the period of the day, the day, and the month, on account of being before the archangels, or before the period of the day, or before the day, or before the month, is accounted as improper a dedication as that of yesterday, or the day before, is for this day.
10.
So that when it is the propitiatory dedication for the day Khwarshed of the month of consecration Aban, the day and month are such that their order and the Adar ('fire') and Aban ('waters') succeeding them are thereby set in reverse order to the proper sequence. 11. Then, too, when in the same month its propitiatory dedication for the day and month becomes alike for day and month, it is recited as regards both the month and the 'waters' (Aban), because they are not connected together and have again become non-inclusive; and then one is to consider them as proper.

CHAPTER 44.

1.
As to the forty-third question and reply, that which you ask is thus: There is a man who is superintending (avar-mandakako) and skillful, in whom great skill as regards religion is provided, and the high-priest's duty and officiating priest's duty (mago-patih) are performed by him; or they are not performed by him, but in him great skill as regards religion is provided. 2. In a place of that district there is no one who rightly knows the commentary and 'the proper and improper,' so that he comes forth into a place of such decay (sapakhan); and the people of the district -- who constantly order all the religious rites (dino) of many sacred ceremonies from any poor man of the various persons from other districts whose skill and superintending are not like his, but they constantly come to that district -- shall constantly receive from him all the many religious rites and many sacred ceremonies. 3. And that man, who is revered and skillful, proceeds not undejectedly (la anashkandiha) and bashfully to his own superintending position, the position of the religion and position of the skill which are his; he does not demand any employment in the district or any award (dina) from the district, and does not know how to provide any other employment or award, in which there would be any fitness for him. 4. Are the people of the district -- on account of the skill and activity which that man has exercised in religion, due to the performance of all the religious rites and sacred ceremonies which they constantly order -- thereupon to prepare that man a stipend (bahar), and is it necessary for them to give a stipend to that man, or how is it necessary to act; and is it necessary for them to collect it for him, or not? 5. And of the much advantage of all the religious rites and work is it necessary to speak thus: 'Until the time that thou hadst come it was not possible for us to order except of him who is inferior to thee,' or how is it to be done? 6. Is it necessary to collect a stipend for him on account of the benefit and reasoning thought (virmato) on other subjects, of which he was the means, or how is it necessary for the superintendent of our people to collect such stipend of skill, position, and religion?
7.
The reply is this, that a man of such description as written above, and superintending the exercise of skill and provision of ability, is very worthy of a stipend and courtesy (khupih); also, through good management of all religious rites and the ceremony of the sacred beings, he is very confident in any uncertainty. 8. Therefore it is necessary to consider that he manages more openly and better than those whose skill and ability are not like his; and also as regards stipend and reasoning thought, owing to the worthiness of the ceremony of the sacred beings, his are more whose skill, ability, and activity in religion are greater. 9. And as to a man who is as written above -- when all those religious rites and ceremonies are well-managed by him, and his repeated direction and right continuance of proper duties are an accumulation of his own reasoning thought and great capability, and are ordered of him with great solicitude -- one is also to consider him a stipendiary thereby, and a thriving acquirement of ample reasoning thought. 10. And as to him, moreover, who is less skilled than he, and of inferior position, by as much as he is not so worthy, his custom is therefore to produce a want of himself again.
11.
But he who has much skill should have a great stipend, and he of medium ability should have a medium one, he having less means of benefiting worthily, maturely, and necessarily. 12. And the value is as it is said in revelation thus: 'The stipend they should announce to him who is an upholder of religion is two shares, and to him who is mediocre only one, to him whose lot is inferior.'
13.
That man is a master and high-priest whose usage also (ain-icho) is wise, and in ability, goodness, and skill is the best of those of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, which is the religion of wise upholders. 14. And the exercise of his religious disposition -- originally possessing a religious stipend -- which they shall order of him in that place, and that of the other worthy ones and applicants in the place and coming applying to the place, as much as it is worth and happens to be their own want, one is to altogether thoroughly well consider for him. 15. Good destiny is not fulfilled by granting to those applying, but through forward ability, the forward, kind-hearted, and extreme skill provided, and grand position he is worthy of much stipend, and it is important to make them stipendiary in their own gradation of applying. 16. For the observance of moderation and the granting of applications are mutually destructive, and it is discriminatively said that the high-priest Jamasp of the Hvovas considered, in that mode, the much skill of that good superintendent being without a stipend as not disproportionate, but most justly very moderate.
17.
Moreover, to collect for all except for one skillful man, and to provide a stipend for any other applicants, is not right; and the limits should be moderate, for each one really shares the moderate apportionments according to his own want, apart even from the sacred ceremony. 18. But to collect for such a man, who has kind-heartedly superintended by rule during reasoning thought, is a greater good work than to approve even him who is superintending much more authoritatively. 19. And he who has himself requested is to obtain everything last; for, except in that case when a virtuous doer has in any mode begged a livelihood and is not capable of earning it -- so that something even of the righteous gifts of clothing is begged by him -- to live in idleness is not the way to be assisted; but he who has not himself requested, and is wise, is to beg a suit of clothes (rakht-hana).
20.
They give to the good provider of gifts much praise, and for the preservation of the perfect giver are many religious friends, and the position of the upholders of religion; so it is necessary to give, and to consider it as provided for the great female whom revelation greatly celebrates, that patron spirit (ahu) connected with religion, as it is said that in the opinion of Human, the high-priest, the propitious religion is, as it were, the way of saving their souls.
21.
About upholders of religion, and a more particular rule how the lawful computation should be for glorifying with moderation, a chief of the priests [mobad of mobads] has spoken thus: 'Shouldst thou be our father in wealthiness, I am thy protector in body and thou becomest thy protector in soul.'
22.
The same collection is the way of the friends of religion for begging from the upholders of religion the preservation of the soul, and for well considering, extremely gracefully and fully reverently, the advantage and pleasure of the position of the upholders of religion, so that they shall properly collect for the preservation of souls by the mode of going to collect thoroughly with great gain.

CHAPTER 45.

1.
The forty-fourth question is that which you ask thus: Of priesthood (aerpatih) or discipleship (havishtih) which is the priest's duty (aerpatih), and which the disciple's; which is that which it is necessary to have in priesthood, and which in discipleship?
2.
The reply is this, that the priesthood and discipleship are connected together; the priests teach the scriptures, and the disciples learn the knowledge of the religion, that is, the Avesta and Zand. 3. The priest, have been disciples; through the teaching of his own priest they make the aroused existence of even a disciple become a priest, and in one body with the learner are the priesthood and discipleship. 4. Through that which he has learned as a disciple from the priest he is wiser, and owing to the priesthood in his own person he teaches the disciple who is a learner; the desire which is his craving for learning is also owing to that in his own priest, when he was a disciple unto his own priest.
5.
And the disciple and priest are even such as is said thus: 'The director (farmadar) of the profession of priests (asravoan) of Pars, and chieftain over the faithful and the officiating priests (magopatan) of Pars, is the leader of the religion; and his disciple (ashakardo) is a disciple in a selected foremost position among the priests of the religion, set up (madam ajast) over those acquainted with the commentary (zand-akasano).' 6. The more infallible (ashaktar) of these is the powerful skill of the priest (aerpato) put forth through the ritual and Visparad, and his skill in the commentary (zand); the skill of disciples in the Avesta is, further, fully understood, and sin recognized as oppressive, through the formulas (nirang) of the sacred ceremony, ablution and non-ablution, purity and pollution.
7.
And both professions are the indispensable preservers of great decisions as to that which the priestly disposition has taught, done, and considered about the perpetual existence of every being, the complete goodness and final success of the nonexistent evil and entire good of the sacred beings, the annihilation of the demons, and the complete understanding of the friends of the sacred beings.

CHAPTER 46.

1.
The forty-fifth question is that which you ask thus: Is it allowable that those of the priesthood, when there is no daily livelihood for them from the life of the priesthood, should abandon the priesthood, and that other work be done, or not?
2.
The reply is this, that there is no loss of reputation to priests from priestly duties (aerpatih), which are themselves the acquired knowledge that is accumulated by the priestly disposition, care for the soul, and the requisite good works. 3. And there is this advantage, that, through acquaintance with the religion of the sacred beings, and certainty as to the reward of the spirit, they make them become more contented in adversity, more intelligent as regards stability of character in difficulty and restriction, and more through knowledge the abode of hope for those saved. 4. So that it is not fit they should abandon the priesthood, which is both harmless and an employment with advantages that has required much trouble to learn.
5.
But, indeed, when they do not obtain a daily livelihood from priestly duty, and the good do not give them chosen righteous gifts for it, and they do not let them obtain any from next of kin or the wicked even by begging, a livelihood may be requested from the paid performance of ceremonies, management of all religious rites (dino), and other priestly disciple's duty therein. 6. When even by that they do not obtain it, they are to seek a livelihood by agriculture, sheep-rearing, penmanship, or other proper employment among priests; a when it is not possible for them to live even by these, they are to seek it by bearing arms, hunting, or other proper employment in the profession of a virtuous warrior. 7. And when even it is not possible for them to maintain their own bodies, which are in requisite control, by that which is cravingly digested, they are to beg a righteous gift authorisedly (dastobariha) as an effectual remedy; by living idly, or not expending strength, their own bodies, which are in control, are without livelihood, but not authorisedly.

CHAPTER 47.

1.
As to the forty-sixth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: At a sacred feast (myazd) of those of the good religion, in which there are fifty or a hundred men, more or less, just as it happens, and seven men who are engaged in the performance of the religious rite (dino) which is celebrated by them are feasting together with them, of those seven men there are some who are easily able to pray five sections (vidak), and some six subdivisions (vakhshisno), of the Avesta, but no chapter (fargardo) of the commentary (zand) is easy to them; and all seven of them are disputing about the right (ras) to the foremost places. 2. And he to whom thirty chapters in the commentary are easy speaks thus: 'The foremost place is mine, and it became my place owing to great retentiveness of memory, for I know the commentary well and "the proper and improper;" and my place must be good, for whenever I do not indicate this as the place of religion unto the people I am not in the security of religion; but you should not dispute about my place, for it is not becoming to dispute it, because this neglect and outlandishness (an-airih), which some one brings constantly into the religion, is not due to me.' 3. Those seven men, moreover, speak constantly unto him thus: 'Our place is more important and must ever be so, for every man of us is able to pray several sections in his own officiating priestly duty (zotih), and it is ever necessary to consider who is more participating in sharing a reward.' 4. Then as to those whose Avesta is very easy, or him who knows the commentary and 'the proper and improper' well, and their goodness and greatness, as asked by us in this chapter, direct some one to make them clear unto us, for when he demonstrates the littleness and greatness in this subject his great religion is then completely an advantage.
5.
The reply is this, that, as to that which you ask me to write, so that they may decide whether thirty chapters in the commentary are easier, or really the other, be they five or be they six sections of the Avesta, are easier, there is no deciding, because which are the chapters and which the sections? 6. For, as regards more cleverness and less cleverness, it is not clear; there are some of the sections greater than many sections, and there are chapters as great as many chapters, but to understand severally the divisions (burish) and enumeration of him to whom five sections of the Avesta are easy, and also of him whose thirty chapters in the commentary are easy, it is necessary for making the calculation to consider every single division in the commentary as equivalent to seven equal divisions apart from the commentary. 7. And it is thereby thus manifest who has skill in the one and who has skill in the other, and whoever has less, when there is nothing in it regarding which he is otherwise than when the superintending command of rulers (khudayan) delivered over to him the place of duty -- or on account of a new officiating priestly duty or directorship (radih) of the season festivals [Gahambars], or the foremost places being occupied, or like causes he becomes otherwise -- is fit for all the great share and very good estimation of the place of one much more skillful, when their being fitting and skillful, or their excess or deficiency, is not specially manifest from their skill. 8. And him to whom the commentary is very easy, having prayed much, it has seemed important to consider more thriving proportionable to his eating.
9.
And great and ample respect for both their ways of worthiness is an advantage and fully necessary, skill in the commentary and that in the Avesta being together mutually assisting; for even the solemnizers of the Avesta have need for information from the commentary about the scattered (parvand) 'proper and improper' usages of the sacred ceremony. 10. The more efficient information from the commentary is advantageous when the ceremonial is proceeded with by them, and one of those two is one of the skillful, and a friend, provider, glorifier, and aggrandizer for the other; and the friends of religion are good friends and, therefore, also providers of fame for both of them.
11.
When, too, they are publishing accusing statements, one about the other, from necessity, or from the violence which is owing to the adversary [Ahriman], it is important to become an excuser as regards them, and not a diminisher of their share, nor a bringer (akhtar) of unhealthiness to their united strength.


CHAPTER 48.

1.
The forty-seventh question is that which you ask thus: How is a liking for the desirableness, joy, and pleasure arising from the sacred ceremony (yazishn) friendly to Ohrmazd, the archangels [Amahraspandan], and the guardian spirits of the righteous [Asho Farohar]; in what manner is the perfection of him by whom the ceremony is ordered and the people of the country then exalted by them; and how and in what manner does it become the vexation, defeat, anguish, and discomfort of the evil spirit, the demons, and the fiends? 2. How is the purpose of the ceremony, what is the ceremony, where is the place [or time?] when they shall perform it, what is good when they shall perform it, and how is it good when they shall perform it?
3.
The reply is this, that the great satisfaction of Ohrmazd and the archangels arising from the sacred ceremony is in the purity of its formulary (nirang), and also in this, that it is completely fulfilling his own blessed commands; because he ordered that entire goodness for the complete procedure of those of the good religion (bundako hudinakanakih), as the recompense and full allotment of the sure upholder of religion among those who rightly recite it. 4. From the performance of the ceremonial of the sacred beings are the propitiation of the good spirits, the destruction (drujishno) of violence, the increase of digestiveness, the growth of plants, the prosperity of the world, and also the proper progress of living beings, even until the movement of the renovation of the universe and the immortality of the creatures arise therefrom. 5. It became so, it is expressly said, because the sacred beings are great; and unitedly opposing it the demons are particularly undesirous of it, and owing to it their defeat and vexation are severe; its consecrated cup (tashtiko) also becomes the express preservation of the ceremony.
6.
And its purpose inquired about is this, that religion is transmitted clearly to the intelligent, that is, it is not the wisdom whose comprehension exists in worldly beings; and as, moreover, even that which is not understood by worldly wisdom is really the creature of the spirits, that also which is the spiritual formulary (nirang) is for making it intelligible to worldly beings through the body. 7. That religion which is comprehensible by the world and authoritative (nikezako) is rightly connected with that which worldly beings are quite able to understand through worldly wisdom; and the understanding about its evidence as to that which is spiritual and powerful, apart from the worldly evidence of superiors (avarikano), is the right way of the intelligent. 8. That proper (kano) purpose -- in which, moreover, the ceremonial, owing to timely memory for its own completion, is unique -- is this unique exhibition of purity in the pure glorifying of the heavenly angels, as is commanded; just as the purpose of the ceremonial of a season-festival [Gahambar] being before the season-festival, and of maintaining (daran) the exposure of the body of a jackal (shakhal) or a man, is to make the body clean from the corrupting (nasushiko) pollution, and also from outward contamination.
9.
That also which might be written, as to the much retribution appointed as regards washing the limbs outside with clean moisture from clean animals and plants, and then completely washing the body with the purifying water streaming forth; as to the clean scents among those which they rightly perceive, and making the body and clothing sweet-scented; and as to the putting on of the white and proper garment of Vohuman [i.e. sudre], and supposing the power of avarice to be the sight of distress, is all superfluous. 10. But it is needful still as regards these matters, that is, while engaged in the ceremonial it is not to be hurried owing to any hunger or thirst, owing to liability of punishment for religious practices, or even owing to deficiency of vacant space. 11. And before the ceremonial one is to eat at the appropriate time, and such food, too, as is preparable and only moderately troublesome (navas); and any of that which one has to perform aloud in leaving the heavenly-minded, yet moderate, duty in the abode of fires -- which is perpetual light is proper, pertaining to good works, and good for him, and thereby lodging in him. 12. And they, that is, the gloomy ones, thereby see the service (yasak) for them themselves is short; and good are they who come into the world glorified by praise.
13.
The position of the ceremony-holders themselves, that is, the position of the officiating priest (zot) and his cooperators, is the Aurves place; and, if it be the precinct (dargasih) of prayers, one should wash it over (madam pasayad) with the water of purification, to make it clean. 14. The apparatus of the ceremonial, together with its own man, who is a solemnizer, and the two creatures which are solid out of these four: fire, metal, water, and plants, just as one has to bring them together in readiness, the stone Aurves, the stone and mortar Khan, and the Hom-mortar (havanih), cups, and crescent-shaped (mah-rupo) stands set upon it, are all ceremoniously washed (padyavinid) with the water of purification. 15. The bright fire on the clean fire-stand (atishto) is increased by the dry firewood delivered to it purified, and one is to put upon it at appropriate times the wholesome perfumes of various kinds of plants; and the water of purification, which is ritualistically produced by reciting the words of revelation, is in the clean metal cups. 16. The well-grown Hom through which the world is possessed of creatures, the Hom through which the production of Zartosht occurred, is a symbol of the white Gokerano [Av. gaokerena] as regards the immortality of the renovation of the universe [Frashegird] manifest therefrom, and the resting-places of its vengeance are the various demons; and with it one is to put attentively (sinvisno-dahak) in its appropriate place the pomegranate (hadanapag) plant of the Aurvaram. 17. The vegetable sacred twigs carefully girded with the vegetable belt (parvand) and girdle, and the metallic crescent-shaped stands -- which are in the position of those who are sovereigns of the worldly creatures who are interpreted as the sacred twigs [barsom] of the treatises -- are prepared.
18.
When arranged (stordo) by the bringing together of clean worldly productions, so much the more purely as is possible, the arrival of the pure renders all the symbols reliable. 19. Those celebrators of whom the outside of their own bodies is defiled with their bodily refuse and in clean clothing, and their disposition -- if in the religion of moderate eating in which is a thirst for lawfully drinking -- is customarily sleep and lethargy through the tendency (runo) to falsehood of their wisdom, are to consider, even from their innermost hearts and minds, the retribution of the body of wrath, the falsehood, and bad thoughts in that disposition of infamy, and the recompense of their own renunciation of it; they are to atone for their sinfulness, and to seek great purification of mind. 20. And having acquired eyes speaking forth, hands in a state of ablution, and every other member of the body -- especially there where well-accomplishable -- free from its bodily refuse and covered with the clean clothing, the tongue is preserved and guarded from falsehood and the hand from sin, the mind is established by little preparation with good consideration for knowledge of the sacred beings, and even the good are to recite by direction (radiha) the verbal renunciation of sin.
21.
The officiating priest (zot), having directed and purified the place of the fire with liturgical words, is to go and walk unto the place of the officiating priests while glorifying the sacred beings, and to consider invokable the glory given to the luminaries and the guardian spirits [Farohars] of the good. 22. Of those also who, cooperatively, conjointly, and interspersed (ham-resh), have each separately remained in their own places and thought of the sacred beings, with propitiation of Ohrmazd and scornful notice (tar dahishno) of the evil spirit [Ahriman], the employment stands forth prominently at the ceremonial. 23. As to the position of others cooperating with him who is an officiating priest of good leadership, there are some who are for the Avesta, there is the solitude (khaduidarih) by the fire, there are some who are bringers forward of water, there are some who are for carriers away, there are some who are solitary ones, there are some who are gregarious ones, there are some who are directors of duties, and their own needful arrangement in the place is arranged in the ceremony.
24.
In cleanliness, purity, and truth, as much as there is in this mingled existence, if one has to commence a ceremony glorifying the sacred beings, when the righteously-disposed temperament is purified along with the apparatus the abundant ritualism (nirangakih) of the spirit is a symbol and reminder of the will of the sacred beings, undesired by the fiend [Druj], remains a blessing deservedly unto those come together. 25. Then is explained the text (Avesta) of that great scripture (Nask) which is called the Hadokht, that is itself the best of the chiefs of the scriptures, and of the sublime duwazdah homast (Dvazdah-homast) [i.e. Damdad Nask] that is not recited by any voice with falsehood (akadba), and is called 'the origin of every truth.'
26.
The pure glorification of the sacred beings is in the light, this is in the morning time (frayar gas); and even until night the ritualistic and true recitation of revelation (dino) is unchangeably proceeding, undivided and faultless. 27. This, too, is in benediction of the angels; this, too, is producing restraint of the fiends; this, too, is in praise of the glorious ones, the mighty doers; this, too, is as an admonition for creatures subject to command; this is in the true words of the ancients who have passed away; this, too, is as a suitable servant for the righteous, these good doers; this, too, is to obtain a permanence (patistan) of requisites; this, too, is suitable for the discreet and is merciful; this, too, is as another way in which the promoters of good (veh-yavkaran) are pardoned, as soon as the Hom-juice (parahom) is digested, through not having eaten from dawn till night during the pure utterance of the pure glorification. 28. And, moreover, one performs no work, nor is even a word uttered; one does not go to sleep, nor should they allow any pollution to the body; the sequence (patisarih) of the religious formulas is, likewise, not changed from that ordered, nor is even a detached thought away from that truth and purity; but always with phrases rightly consecutive and properly worded (hu-sakh-unaganoiha) the Avesta is uttered; and even the manner of response of one's cooperators is in modes contributing to good (hu-padayako), or they utter the scripture (Nask).
29.
Since the production of stench is needing something essentially purifying, many formulas in the ceremonial are tokens and signs which, while they are strongly manifested, are terrifying and vexing to the demons, and inviting and rejoicing to the angels. 30. Such as, indeed, the pure Hom, which is squeezed out by four applications of holy-water (zohr) with religious formulas, is noted even as a similitude of the understanding and birth of the four apostles bringing the good religion, who are he who was the blessed Zartosht and they who are to be Ushedar, Ushedarmah, and Soshans. 31. As also the metal mortar (Hawan) which is struck during the squeezing of the Hom, and its sound is evoked along with the words of the Avesta, which becomes a reminder of the thoughts, words, and deeds on the coming of those true apostles into the world. 32. As also the proper rite as regards the water, that they should perform three times, which is showing the world the glorious seizing of water and formation of rain, and the healthfulness of the production of rain. 33. And as the purification of the milk, by the glorious ritualistic product (nirang) taken from the purifying cattle, is divided in two, by means of which the token is that which is great, glorious, and good; one being for the daughter of Paurvajirya the Mazda-worshipper, and from her was Aoshnor full of wisdom; and one being Farhank, daughter of Vidhirisa, and from her came Kai-Kavad.
34.
And, as to the high-priests of the glorious religion, it is said many concomitants (padvandiha) are obtained; such as, much discrimination of scripture (Nask), the holy-water which is indispensable as a remedy, the healthfulness which is given in that ceremonial to the sacred fire which the world destroys, that preeminent strength which is given at the end of the world from the ox Hadhayas unto the good people scattered about (fravaftan) -- it is mingled with the fire of men's bodies, and they, therefore, become perfect and immortal through it -- and there are also other things. 35. There are also in the ceremonial many tokens and signs of spiritual mysteries, glorious matters, and habitual practices of which statements would be very tedious.
36.
And if the wish (ayupo) should be this, that they should be engaged in a single ceremony of the length of a day, a man who is righteous in purification, inside and outside the body, should stay away from all his relations and the worldly transaction of business, from malicious actions and covetous practices, separated from all lying and falsehood of relatives; and his words are to be all those which are serving the angels, glorifying, and begging favors. 37. Then, indeed, the way of the spirit and the harmoniousness of the sacred beings are manifest therefrom; and those which are as much the means due to the primitive good creations as is more purely possible are strengthening as regards the utility (bun) for offering, encouraging for purity, confounding for the confusers (gumejakan), terrifying for the fiends, and propitiating for the sacred beings.
38.
The ceremonial which is good is when they shall perform it for a pure disposition and assured wisdom, a minder of the religion of the sacred beings of the spheres, and with pure thoughts, just thoughts, wise deeds, a purified body, a tongue worthy of good (veh-sazak), a scripture (Nask) made easy [i.e. memorized, familiar], a true text (avistak), ablutions performed, proper rites, undivided, and faultless. 39. Near which fashion, with like abilities, and innumerable times, it is very purely solemnized in the abode of the ever-growing fire, then in the abode of the other sacred fires, then in the abodes of Mazda-worshippers and other good people, and then in other places pronounced clean. 40. That of the three days is in the abode of the fire-place which is nearest to that of the departed; the ceremony of the guardian spirits of the righteous [Asho Farohars] is solemnized in purity there where the dwelling is which is nearest that of the departed whose soul is honored. 41. And that for victories in war is then at its times of battle, the husbandry of Sam [i.e. Keresasp the Saman] and other offenders (vinasagan) who were for keeping away husbandry, the household attendant's place for a warrior of another rank, the occasion of the outcry of those not possessing (adarigan) a lodging, unto the rest of the same temperament (munoko), expressly to produce and maintain a proportional resemblance.

CHAPTER 49.

Grain futures

1.
As to the forty-eighth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: As to them who shall buy corn and keep it in store until it shall become dear, and shall then sell it at a high price (pavan giranoih), what is the nature of the decision?
2.
The reply is this, that when there is nothing therein on account of which I should so deem it otherwise than due to the eating of the requisite amount (avayishn) of food for one's self, that which is his controlling impulse (sardarih), and not the teachings of the worthy and good, is the internal instruction which a time of scarcity has taught by means of the occurrences during that time; but clamorous worldly profit is want of diligence (akhaparakanih), for they would buy to make people distressed, and in order that they may sell again dearer. 3. Moreover, the store one keeps, and keeps as closed even unto the good as unto the bad -- and though it be necessary for a man of the good and worthy, and they beg for some of the food, they shall not sell at the price it is worth at that time, on account of its becoming dearer -- one keeps in store unauthorisedly and' grievously sinfully, and every calamity of those good people they shall suffer who would not sell it at the price they beg.
4.
On account of that non-obtainment of corn, or that unlawfully heinous sin, and because of dearness of price it is not proper to give it for that non-distribution (an-afshanoih) unto him himself, or those under his control, or the poor to whom it would be given by him; and the distribution (reshishno) which occurs is then retaliative upon him. 5. And if the corn be spoiled, through keeping too long a time in store, he is suffering assault from the hungry man (gurshno) who is injured even by that damaging (bodyozedih) of the corn; if through that unlawful want of preservation (adarishnoih) noxious creatures are associated with the corn, he is overwhelmed also by that heinous sin; and, through the profit of improper diligence he is unworthy.
6.
But if it be necessary for their own people who are under their control, on account of the fear of a time of scarcity, they should buy at their own suitable time, and should afford protection. 7. Or, because of the teachings of the good and worthy, they should buy corn at a cheap price from a place where the corn is more than the requirements of the eaters, and they should bring it unto there where corn is scarce, provided (va hato) the good and those requiring corn are sufficient (vasan). 8. So that, while their information of a scarcity of corn is even from him himself to whom the price would become profit, or is the persistence of these same teachings of the good -- so that it may become more abundant unto them than unto the bad, even in the time of scarcity when it is very much raised in price -- they should buy corn at a cheap price during an excess of corn, so that one may keep it until the time of a period of scarcity. 9. When there occurs a necessity for it among the good he sells it at such price as one buys it at that time, that is, the market price (arj-i shatroik); by that means, in a season of scarcity, much more is obtained in price, and it becomes more plentiful among the good; then a more invigorating (padikhuinagtar) praise of him is commendable.
10.
And, yet, as regards that which is suitable profit and also apart from the eating of corn, from anything eatable for the maintenance of life, from medicine and remedies for the healthfulness of life, and from whatever is for the preservation of life -- it is allowable that they shall buy and shall sell dear.

CHAPTER 50.

1.
The forty-ninth question is that you ask thus: If they should sell wine unto foreigners and infidels what is then the decision about it?
2.
The reply is this, that there is very vehement danger of grievous sin, and it would be an evil occupation. 3. But if through the operation of that wine-selling of theirs the wine is kept more away from those who become worse through immoderate drinking of wine, and comes to those who drink wine in moderation -- whom they cause to become better through drinking the wine -- more than when they shall not practice that selling of the wine, then through that selling of theirs the power which is in the wealth, by their keeping away of which a man is confirmed (padayinido) in the good religion and diverted from going into infidelity, the progress of sin is impeded and good works are promoted, becomes the assistance of the good and protection of religion, the hindrance of sin and aid of good works, which, when they shall not practice that wine-selling, do not arise, and which are much more promoted than the various sins that might have arisen from the unlawfully drinking of wine. 4. Or, otherwise, the greater decision -- and great are the good works which are assured therein -- is thus: 'They who shall sell wine to foreigners, infidels, and others from whom unlawful conduct arises through drunkenness, act very sinfully and not authorisedly.'

CHAPTER 51.

1.
The fiftieth question is that which you ask thus: As to one of the good religion who drinks wine immoderately, and loss and injury happen to him owing to that immoderate drinking, what is then the decision about him? 2. And how is the measure of wine-drinking which when they drink is then authorized for them?
3.
The reply is this, that whoever through the influence of opportunity drinks wine immoderately, and is adult and intelligent, through every loss and injury which thereupon come to him from that immoderate drinking, or which occasion anything unto any one, is then his causing such pollution to the creatures, in his own pleasurably varied modes, that the shame owing to it is a help (dastakih) out of that affliction. 4. And even he who gives wine authorisedly unto any one, and he is thereby intoxicated by it, is equally guilty of every sin which that drunkard commits owing to that drunkenness.
5.
And concerning that drunkenness, what is said is that that is to be eaten through which, when one eats it, one thinks better, speaks better, and acts better; and such even is the food by which, through having drunk wine, one becomes more virtuous, or does not become more vicious, in thought, word, and deed. 6. When an experiment as regards its being good is tried, so that having drunk it in that proportion one becomes better, or does not become worse, then it is allowable to drink it.
7.
When an untried person, for the sake of being tried, has drunk a mingled portion, first of one drinking cup, secondly of two drinking cups, and thirdly of three drinking cups, and through drinking it he becomes more virtuous, or does not become more vicious, in thought, word, or deed, he is to increase the drinking cups, and the experiment is allowable unto those tested just so far as the proportion is such that he becomes better, or does not become worse. 8. To those tested it is authorisedly given to that amount through which the experimenting that is mentioned has extended; and to him who it is proved will become worse through the drinking of wine, that amount, through the drinking of which, when given in the experiment, it was seen that he became worse, is not authorisedly given.
9.
In a case of doubt one is to consider him who is orthodox (hu-dino), who has chanted the sacred hymns, and is of good repute, whose drunkenness is not manifest, in this way, that he drinks as much wine as was tried by him when he became no worse by drinking it. 10. It is necessary to consider him whose religion is unseen, whose religion is wrong, and him who is a child furnished even with the realities of religion, in this way, that he becomes worse through having drunk wine. 11. When apart from the decision there is no assignable (banjishnik) reason as regards it, the share of wine which they gave not authorisedly who themselves drank wine, one considers as some of the wine on its being given more authorisedly.

CHAPTER 52.

1.
As to the fifty-first question and reply, that which you ask is thus: There is a man who hands over a dirham as regards five bushels (kafiz) of wheat, thus: 'I give this to thee as an installment (bon-ae) of five bushels of wheat at the end of a month;' and during the month, and at its end, those five bushels of wheat become five times the price; would they authorisedly seize the five bushels of wheat when winnowed (pekhto kardo) by him, through that installment which he handed over, or not?
2.
The reply is this, that when they who shall take his dirham have to entrust the five bushels of wheat, unsuspiciously and by their own will, to him to winnow, even so as they are advisedly and unsuspiciously winnowed by him they should take them just as winnowed; this is the decision authorizedly given. 3. But when it is winnowed by him on account of very grievous necessity for payment, it is more suitable for the soul to beg the giver of the money, who is the purchasing payer, for some of that excess of undivided (apar) profit. 4. For he has to consider the profit of his successors as among the profit of money on the spot -- when more than such installment demanded -- and not as a fresh carrying off of a gift.

CHAPTER 53.

1.
As to the fifty-second question and reply, that which you ask is thus: If people of the good religion, in their country or out of their country, shall buy and sell with those of a different religion as regards cattle, or shall lay hold of traders (vanikgaran) and shall sell to them, what is then the decision about it? 2. When those of the good religion shall not buy, as they have not come up to the price, but the orthodox dealers shall sell to traders and those of a different religion, what is then the decision about it? 3. And about him, of whom the means of existence (zivishno mindavam) are such, what is then the decision?
4.
The reply, is this, that it would be very grievously sinful, and it would be an evil occupation to transact such business through the influence of opportunity, and to seek profit unauthorisedly, in that manner. 5. But if it be the means of existence of those of the good religion of whom you have written, and they are not able to seek it in any other business and proper occupation which would be a less sinful means of existence, complete purchasers who have acquired the good religion shall sell unto those of the good religion; because it is possible for him to be less sinful to whom it is allowable to beg the life of comrade, for still the rule of a righteous man, with the righteous who are in his guardianship, is to live. 6. So it is possible, when they shall sell cattle for slaughter and foreign eating, many cattle -- amounting even to a diminution of the maintenance of Iran -- are more wretched than a righteous man forced to kill them through a living becoming unobtainable and the fear of death.

CHAPTER 54.

1.
As to the fifty-third question and reply, that which you ask is thus: A man whose wife, daughters, sisters, and relations are many, and who is the master of much wealth, becomes sick, and during the sickness has given this hoard of wealth unto one daughter. 2. And his other sisters and daughters are not contented therewith, and speak thus: 'This wealth ought to have been given during health and consciousness, not during sickness; and now it should not be allowable to give anything whatever unto any one during sickness, for if anything happens the wealth all comes back for division amongst us.' 3. Would it be allowable to give anything whatever of that wealth to any one, during sickness, or not? 4. Is it necessary for one of such wife, daughters, and sisters as there happen to be to appoint an adopted son for that man, because of that wealth, or not? 5. Are the wife, daughters, and sisters who shall take their share of the wealth responsible for the religious rites of every kind, and is it necessary for them to order the annual ceremonies for that man at the daily and yearly periods, or not?
6.
The reply is this, that, when there is nothing therein on account of which I should so deem him otherwise than a man in sickness and nearly passing away, it is not allowable to give it up, except when it is for his debts, or his wife and children, or an aged person (zarman) or father who is in his guardianship -- whom it is indispensably necessary to maintain -- and is such as, or as much as, is discreetly requisite for payment of the debt, or for the food, maintenance, and protection of those: that I have written about; then, however, it is allowable to give it up away (biruno) from those of whom you have written, as much as during his consciousness. 7. In other sickness, not while passing away, whatever is given up by him himself during consciousness is allowable; when he is not conscious it is not allowable. 8. And on that which he says during unconsciousness one is not reliant and it is not credible (vavar); but that which he says during consciousness, and that, too, which the same man gave unto a daughter when he was ill, if given by him consciously, are even then proceedings to be granted; if given by him during unconsciousness it is just as though he died without an opportunity of speaking (avang-piruz).
9.
Of the property left by will, one share is needful for each separate daughter for whom a husband is not provided, and two shares for a wife who may be a privileged one; and so long as the wife is living she exists as the house-mistress of the family; moreover, it is not needful to appoint an adopted son (sator), for the adopted son's duty (satorih) remains with her, and she manages to claim guardianship for the family from some man out of the relatives most nearly allied. 10. Out of the portion of the property for food and maintenance the wife should provide the daughters with husbands; and to keep going the necessities in the guardianship, the nurture which the deceased man afforded, and the ceremonies and good works imposed upon the family, and thereby become indispensable, she herself is to take lapfuls and armfuls out of the income (bar).
11.
As to the sisters of that man, if they have been necessarily in his guardianship, even as to nourishment, and there is no property for them in any other way, their food and maintenance are also needful to be out of the income of the property, unless that man has otherwise devised, or the appointment of a husband is not provided on account of the non-subjection (loito airih) in which they have been unto the guardianship of that man, or anything else opposed to it, so that nothing whatever of the property of that man is needful for them.
12.
He who is a husband of one of the daughters is a leader in the management (dastobarih) of the family, but with the concurrence of the house-mistress of the family, and even so when the action is one which they should not do, and his son is not born, or becomes passing away.
13.
As to a daughter not provided with a husband, should the one whose husband is not provided be an only child, to keep her subject also to the house-mistress of the family it is needful for her that there should be an adopted son in it; and when they shall appoint her husband unto the adopted-sonship the property then comes over into his possession.
14.
When the house-mistress of the family passes away, and the daughters are provided with husbands, the adopted-sonship is to be appointed.

CHAPTER 55.

1.
As to the fifty-fourth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What is the occupation and capacity (giriftarih) of the person that has to preserve those who are in their three nights' trials, and who is he?
2.
The reply is this, that it is said a husband (gabra) is indispensable for preservation through the three nights' trials which shall be for a privileged wife, a father for those of a child, and a master for those of a servant.

CHAPTER 56.

1.
As to the fifty-fifth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What is this adopted-sonship and guardianship of the family, and what does it become; what manner is it necessary to appoint it, whence is it necessary to provide food and clothing for it, and how is it necessary to be for it?
2.
The reply is this, that the adopted sonship is thus: It is requisite whenever a man of the good religion is passing away, while he is a complete ruler of a numerous household, who has no wife and child that may be privileged and acknowledged, nor associating brother, nor son by adoption, and his property is sixty stirs of income. 3. The controlling (khudayinag) of the property is to be publicly provided out of the kindred of the deceased, and is called the adopted-sonship; and he is to be appointed to it who is the nearest of the same lineage (min ham-nafan), who will manage and keep the property united in its entirety.
4.
The guardianship of a family is that when a guardian has to be appointed in that manner over the family of a man whose wife, or daughter, or infant son is not fit for their own guardianship, so it is necessary to appoint someone. 5. And it is necessary to appoint the adopted son and the family guardianship at such time as may be convenient to them; and when the man passes away as I have written it is necessary to appoint at such period as I have written, and to neglect it temporarily, even the length of a year, would not be authorized.
6.
fit for adoption is a grown-up sister who is not adopted in another family, then a brother's daughter, then a brother's son, and then the other nearest relatives. 7. Fit for the family guardianship is first the father of the serving wife (chagar), then a brother, then a daughter, and then the other nearest relations; among brothers he who is the eldest (mas) among them is the fittest.
8.
The food and clothing of a wife that may be privileged -- who is the house-mistress of the family, and is one kind of adopted son -- of a living infant son till he becomes grown up, and a daughter of the family while she is in the guardianship of the family guardians, are out of the property of the family so long as it exists for the purpose.
9.
It has become the custom that the lapfuls and armfuls of the family guardian are every month four stirs of, it may be, sixteen, which is the disbursement (andazishno), for food, clothing, medicine, and shelter, out of the income (bar), or out of the capital (bun), of the property which remains in the family, by a perfect wife when she is capable -- such as the former house-mistress -- so as want of nourishment (atafdado) may not come nakedly and unlawfully upon them.

CHAPTER 57.

1.
As to the fifty-sixth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Who is suitable for adoption, and who is not suitable?
2.
The reply is this, that a grown-up man of the good religion who is intelligent, a complete ruler of a numerous household, expecting offspring, and not having sins worthy of death [tanapuhr] is suitable for adoption; even when he has accepted either one adoption, or many adoptions, he is then still suitable for another adoption. 3. And a grown-up woman, or even a child, is suitable for one adoption, but when adopted in one family she is not suitable for another adoption.
4.
A woman requiring a husband -- though a complete worshipper -- or a foreigner, or an infidel, or one having sins worthy of death, is unfit for adoption; so also those who are demon-worshippers, she who is a concubine (shusar neshman) or courtesan, and she who is menstruous are unfit.

CHAPTER 58.

1.
The fifty-seventh question is that which you ask thus: How many kinds of family guardianship and adoption are there?
2.
The reply is this, that it is said there are three kinds, which are the existent, the provided, and the appointed. 3. An adopted son who is existent is such as a wife who may be privileged, or an only daughter is a kind of adopted son owing to confidence in herself, such as happens when there is no wife, and a daughter for whom there is no husband, and none is provided, is the one that has remained.
4.
An adopted son who is provided is such as a son that is acknowledged, who is accepted by one's self, and free from being appointed, or from necessity.
5.
And an adopted son who is appointed is he who is to be appointed among the relations who are suitable for adoption -- and are nearest to him who is to be appointed as adopted son -- and the ministers (padan) of religion, and he performs the duty of family guardianship; he who is the appointed one is he who is appointed by the men who are the nearest relations (nabanazdishtano) on account of proximity.

CHAPTER 59.

1.
As to the fifty-eighth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: For how much property is it then necessary to appoint an adopted son?
2.
The reply is this, that when the property which has remained his for whom it is necessary to appoint an adopted son is as much as sixty stirs of income, it is then indispensable to appoint an adopted son for him. 3. Even when it is less they should recognize him whose adoption is needful, and who conducts an adopted son's duty; and, similarly, an adoption is to be appointed for him, though it may not come as a possession unto him who is fittest for adoption.

CHAPTER 60.

1.
As to the fifty-ninth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What is the sin owing to not appointing an adopted son?
2.
The reply is this, that for the man himself it is allowable when he gives up all the property in righteous gifts, and when he has no property they should not provide an adopted-sonship for him, and his relations are innocent as regards it. 3. But should they recognize him who has the adopted-sonship of the deceased, or has accepted the position of his adopted-sonship, or should they have seized the property for the adopted-sonship in order to appoint an acting adopted son (satorgar), and he conducts the adopted-sonship, and throws away both the portion (bon) provided for disbursement (vishopo) and the entirety, and quite destroys the property, and thoroughly ruins the adopted-sonship, though, on account of not restraining him, it is said to be a sin worthy of death for every single dirham, it is not said they are killed outright.

CHAPTER 61.

1.
As to the sixtieth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What is the propriety and impropriety, the merit and demerit, of family guardianship?
2.
The reply is this, that the merit is the appointment and recognition of him who accomplishes more worthily the greater benefit; the demerit is as to him who is unworthy, or him whose worthiness is not appointed to avert a lesser benefit and the ruining of a worthy adoption. 3. Nearer details (khurdako) of the family guardianship which is proper and which is not proper for an adopted son's duty, of the child of good religion with whose business it is connected, and of the fathers for whom a family guardian is to be appointed, are in the recital of five chapters (fragardo) of the Husparum Nask, and in the abstracts (giriftakoiha) of the good ideas in various scriptures (Nasko) in which many decisions are together.

CHAPTER 62.

1.
As to the sixty-first question and reply, that which you ask is thus: How stand the shares in the inheritance (mirato) of property among those of the good religion, and how is it necessary for them to stand therein?
2.
The reply is this, that in the possession of wealth the wealth reaches higher or lower, just like water when it goes in a stream on a declivity, but when the passage shall be closed at the bottom it goes back on the running water (puy-avo), and then it does not go to its after-course.
3.
When there is nothing otherwise in the will and private, property goes to a wife or daughter who is privileged; if one gives her anything by will then she does not obtain the share (dash) pertaining to her. 4. Whenever a share for a son is not provided by it, every one has so much and the wife who may be a privileged one has twice as much; and the share of that one of the sons, or even the wife of a son, who is blind in both eyes, or crippled in both feet, or maimed in both his hands, is twice as much as that of one who is sound.
5.
And it is needful that he who was in the father's guardianship shall remain in guardianship, as when a father or mother is decrepit and causing awe (chagarin), or of a nurture different from that of the guardian -- or a child of his brother or sister, or a father, or one without nurture apart from him, is without a guardian -- the ready guardianship of a capable man, and the shelter and nourishment that have become inadequate are as indispensably forthcoming from the possessors of wealth, of those who have taken the property, as that taking was indispensable.
6.
If there be no son of that man, but there be a daughter or wife of his, and if some of the affairs of the man are such as render a woman not suitable for the guardianship, it is necessary to appoint a family guardian; if there be, moreover, no wife or daughter of his it is necessary to appoint an adopted son. 7. This that is, when it is necessary to appoint a family guardian and who is the fittest, and when it is necessary to appoint an adopted son and which is the fittest -- is written in the chapters on the question [ch 56-59].

CHAPTER 63.

1.
The sixty-second question is that which you ask thus: Would they authorisedly carry off any property whatever from foreigners and infidels, or not?
2.
The reply is this, that wealth and property and anything that foreigners (an-airano) possess and is carried off by them from the good with violence, and which through obstinacy they do not give back when it is proper, it is well allowable in that case that they should seize from the foreigners. 3. So long as it is the lawful order of the procurator of its owners it is allowable for a just decider to consider properly, and to demand authoritatively the sending of interest (sudo) thereon for himself. 4. But if they proceed in their obstinacy he is sent to come up with them in obstinacy, not to dissemble with them.
5.
It is the custom to give an infidel (ak-dino), who is not a foreigner, food, clothing, and medicine, when his renunciation (vaz) has come, for keeping away matters (chishano) of death and sickness owing to hunger and thirst, cold and heat; but wealth, horses, accouterments, wine, and land are not given authorisedly, it is said, unto foreigners and idolators [dev-worshippers].

CHAPTER 64.

1.
As to the sixty-third question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Whence was the first creation of mankind, and how was the formation of the original race of men? 2. What issued from Gayomard, and what did it really become; and from what have Mashyaih and Mashyayoih [Mashye and Mashyane] arisen?
3.
The reply is this, that Ohrmazd, the all-ruling, produced from the endless light the shape of a fire-priest (asruko) whose name was that of Ohrmazd, and its brilliance that of fire; its incombustibility was like that inside the light, and its expansion like the western (khurbarag) land. 4. And in the shape of the fire-priest was created by him the material existence (stih) that is called man, and for three thousand years, when it did not progress and did not eat, it did not speak; likewise, it did not utter, but it thought of, the righteousness of the perfect and true religion, the desire for the pure glorification of the creator.
5.
Afterwards, the contentious promise-breaker injured the life of it, and produced a burdensome mortality; and the mortality is clear from the appellation, Gayomard, of the nature produced. 6. The seed which was the essence of the life of the leader (mirako) of life, who was Gayomard, flowed forth on his passing away, came on to the earth of the beneficent angel [Spandarmad], and is preserved in the earth until, through the protection of the angels, a brother and sister of mankind, connected together, have grown from it, have attained to movement and walking upon the earth, and have advanced even to intercourse and also procreation.
7.
The ground where the life of Gayomard departed is gold, and from the other land, where the dissolution of his various members occurred, as many kinds of decorative metals flowed forth it is said.

CHAPTER 65.

1.
As to the sixty-fourth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Where and from what did the origin of race, which they say was next-of-kin marriage (khwedodas), arise; and from what place did it arise?
2.
The reply is this, that the first consummation of next-of-kin marriage was owing to that which Mashyaih and Mashyayoih [Mashye and Mashyane] did, who were brother and sister together, and their consummation of intercourse produced a son as a consummation of the first next-of-kin marriage. 3. So that they effected the first intercourse of man with woman, and the entire progress of the races of every kind of lineage of men arose from that, and all the men of the world are of that race.
4.
It is truly said, that it was the joy of the lord and creator after the creation of the creatures, and, owing to that, its consummation, which was his complete accomplishment of the existence of the creatures (damanih), was owing to him. 5. And its occurrence, too, is in evidence that the creator, who is so with unflinching (atorak) will, is as much the cause of the begetting and entire progress of his own perfect creatures, in whom begetting is by destiny, as Hooshang by whom two-thirds of the demons were smitten, Takhmorup who overturned Ahriman through the power of the angels, Yim [Jamshed] by whom order was arranged and death was driven away (avakaldo), Faridoon who fettered Az-i Dahak [Zohak] and stripped his blaspheming (nirangak) from the world, and the many princes (kayan) and high-priests of grave spirit who were, and are, and will be.

CHAPTER 66.

1.
As to the sixty-fifth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: There is a man of wealth of the good religion who fully intends to order a celebration of all the rites of his religion; and a priest of it, to whom the five chapters (fargards) of the Avesta ('text') of the correct law of the Nirangistan ('religious-formula code') are easy through the Zand ('commentary'), is ever progressing in priestly manhood (magoi-gabraih). 2. And he (the man) goes unto him, and he (the priest) speaks thus: 'All the religious rites are performed for 350 dirhams, as a gift always given beforehand by them who give the order unto me, so that I may come to them.'
3.
A man of the disciples, to whom the five sections (vidag) of the Avesta are easy, and nothing whatever of its Zand is easy, then says unto him -- unto that man who intends to order all the religious rites -- thus: 'For this gift I will conduct all the religious rites for thee twice, with the appliances in the land of Pars, shouldst thou give the order unto me. 4. For it is quite possible for me to pray so many sections through my own exertion (dasto), but for him it is necessary to order again of all officiating priest (pavan zotako), who is himself not able to pray any section, or does not himself pray; and it is not necessary for him to go for the control (parvar) of all the religious rites when stipend (bahar) is the one consideration within him, and the matter is that he may receive again. 5. He who has always himself prayed is better than he who shall accept readily and orders the work again, and is not able to pray it himself, when a fulfillment is tedious to him; when it is I who receive, I always pray myself better than he who would accept readily and orders again, and it brings on my business to a closing point.'
6.
The priestly man speaks thus: 'The consideration of stipend is more necessary to arise with me than other men, owing to the position of religion, not the other portion (shano) of all religious rites; therefore, it is more authorisedly received and conducted by me when I accept readily and again entrust the work; but I direct so that they pray thoroughly, and it brings on much business to its closing point; moreover, if I seize upon it, even then I should be authorized, for this is the stipend of religion.'
7.
Should they seize this that is authorisedly theirs, or not? And is it the custom of a man who is frequently ordering all the religious rites to reduce his gift for the ceremonial, or not?
8.
Order some one to decide for us clearly, when they do not dispute the gift for the ceremonial, or when they do dispute it, how is then its great advantage; and the harmfulness that exists therein, in many ways and many modes, when they give an insufficient gift for the ceremonial. 9. Is the property which is given up as a gift for the ceremonial -- so long as it thus becomes the remuneration which one gives to a receiver of remuneration (mozdobar) -- that property which they can seize? 10. And is the work which is done, or deputed, and its great advantage, more than they would perform when, in the period of the evil millenniums, they diminish the gift for the ceremonial; and in how many modes does its harm then proceed therefrom? 11. Of whom are all the religious rites always more authorisedly ordered, of that priestly man, or of that disciple? 12. For what reason, also, is it proper to diminish the gift for all the religious rites of him who is a priestly man, or to give it in excess? 13. When they do not diminish the gift for the ceremonial, and it is given in excess, in what manner does its great advantage then arise therefrom; and why and through what source (bekh) is it possible for advantage to arise therefrom? 14. When they diminish the gift what harm to it (the ceremonial) is then possible to arise therefrom, and how is it better when they give the gift for the ceremonial?
15.
For when the family householders, with those of the good religion of Iran, are early (pesh) with every single celebration of all the religious rites with holy-water, in the land of Pars, unless they are in distress, their gift is then 400 dirhams; and we have given more than this, even 450 dirhams, for it. 16. And now should it be needful, when we diminish anything from the 400 dirhams, or from the 450 dirhams, of their gift, they would then not accept it from us, and they speak thus: 'For 400 dirhams, or at least for 350 dirhams; nothing less do we accept.' 17. But there are needy men who always come to us and speak thus: 'For 350 dirhams we will twice conduct all the religious rites with holy-water, as you have always ordered us before for 400 dirhams; order it only of us, for shoudst thou have it managed by priestly men, they always say that they should always perform a curtailment (kastarih) of the religious rites and ceremonies of the sacred beings, and that all the religious rites are not authorisedly ordered except of them.'
18.
Although a priest (aerpato) who becomes a ruler of the ceremonial should be doubly a decider, yet order some one to explain to us clearly concerning these questions, as asked by us.
19.
The reply is this, that the man of the good religion who intended to order all the religious rites is he whose desire is goodness, and he should be a decider of questions about it.
20.
As to the priest who spoke thus: 'Thou shouldst order it of me for 350 dirhams, as you have always given before your business was arranged; and it becomes your own non-religious share of the duty, to be authorisedly given, because you have proceeded with the alleged demeanor of the country and for the purpose of intercession; and all the religious rites with holy-water are such as they solemnize repeatedly (pavan dor), among which there are many in which I act and am very well performing' -- the gift of 350 dirhams is then not excessive remuneration for him.
21.
As to the disciple who spoke thus: 'For 350 dirhams I will twice conduct all the religious rites in the land of Pars' -- such of them as they then conduct repeatedly are not many in the aggregate (chinako), and they certainly damage his (the man's) property, and all the religious rites of fire, through that deficiency. 22. And they would accept it on this account, that through a love of righteousness they might cause an advantage (khanjinako) unto all those religious rites by their own inferior eminence. 23. And he extends and impels the ceremonial of the sacred beings into much progress who promotes it through that eminence which is owing to his own wealth, and which is thus more possessed of a share (bon) of the ceremonial of the sacred beings and of the good work of praise -- except, indeed, a like good work of praise of his -- when they shall cause that manifestation of eminence. 24. So that the orderer of the good work understands that that which is diminished by him is the eminence of the disciple, which his own wealth has to order for those who are not able to give wealth which is their own property for it; and he makes no curtailment (banjishno) of those scanty remunerations.
25.
And if that disciple should accept as remuneration less than is the custom for all the religious rites, the orderer is not undiminished in wealth, for the reason that the good effect owing to the advantage of holy-water is such as when they conduct them repeatedly, unless it be necessary to conduct them in a manner as if unpaid (pavan agazid). 26. That curtailment of the good effect is not afterwards demandable (pasin-sakhuniko), if it has to be accepted by him; and if that acceptance of less remuneration by him be an opposing of him to the malice and ill-temper (vushai) of the priests, this also is not the way that they should cause progress as regards their own business.
27.
And the proximity (nazdih) of a master of the house who keeps away from all the religious rites requested and accepted -- more particularly when the acceptor accepts, all the religious rites of the requester for that remuneration -- is itself necessary; he may not be of a religious disposition, but it is yet requisite for him to be where this is requested and accepted for that scanty remuneration of his, owing to the extent and impetus of his share of the duty.
28.
Moreover, it is perceived by us in Pars that they who would accept the work for half the remuneration which was requisite as profit for it formerly would seize the remuneration. 29. And the reason of it is this: The peasants relied upon the corn of the field (khano) which has not come, and they said: 'We are hurried; we never obtain anything even on a single one of various debts, and by this payment we shall save our lives for the time; so we calculate that whatever we seize in the manner of a debt or two, when the corn arrives and we sell the corn, we shall make as profit on that business;' -- and it seemed to me very desirable for such a man.
30.
If, also, they should approve that scanty remuneration of that disciple, it is an injury of all the religious rites, of which the forgivers have to cast the consideration of the unequally-shared advantage out of the body. 31. All the religious rites ordered of him who is a better performer, owing to not diminishing the proper remuneration, having proceeded unaltered, the remuneration of righteousness one does not approve is important as regards such as they solemnize and conduct in the period. 32. Since, for the 350 dirhams, all the religious rites which they conduct once with holy-water are, it is affirmed, all the religious rites caused to be conducted twice with holy-water in that same place and with the same good effect, it is more important to order of them who shall allow all the religious rites twice; for, with as much wealth, as much efficiency, and as much good effect, more ceremonial is good.
33.
The worthiness of the disciple, which is owing to himself, is the preparation; and the priest is worthy, of whose performance in the religion you have spoken; therefore, supreme worthiness is unattainable by either of them; so it is more significant when the disciple is the preparer, and the priest, as director, becomes a demander of good effect; both strive for good progress, and through many kinds of participation they may be worthy. 34. And both of them, praising together -- whereby the participation is brought to an end -- may authorisedly seize; but that worthiness of theirs is owing to the duty and the praise therein -- this one in preparing, and this one in superintendence (avar-madih) of the recital -- and the after discourse and petitioning, and other good done.

CHAPTER 67.

1.
As to the sixty-sixth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What is this appearance which is girded on the sky?
2.
The reply is this, that it is a mingling of the brilliance of the sun with mist and cloud that is seen, of which it is at all times and seasons, moreover, a characteristic appearance, whereby it has become their sign above from spiritual to earthly beings. 3. That which is earthly is the water above to which its brilliance is acceptable; and the many brilliant colors (gunakan) which are formed from that much mingling of brilliance and water, and are depicted (manaki-aito), are the one portion for appearing.

CHAPTER 68.

1.
As to the sixty-seventh question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What is this which, when the sun and moon have both come up, is something come, and comes on as it were anew when it (the moon) becomes new, and men want the thing to go down from the place where it is becoming apparent? 2. When it has been several times, what is then the thing which comes up and exists, and how is its motion by night and day?
3.
The reply is this, that the sun and moon are always seen there where they stand, and they exist for men and the creatures. 4. The sun is swifter-moving than the moon, and every day becomes a little in advance; at the new moon the sun is shining, and the moon owing to diminution backwards, on account of the slenderness of the moon by much traveling, and on account of the brilliance of the sun, is not apparent. 5. As the sun goes down a light which is not very apparent is the moon, and not having gone down the moon is seen; and each day the moon increases, comes up more behind the sun, and goes down more behind, and is, therefore, more seen. 6. When increased to the utmost, which is approaching a likeness of the sun, it comes spherical (aspiharako), and is seen the whole night; to diminish anew it comes back to the companionship of the sun, and goes into the splendor of the sun.

CHAPTER 69.

1.
As to the sixty-eighth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: When something takes hold of the moon or sun what is then its residence (khano), and whence does it always seize upon it?
2.
The reply is this, that two dark progeny of the primeval ox move and are made to revolve from far below the sun and moon, and whenever, during the revolution of the celestial sphere, they make one pass below the sun, or below the moon, it becomes a covering which is spun (tad) over the sun, and it is so when the sun or moon is not seen. 3. Of each of those two progeny of the primeval ox -- one of which is called 'the head,' and one 'the tail' -- the motion is specified among astronomers; but in remaining upon those luminaries, and producing that covering, they do not attain unto those luminaries within that covering. 4. There occurs no difference whatever of the descending rays from those luminaries into a place of purity and freedom from disturbance far below those luminaries, except this, that the light which they divert to the world, and their activity as regards the celestial spheres are not complete for so much time, nor the coming of the light to the earth.

CHAPTER 70.

1.
As to the sixty-ninth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What are these river-beds, and what is the cause of them; whence do they always arise, and why is there not a river-bed everywhere and in every place where there is no mountain?
2.
The reply is this, that any place where a mountain is not discernible and a river-bed exists it is a fissure (ashkupo); and it is declared as clear that, even before the growth of the mountains, when the earth was all a plain, by the shaking of the world the whole world became rent (zandako). 3. Even Frasuyav of Tur was specially mighty by causing the construction of channels (vidarg) there where it is mountainous, and also in low-lands, in which there is no mountain, and the shaking in its creation was the formation of great sunken springs and river-beds. 4. And if it has been prepared in, or if it be in a ravine (shikafto) of, the mountains, the cause, too, of the contraction, thundering, and tearing of a river, if its confinement be in the earth, is the resistance which it meets in seeking a passage; and as it is a spring of the waters of the earth, so also it is in the earth, whose contraction and panting are mighty and full of strength. 5. And when it is a time that they would make a constructed channel at the outside of its ravine, as regards the contraction which is within it, the resistance by which it is contracted at the outside of the ravine is the ground.

CHAPTER 71.

1.
As to the seventieth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Is anything which happens unto men through fate or through action, is exertion destiny or without destiny, and does anything devoid of destiny happen unto men, or what way is it? 2. As to that which they say, that, when a man turns unto sinfulness, they ordain anew a new death; as to that which they say, that anything which happens unto men is a work of the moon, and every benefit is connected with the moon, and the moon bestows it upon worldly beings; and as to what way the moon does this, and bestows all benefits, order someone to decide the literal explanation of how and what way it is, by the will of the sacred beings.
3.
The reply is this, that the high-priests have said thus, that there are some things through destiny, and there are some through action; and it is thus fully decided by them, that life, wife, and child, authority and wealth are through destiny, and the righteousness and wickedness of priesthood, warfare, and husbandry are through action. 4. And this, too, is thus said by them, that that which is not destined for a man in the world does not happen; and that which is destined, be it owing to exertion, will come forward, be it through sinfulness or slothfulness he is injured by it. 5. That which will come forward owing to exertion is such as his who goes to a meeting of happiness, or the sickness of a mortal who, owing to sickness, dies early; and he who through sinfulness and slothfulness is thereby injured is such as he who would wed no wife, and is certain that no child of his is born, or such as he who gives his body unto slaughter, and life is injured by his living.

CHAPTER 72.

1.
As to the seventy-first question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What are the heinous sins of committing unnatural intercourse [sodomy], is it proper to order or perform the sacred ceremony for him who shall commit unnatural intercourse, and is it then proper to practice sitting together and eating together with him who shall commit it, and shall commit it with a longing for it, or not?
2.
The reply is this, that of the evil Mazda-worshippers -- who were the seven evil-doers of sin of a heinous kind, whose practice of Ahriman's will was as much as an approximation to that of Ahriman himself -- two are those whom you have mentioned, who are defiled with mutual sin. 3. For, of those seven evil-doers, one was Az-i Dahak [Zohak], by whom witchcraft was first glorified; he exercised the sovereignty of misgovernment, and desired a life of the unintellectual (ahangan khaya) for the world. 4. One was Azi Sruvar [Av. Azi Srvara], by whom infesting the highway in terrible modes, frightful watchfulness (vimag-bidarih) of the road, and devouring of horse and man were perpetrated. 5. One was Vadak the mother of Dahak, by whom adultery was first committed, and by it all lineage is disturbed, control is put an end to, and without the authority of the husband an intermingling of son with son occurs. 6. One was the Viptak ('pathic') the intercourse of males, the infecundity of which is the desire of men; and by him the intercourse of males and the way of destroying the seed were first shown unto males. 7. One was the Vipinidak ('pederast'), the male by whom the use of females was first brought among the errors (khazdag) of the male, and was despised (dukhto) by him; he who is a cherisher of seed is delivering it to females, and that which is destroying the seed is the flowing of stenches into the prescribed vessels for it, the delivering it to males by a demoniacal process, and carrying on a practice which effaces (ahanjedo) and conceals the race [or seed] of the living. 8. One was Tur-i Bradar-vakhsh, the Karap and heterodox wizard, by whom the best of men [Zartosht] was put to death. 9. And one was he by whom the religions of apostates were preferred -- through the deceitfulness of the perverted text and interpretation [Avesta and Zand] which they themselves utter -- to the law which the righteous has praised, that existence which would have procured a complete remedy, and would have become the eternity of the records which bestow salvation, through the good righteousness which is owing to the pure religion, the best of knowledge.
10.
And they who are defiled by a propensity to stench are thereby welcoming the demons and fiends, and are far from good thought through vexing it, and a distance from them is to be maintained of necessity in sitting and eating with them, except so far as it may be opportune for the giving of incitement by words for withdrawing (padalishno) from their sinfulness, while converting them from that propensity. 11. Should one die, to order a ceremonial for him is indecorous, and to perform it would be unauthorized; but if he were to do so penitently one would then be authorized to perform his ceremonial after the three nights, for it is the remedy for atonement of sin. 12. And so long as he is living he is in the contingencies (vakhtagano) owing to the sickness through which he is in that way an infamous one (akhamidar), and there are no preventives (bondagano) and medicinal powder for it; these are teachings also for the duty and good works of a ceremonial for the soul.

CHAPTER 73.

1.
As to the seventy-second question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Does the stench of him, stinking withal, who commits unnatural intercourse [sodomy] proceed to the sky, or not; and to what place does the wind of that stench go when it goes anywhere?
2.
The reply is this, that the material stench goes as far and in such proportion as there are filthiness and fetidness in the stinking existences, and the spiritual stench goes unto there where there are appliances (samano) for acquiring stench, a miserable place; on account of the separation (gardih) of the sky, everywhere where it goes in the direction of the sky it does not reach to the undisturbed existences. 3. Information about the stench is manifest in the omniscient creator whose omniscience is among the luminaries, but that persistent creator and the primeval angels and archangels are free from its attack; and his information about the deception which is practiced upon that laborer for hell and mind allied with the demons is certain.

CHAPTER 74.

1.
As to the seventy-third question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Is there any discomfiture (vanidarih) of the archangels [Amahraspandan] from that stench, or not?
2.
The reply is this, that the archangels are immortal and undistressed; their place, also, is in that best existence of light, all-glorious, all-delightful, and undisturbed; and the strength of the stench due to the demons does not reach unto anything pertaining to the archangels. 3. The archangels are omniscient, friendly to the creatures, persistent, and procure forgiveness; they know that heinous practice which is the heinous practice of that wretched dupe (friftako) who has become defiled in that most filthy manner (zishttum arang), which is like that which is provided and which is applied to him even in the terrible punishment that has come upon him from the demons; and then, on account of their friendliness to the creatures, it has seemed to them severe, and thereby arises their forgiveness which is according to whatever anguish is owing to the torment which galls him.

CHAPTER 75.

1.
As to the seventy-fourth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Do the angels have his dead body restored, or not?
2.
The reply is this, that there was a high-priest who said that the angels do not have his dead body restored, because of the sin of the mutually-polluting, full of stench, and inglorious victims (khvapidoan), the terrible kind of means for the exculpation of creatures, and that practice when males keep specially imperfect in their duty; it being then suitable for mankind to become free from him who -- like Az-i Dahak [Zohak], who wanted many most powerful demons -- resists and struggles, and is not possessing the perception to extract (patkashistano) a pardon, owing to the course of many demoniacal causes. 3. But innumerable multitudes (amarakaniha), happily persevering in diligence, have with united observation, unanimously, and with mutual assistance (ham-banjishniha) insisted upon this, that they have the dead bodies of all men restored; for the good creator, granting forgiveness and full of goodness, would not abandon any creature to the fiend. 4. In revelation (dino) it is said that every dead body is raised up, both of the righteous and of the wicked; there is none whom they shall abandon to the fiend.
5.
And this, also, is thus decided by them, that even as to him who is most grievously sinful, when he becomes mentally seeking pardon and repentant of the sin, and, being as much an atoner as he is well able, has delivered up his body and wealth for retribution and punishment, in reliance upon the atonement for sin of the good religion, then it is possible for his soul, also, to come to the place of the righteous.

CHAPTER 76.

1.
As to the seventy-fifth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: As to him who shall slay those who shall commit unnatural intercourse [sodomy], how is then his account as to good works and crime?
2.
The reply is this, that the high-priests, in their decision, have thus specially said, that all worthy of death are so by the decision of judges and the command of kings, whose business is execution. 3. Whoever shall slay him who has heinous sins after controversies three times with him, about the decision of those acquainted with the religion and about the command of kings, when he has thus remained in the sin in defiance of his own relations -- and not inimically to the man and injuriously to the religion, but inimically to the sin and in order to keep away intercourse with demons -- is to consider it as a great good work. 4. No command is given about the decision of what one is to do in the same matter, more heedfully and more authorisedly in cases of doubtful attention, for the good work exists undoubtedly more and more abundantly.

CHAPTER 77.

1.
As to the seventy-sixth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Will you direct some one then to make the heinousness of this sin of unnatural intercourse clear to us?
2.
The reply is this, that the first material creature was the righteous man, the smiter of the fiend, the righteous propitiator; so, also, in the world he is more recognizing the sacred beings, more completely (hamaktar) for the production of creatures, and with more provision for the creatures. 3. And with the manifestation of knowledge the best duty is that which exists in lawfully practicing procreation, and the complete progression of righteous men arose therefrom.
4.
In like manner he who is the omniscient creator formed mankind in the first pair, who were brother and sister, and became Mashye and Mashyane, and all races of material life exist by means of acquiring sons and his omnisciently causing procreation. 5. The man and woman were also made to lust (gaminido) by him, and thereby became the father and mother of material men; and he naturalized among primitive man the qualities of a desire (aludano) for acquiring sons together through glorifying. 6. And the law and religion authorized it as a proper wish, so long as they proceed from those who are their own relations, not from those who are not their own; and with those whom next-of-kin marriages, original duties, and desires for other sons have formed, complete progress in the world is connected, and even unto the time of the renovation of the universe [Frashegird], it is to arise therefrom. 7. And the birth of many glorious practicers of the religion, those confident in spirit, organizers of the realm, arrangers of the country, and even accomplishers of the renovation of the universe, which arises from those same to whom that practice shall be law -- and when it occurs lawfully -- is a miracle and benefit of the world, the will of the sacred beings and the utmost good work discernible, because the complete progress of the righteous arises therefrom, and the great female faculty (nekedih) is manifested.
8.
So when the opponent of the same, by whom the source of seed and procreation is spoiled, is intent upon a way for the death of progeny -- and the intention is certain -- its annihilation is owing to him; and he is the devastating fiend, whose will is a desire of depopulation and ruin, and by the power of his Niyaz (demon of 'want') he turns imperceptibly the esteem of the very indispensable production of men from the position of wishing for sons to a creature who is opposed to it, through whom have arisen its ruin and corruption. 9. And the nature and power which are his cherishing of progeny are not suitable for receiving seed, and misrepresented (drokinido) by him is the accompanying evil intercourse, so that emitting the seed (shudak), in delivering it at that time into that burning place, full of stench, is to produce its death, and no procreation occurs.
10.
The dupes turn the living seed from mingling with women and seeking for births, just as in the like vice of any demon, connected with a longing for the dupes, they shall abandon that advantage of the world, the delights (vayagano) of a son. 11. He who is wasting seed makes a practice of causing the death of progeny; when the custom is completely continuous, which produces an evil stoppage of the progress of the race, the creatures have become annihilated; and certainly, that action, from which, when it is universally proceeding, the depopulation of the world must arise, has become and furthered (frarasto) the greatest wish of Ahriman. 12. Such a practicer is the greatest wish of Ahriman, through the demon's excretion of doubt in the practice, owing to intercourse with the emitter, which is most filthy and most fetid, and the emitting member, which is causing death; and the demoniacal practice is perceptible even from the same practice, and whatever is the heinousness of the sinfulness is clear to observers of the dead body.

CHAPTER 78.

1.
As to the seventy-seventh question and reply, that which you ask is thus: As to the nature of the heinousness and sinfulness of committing adultery, and the worldly retribution specified for it in revelation, will you then direct some one to point out to us the modes of retribution for it?
2.
The reply is this, that it is adultery, heinous and vicious, which first Dahak [Zohak] used to commit, and he is known by the illicit intercourse which was his desire with Vadak, who was his mother, in the lifetime of Aurvadasp, who was his father, without the authority of Aurvadasp, who was the husband of Vadak whose practicing of sin, unauthorisedly and injudiciously, was itself heinous and very frequent. 3. And its modes of theft or spoliation are just as much more heinous than other theft and spoliation as a man and that which arises from his procreation of man are greater than the position of property.
4.
One is this, that it is important to consider with steadfastness the courtesan life of the adulteress and the bad disposition assuredly and undoubtedly therein; she causes pillage unauthorisedly, and in her practice, also, intercourse during menstruation, owing to its resembling the burning of seed, is a frightful kind of handiwork (dasto).
5.
One is this, that it may be that she becomes pregnant by that intercourse, and has to commit on her child the murdering of progeny.
6.
One is this, that it may be in pregnancy, by her coming to intercourse with another man, that the living child which is in her womb has died through that intercourse.
7.
One is this, that it may be that she becomes pregnant by that intercourse, and the pregnancy having given indications, through shame or fear she swallows a drug and seeks a remedy, and murders the child in her womb.
8.
One is this, that it may be that a woman who is foreign or infidel, and becomes pregnant by that intercourse, gives birth to a child, and it has grown up with the child which is known to belong to the husband of the woman, and remains in foreign habits (an-airih) or infidelity. 9. The committer of the illicit intercourse is as unobservant and grievously sinful as he who shall lead his own child from his native habits (airih) and the good religion into foreign habits and infidelity; as to the sin which that child may commit in childhood he is the sinner, and as to that which it may commit in manhood he is equally sinful with it. 10. Also, if that child be put to death in childhood, and be passed through water, rain, or fire, or be buried in the well-yielding earth, he is an equally vicious murderer, and is defiled thereby through being the invisible causer.
11.
Likewise, if he who is a man of the good religion accustoms a woman to illicit intercourse, and through adultery a child is born and grows up, even then to practice undutifully that which undutifulness committed is to make a wretched and clandestine connection. 12. On account of the birth having occurred through illicit intercourse it is grievously sinful; through propriety it is praiseworthy, and through falsity it is sinful, and it is said that a bastard is not appointed in superintendence over any one. 13. If it be done so that pregnancy does not occur, even then every single time -- not to mention the text (avistak) as to the matter regarding the destruction of his own living seed -- it is a sin of two Tanapuhrs, which are six hundred stirs; and regarding that emission it is inexpiable (atanapuhr).
14.
As much on account of the conversation as on account of the companionship of the man who goes unto various women, for the sake of a man's sin, and is unatoning, should his own body be also defiled with bodily refuse (higar-homond), or should those kinds of harm be not kept away from another, even then every single time of the bodily refuse bringing harm to his own body is a sin of sixty stirs, and through making his own body defiled with bodily refuse is each time a sin of sixty stirs; and if he washes with water that defilement with his own bodily refuse, or that which is harmed thereby, every single time it is a sin of six hundred stirs.
15.
And if it be a foreign or infidel woman, apart from the sinfulness about which I have written, it is a sin of sixty stirs on account of not controlling the sins and vicious enjoyment of the foreign woman. 16. And, finally, the other various sins which are owing to this sin are very numerous, and grievous to thousands of connections, and it is thereby contaminating to them in a fearful manner.
17.
The retribution is renunciation of sin in procuring pardon; and the renunciation in his turning from equally grievous disobedience, every single time that he turns from similar viciousness, and as an atonement for the sin, is to arrange, or order, four (arba) marriages of the next of kin to his own wife, lawfully, authorisedly, and most hopeful of offspring. 18. Through fear of the grievous sinfulness which I have recounted, in case of a child of those of the good religion who has no giver of shame, and to keep lawfully in subjection a child who is under control, he who is unnurtured is lawfully given nurture, and is nominated for lawfully bringing up. 19. And to turn a man or woman of bad disposition, by eulogy and entreaty, or by distress (fangim) and fear and other representations, from that bad disposition and vicious habit; to order next-of-kin marriage and all the religious rites (hamak dino, the duwazdah homast (Dvazdah-homast), the ceremony in honor of the waters, and the presentation of holy-water to the fires; to remove the burden of offspring which is distressing those of the good religion, and to force them from the infidelity acquired, which is a very atoning atonement for such sins, are extremely proper proceedings (avir-farhakhtikih).

CHAPTER 79.

1.
As to the seventy-eighth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What is the decision about water with the word Itha and him who shall drink it? 2. When a man has performed his ritual [grace] and does not take the prayer (vajo) inwardly, but drinks water with the word Itha, what is the decision about this efficacy of which he takes up one half and abandons one half, how is it necessary, or not, to consider it, and what is the sin of it? 3. As to him who performs half, or less than half, of the efficacy, and drinks water with the word Itha, what is the retribution for this sin when he shall commit it occasionally, and what is good in order that this sin, when he shall commit it, may depart from its source? 4. As to him who has performed his Nabar [Navar] ritual, and drinks water with the word Itha, not muttering (andako) the inward prayer (vajo), and performs a ceremony (yashto), though he does not order a ceremony of Geto-kharid for himself, is the decision then about him anything better, or not; and does the good work of this ceremony of Geto-kharid become just the same as that of the Nabar [Navar] ceremony, or not? 5. As to him who orders a ceremony of Geto-kharid for himself, what is then his good work, and what is the value of his worthiness when he does not himself perform because he orders that they should perform for him? 6. And as to him who has not performed his ceremony, and is fifteen years old, what is then the decision about him?
7.
The reply is this: When a man who has chanted the Gathas ('hymns') drinks water with the word Itha, if, moreover, being preservable from suffering, he be not a righteous one overwhelmed by impotence, it is thus said that, when in order to consecrate the sacred cake (drono) it is not possible to take the prayer inwardly, and there are no presentations of it for the tasting of the virtuous with inward prayer, or for the sake of relieving the sickness of a righteous person, which has come severely, when it is possible for him to say 'Itha' and one 'Ashem-vohu,' or it is possible for him to say 'Ashem,' he is to recite that which it is possible for him to speak, and he is to drink or eat the water, or food, or medicine which is discreetly his, and may be the custom of his body and life.
8.
But the sinfulness of him who has drunk water with the word Itha, not owing to suffering, is much the most sinful, except this efficacy of which you have written that, having taken up one half, they shall abandon one half; for, when in eating the efficacy is possessed in that manner, it is then a chattering meal which is a very grievous sin. 9. Every single drop (pashan) which in that manner comes to the mouth as a new taste is a sin of three stirs, and every single thing which is spoken like that word is a sin of three stirs, which is mentioned as the minimum.
10.
The retribution is that way well perfected when, in renunciation of that sin which attacks, a proper efficacy is prepared and becomes a vestige (vunako) of the sin of the performer. 11. Whoever is not able to arrange it in this manner is to entreat the prayers of three men with a donation of wealth, and is to solemnize his Nonabar [Navar] ceremony, or he is to consecrate a sacred cake every day in the ceremonial place, to eat food lawfully, and to order the proper maintenance of the efficacy. 12. The assistance of performing the proper rituals through ordering the Nabar [Navar] ceremony, and the helping existence of discharging the burden of the trouble of a populous household seem to me suitable for the atonement of such-like sin, through the will of the sacred beings.

CHAPTER 80.

1.
As to the seventy-ninth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Concerning him who does not order ceremonies what is then the decision?
2.
The reply is this, that, excepting those among which is specially the selected religious rite (dino) of him whose ceremony is not performed. who, even though having many good works, does not afterwards attain unto the supreme heaven, which is determined -- this, moreover, is thus said, that he who is not able to perform his ritual himself, when he orders a Geto-kharid ceremony and they shall perform it, can become fit for the supreme heaven (Garothman); this is greatly to be commended.

CHAPTER 81.

1.
As to the eightieth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What is the purpose of this ceremony for the living soul [Zinda-Ravan], and why is it necessary to order it? 2. And, whenever one orders it, how is it necessary then to order it, how is it best when they celebrate it, and what is its great advantage as a good work?
3.
The reply is this, that worship with the ceremonial for those newly passed away, during the three days which they spend in the account, is suitable for the discreet, just as the protection with nourishment of those newly born, in their infancy, is also much more suitable for the discreet. 4. He is a truly discreet man through whom there is ceremonial for the three days, on account of his own father, and privileged wife, and infant child, and well-behaved servant, on their passing away; and it is indispensable to order the triple ceremonial of the three days.
5.
This, too, is said: where it is not possible to solemnize his three days, or they solemnize them afterwards, when information of the death arrives, three days are to be solemnized as a substitute for those three. 6. For the good work of the ceremonial which is ordered by him himself, or bequeathed by him, or is his through consenting to it by design, exists -- even though it is thus possible that it will be conducted afterwards -- whenever it comes into progress; therefore he is exalted for it at his account in the three days, and it comes on for his being exalted. 7. When that which is conducted afterwards comes on for aiding his being exalted in the three days of the account, that which was conducted by him himself beforehand is more hopeful and more certain of being exalted in that position.
8.
On account of there being also a diminution (aito-ch gahidarih) of risk about their own souls, in the event of (min zak algh hat) their children not ordering the three days' ceremonial, or it not being possible to solemnize it at that time, it is desirable to order, in their own lifetime and at their own convenience, the ceremony for their own living souls, advisedly, without doubt, and having appointed the mode of life of the three days, and also to appoint by will him who is to conduct it in the end. 9. And when both are conducted, the increase of good works and exaltation, though the end is not possible, or is not proceeded with -- and the previous good works are commendable, and, therefore, preservatory has reached even unto the most lordly wishes.
10.
As to the man with great and powerful children, to whom the ceremonial of the three days for himself at the final day, and also the progress of many good works have seemed certain, but on account of yet another way to freedom from doubt effectually (frarastiha) existing, he has bequeathed the conduct of the three days' ceremonial, and also other good works, unto his children, in order that the ceremony for the living soul may be conducted at the final day, with him the angels are in triumph, the glory of the religion in the most lordly glory, and the solemnizers of ceremonial worship are many. 11. Then, moreover, owing to the contest of the demons -- so unjust that on the day of his passing away it is due to the uncleanness (apadyavih) which has attained unto its full extent -- all the solemnizers in the country, of the acts of worship solemnized, may have become thoroughly doubtful of the worship, and until it goes on to the disciples, and the ceremony is prepared, it is not proper to perform the whole ceremonial; in that way is manifested the great advantage and commendableness which arises from that ceremony for his living soul.
12.
The nature of the ceremony ordered for the living soul is a counterpart of the three days, so it is needful that at all times of the three days and nights, successively emancipative (avadiginishnik), a ceremonial in honor of Srosh be always conducted, and that it proceed; and a fire is lighted in the ceremonial, and the clean ligature of the limbs is to be tied. 13. As a rule it is so considered that in the three days there are fifteen ceremonies (yashtano) in honor of Srosh, and three sacred cakes (dron) which are consecrated in each dawn (bam-I) with various dedications, and the fourth day they solemnize the Visperad, the portion of the righteous guardian spirits (Asho Farohar). 14. And there are fugitives of families of the period, and other still further diminishers of good works, who have wished to produce the wealth which is necessary to perform advantageously, as a custom of the soul in those three days, one celebration of all the religious rites (hamak dino in honor of Srosh, and the consecration of three sacred cakes [dron] for Srosh every day; and the third night, at dawn, the consecration of a sacred cake dedicated in three modes. 15. In accomplishing the consecration of the sacred cake specially for the righteous guardian spirits, on the fourth day, one is supposed to order a duwazdah homast (Dvazdah-homast) in honor of the righteous guardian spirits [Asho Farohar], and the rest of the ceremonial.
16.
And he who has intended much more laudably is declared as the more devout and more judicious of worshippers; and for the sake of the ceremonial he is cleansed by the Barashnom ceremony, and is to practice other descriptions of cleanliness as regards his body and clothing. 17. While in the performance of the ceremonial, bread made from corn which is ground by those of the good religion, wine from that made by those of the good religion, and meat from the animal which is slaughtered in the ceremonial are eaten; and one is to proceed into the abode of fires and of the good, and to abstain from the rest of the other places which are dubious and food which is dubious. 18. And with that thorough heedfulness one is to conduct and order that ceremonial in the abode of the ever-growing fire, or other fire of Warharan; whereby his numerous good works are effectual, and the path of good works is very broad. 19. Concerning the suffering of him whose capability in that which is his preserving efficacy is less, it is thus revealed that not he who is righteous is overwhelmed, as it were unwilling, by incapability.

CHAPTER 82.

1.
As to the eighty-first question and reply, that which you ask is thus: As to a man who shall order a ceremonial and shall give the money (diram), and the man who shall undertake his ceremonial and shall take his money, but has not performed the ceremonial, what is then the decision; and what is then the decision about the man who ordered the ceremonial?
2.
The reply is this, that the merit of a ceremonial not performed is not set going, and does not come to the soul of the undertaker who shall take money for it, nor even to that of the orderer who gave money for it. 3. But, as to him who is the orderer, since his mental meritoriousness is so steadfast that he gave his money, the efficacy (tuban) of the good work, mentally his own, has not stayed away from him, because he gave money authorisedly for the good work; the decision, then, about him is such as about him to whom harm occurs in performing a good work for the religion. 4. It is said that the angels so recompense him that he does not consider it as any other harm; and as much as the good money given for the sacred feast and ceremonial is then the pleasure which comes unto his soul, as much as would have been possible to arise in the world from that money.
5.
And he who shall take his money, and did not perform his ceremonial, is just as though he had abstracted from the angels and the righteous guardian spirits [Asho Farohar], and destroyed, as much propitiation as would have been possible from that ceremonial; and he is, therefore, overwhelmed by it, and expiates it in the soul.

CHAPTER 83.

1.
As to the eighty-second question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Is it necessary for a priestly man that he should undertake all the religious rites and other ceremonials, or in what way is it?
2.
The reply is this, that a priestly man should necessarily undertake all the religious rites and other ceremonials, because the deciding and advising performers of the ceremonial, these same priestly men, well understand the merit or demerit, the propriety or impropriety, of the ceremonial. 3. When the undertaker and conductor of all the religious rites is a priestly man, one is more hopeful of their progress in merit.
4.
As to the priestly man who shall undertake all the religious rites, if he be living comfortably (hu-zivishno) on a share of our house-rulership, village-rulership, tribe-rulership, and province-rulership, and his needful support of religion remain the consideration as to his living comfortably, and he have no need for the stipend of all the religious rites, then the rule for him is to distribute properly that recompense of the sacred feast, which is to be given for all the religious rites, among the solemnizers. 5. If it be needful for him, the priestly man, as he is suitable, is not changed -- whereby good management is not attained -- and if it be needful even for his consideration of all those religious rites, his performance in the duty and ministration is then an approval of worthiness and management. 6. When they shall act so, all those religious rites are more meritoriously managed; and one day the solemnizers are brought from the fag-end (sar) into the rank of priestly manhood, which is the stipend for all the religious rites that they shall expressly take authorisedly, and are, therefore, worthy of it.

CHAPTER 84.

1.
As to the eighty-third question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Is it desirable to give in excess the gift for the ceremonial which it is not desirable to diminish?
2.
The reply is this, that it is proper not to diminish a gift where it is the gift for a ceremonial, and the reasons for it are many. 3. One is this, that a gift is the money which in another good work suffices for the accomplishment of the good work, and the good work of a righteous gift is a great good work, and not to diminish it is sure worthiness among the explainers. 4. When the sacred feast and the gift for the ceremonial are supplied in excess, even that which is an excess of gift is an excess of liberality to the performers of the ceremonial, and has realized (frarasto) an excess of good works that is commendable.

CHAPTER 85.

1.
As to the eighty-fourth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: As to a gift for the ceremonial which they do not reduce, and while they give it in excess, in what manner is then its great advantage, and how and in how many modes is it possible to occur?
2.
The reply is this, that the advancement of the ceremonial of the sacred beings is by so much as the gift is more fully given; and the great advantage of the good work is more, and its reasons many, therefrom. 3. The desire of this wealth, which has come for the sake of the good work, is an experience of the comfortable living of the angels, by whom the solemnizers are aggrandized, and is proper apart from its great judiciousness; to diminish it is improper.
4.
When the gift for the ceremonial is abundantly given, the performers of the ceremonial, who, with much trouble annoying them, have solemnized the Avesta and chanted the hymns (Gathas), and obtain the stipend of their solemnizing from the remuneration of the solemnization, are living comfortably, thriving, and blessed. 5. And also the undertakers of all the religious rites who, by means of the hope of rightful religion, render one certain as to the way to the distant awful place, and tempt the longers for righteousness into the religion, undertake all the religious rites and ceremonial of the sacred beings for the sake of the stipend of proper diligence.
6.
And reasoning thought is cognizant as regards the advantageousness due to the undertakers and solemnizers of all the religious rites, and a great stipend is more obtained and observed for them than for any other profession. 7. The sons, too of priests and disciples strive for the words prayed, and are more eager for their prayers; and many, likewise, shall engage for all the religious rites, and become more diffusive of the religion (dino balishniktar); and, in like manner, the proper, more attainable, and more propitious path of the good for saving the soul becomes wider.

CHAPTER 86.

1.
As to the eighty-fifth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: What is possible to become the harm of a gift that is reduced?
2.
The reply is this, that since those things are to be properly given which are for the religious rites of the ceremonial, and are the consideration of the undertakers of all the religious rites, and are also the stipend of some solemnizers, both are living comfortably by the ceremonial. 3. The sons of the disciples who wanted approval for the words prayed, become so much the more to be ordered and to be accepted; and the ceremonial of all the religious rites becomes more progressive.
4.
So, moreover, when they go to undertake the well-operating activity of the ceremonial for a diminution of remuneration and gift, and owing to undertaking and ordering again, by way of routine (pavan dor ras), they do not request so much stipend, it is as though they should buy my linen and should sell it again for their own payment (dadano). 5. As to the performers of the ceremonial, likewise, who have to acquire approval with much trouble and words prayed, and obtain a remuneration which, for the soul even, is as little for the ceremonial as though one were annoyed -- whereby living is difficult -- they become sorry for enduring the trouble, owing to lukewarmness (afsurdo-minishnih) in the same profession. 6. And even the sons of the disciples shall sell linen for wages, and they rejoice that it is possible to learn other callings with less pains; and thus they make them become lukewarm and meditating retreat (avazahang) from the words of fresh paragraphs continually prayed, from the approval requested of the learned (azan), and from all the religious rites they should undertake for the contented.
7.
As to those, moreover, who, through fervent-minded undertaking of what is ordered, request less for all the religious rites, and have not obtained even that which is due to them, it is not even as though they ordered of them for the fiends. 8. And the disgrace, too, of the orderers of good works of lukewarmness is the exaltation of the profession of the disciples; and its deficient progress becomes the paralysation of the ceremonial of the sacred beings for saving the souls of the good from the deadly one (mar).

CHAPTER 87.

1.
As to the eighty-sixth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: How is it good when they give a gift for the ceremonial?
2.
The reply is this, that as it is necessary, so that the ceremonial of the sacred beings may be more advanced, and such wealth may more come on to the good work, for the proper stipends of the undertakers and solemnizers -- that they may become less lukewarm as regards the accompanying proprieties, and thereby diligent in performing them -- and there is not in it an express connection manifested with different work, and with that which has proceeded from so many previous good people, I deem the introduction of it more expressly better.

CHAPTER 88.

1.
As to the eighty-seventh question and reply, that which you ask is thus: As family householders we of the good religion of Iran, before each celebration of all the religious rites with holy-water which they have provided in the land of Pars, have then always given for it a gift of 400 dirhams, or 350 dirhams at least. 2. And now if we should be needy, when we deduct something from the 400 dirhams, or from the 350 dirhams, of the gift for them, they would then not accept it from us, and speak thus: 'Less than 400, or than 350, dirhams we do not accept.' 3. But there are needy men who always come to us themselves and speak thus: 'For 350 dirhams we will always twice conduct all the religious rites and ceremonial with holy-water such as those which you have always ordered before for 400; only order us.' 4. Would a needy one, apart from the priestly men who always say that they are not, be authorized, or not?
5.
The reply is this, that the priest to whom your predecessors have given a gift of 400 or 350 dirhams, for all the religious rites with holy-water, it is proper to consider particularly virtuous and faithful, when there is nothing else about him, on account of which he is otherwise. 6. A celebration of all the religious rites with holy-water, in which they shall use four pure animals -- and just according to the teaching of the high-priests they present to every single fire from one animal and one holy-water -- and the offering of holy-water unto the fire whose holy-water if is, and bringing it on to another fire apart from that holy-water, and the ceremonial cleansing of the holy-water they maintain by agreement in thy name, the superiors solemnize with approval, faithfully, and attentively; and the remuneration of 350 dirhams would be a balancing of when they conduct the religious rite at the place of undertaking it, and when it is undertaken as regards a distant district.
7.
In Artakhshatar-gadman, within my memory, they who would accept less than 300 dirhams for it made a memorandum (farhang), to keep in remembrance that 350 dirhams for all the religious rites performed was to be the rule declared by those of the religion in Artakhshatar-gadman. 8. Likewise, the glorified Atur-frobag, son of Farakhuzad, who was the pre-eminent leader of those of the good religion, decided in the same manner.
9.
And now, too, they always conduct those rites which are without holy-water for 150 dirhams, or even for 120 dirhams; and the reason of it is the neediness of the disciples who, owing to that need, and in hope of obtaining more employment, always diminish their demands, and through deficient remuneration always become more needy, more importunate, and more moderate in desiring remuneration; and, in the course of the employment of resources and requesting the charge of all the religious rites, the labor and endurance of discipleship are exhausted.
10.
And as to him who undertakes to conduct all the religious rites twice for 350 dirhams, if he be properly working and thoroughly reliable for the 350 dirhams which are always given him for the ceremonial of all the religious rites -- just like those who would always undertake them once -- and all the religious rites are conducted and secured twice, on account of the merit due to the continuous ceremonial of the sacred beings it is more authorisedly ordered of those who solemnize all the religious rites twice. 11. But as to him who would undertake all the religious rites twice for 350 dirhams, but is not able to conduct them unless he puts to it some of his own wealth, so that the progress may be acceptable to him as they conduct them through repetition, he should not undertake them owing to the reasons written in another chapter of ours, since it tends much more to neediness.
12.
And more like unto the ancient skeptics (vimanako) have become the disciples, among whom disagreement and enmity are produced, as is written in the same writing (khadu-gun namako); and, owing to admonishing words, these become enviousness and maliciousness unto the disciples, and trouble and disagreement less becoming among you and more contentious about you. 13. And at the time in which a great stipend existed, they contended with him through whose greatness and abundance of stipend their conflict was caused, one with the other, through envy; and now, too, they always squabble about his deficient stipend, by which they will tempt them, on account of its inadequacy, for the sake of a way for preserving life, as was shown by my metaphor in the other chapter. 14. When those who, through need of employment in the rites of religion, or the recitations which are its wisdom, would at once produce enmity, and the friends of religion, are for each of two sides, it is important to look; to the procuring of forgiveness, kind regards, and the progress of the elect (pasandakano) in the duty of the faithful.

CHAPTER 89.

1.
As to the eighty-eighth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: When a man resolves within himself thus: 'In the summer time I will go into Pars, and will give so much money for the high-priesthood, on account of the fires and other matters which are as greatly advantageous,' though he himself does not come into Pars, but sends the money according to his intention, or in excess of it, unto the high-priests -- so that he is like the great who send in excess of that unto the high-priests -- that, as the benefit is greater which is more maintained, they may provide for the fires of every kind and other matters, is then his proceeding of sending to Pars, for that purpose, a sin, or not?
2.
The reply is this, that if his coming be indispensable for the design he would undertake, then it is indispensable for him to accomplish his own mental undertaking; but in suffering which is excited and not avoidable, when there is really no possibility of his traveling himself, any one whom he sends in his place, more particularly on that account, is not acceptable by the approval of the angels who have realized the affliction in his good thought, but the good work is to be eagerly well-considered. 3. Good gifts, and every office (gas) about good works which it is possible to perform, are what are commendable in the well-housed man that is not able to work himself; they are avoidable by him when not of good race, and are not indispensable for him whenever the good work is not announced. 4. When able to manage it himself it is better; and when otherwise, his appointment of a faithful person over its preparation, and his accomplishment of the work of selector are expedient.

CHAPTER 90.

1.
As to the eighty-ninth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Who, and how many are they who are without the religion (adinoih)[1], but are made immortal, and for what purpose is their immortality? 2. Where is the place they, each one, possess sovereignty, and in the place where they possess sovereignty are there people of the good religion of every kind, or how are they; are there sacred fires [Warharan fires] and appointed worship, or how is it; and for what purpose is each one of sovereignties?
1. 'Those who are without death' -- Peshotan K. Anklesaria (PKA), Henning Memorial Volume, p. 12.
3.
The reply is this, that the immortal rulers of the region of glory, Khwaniras, are said to be seven: one is Yavisht-i Friyan; the Avesta name of one is Yakhmayushad [Ashem-yahmai-ushta], son of the same Friyan [1]; the name of one is Fradhakhshto, son of the Khumbiks [Av. Fradakhshti Khunbya]; the name of one is Ashavazang, son of Porudakhstoih [Av. Ashavazdang the Pourudhakhshtiyan]; one is the tree opposed to harm; one is Gopatshah; and one is Peshyotanu, who is called after the Chitravoko-miyano.
1. PKA: 'Hamfriyân'
4.
The reign of Gopatshah is over the land of Gopato, coterminous with Eranwej, on the bank (bar) of the water of the [River] Daitya; and he keeps watch over the ox Hadhayas, through whom occurs the complete perfection of primitive man [1]. 5. The reign of Peshotan is in Kangdez, and he resides in the illustrious Kangdez which the noble Siyavash formed through his glory, he who is called the erratic youth of the illustrious Kayanians. 6. And through his powerful spirit [2] arose increase of cultivation and the ruler Kay Khosraw among the highest of the mountains in the countries of Iran and Turan; the purity of the sacred fire [Atash Warharan] of great glory and the recital of the liturgy [manthra] exist there, and the practice of religious rites (dino) is provided. [3] 7. The custom, also, of him (Peshotan) and his companions and coadjutors (ham-bar), in the appointed millenniums, is the great advancement of religion and good works in other quarters likewise. [4]
1. PEA: 'complete satiation of all mankind,' that is to say, all mankind will be resurrected and made immortal.
2. PEA: 'Peshotan's lordship (is) in Kangdez. There he resides in the brilliant Kangdez which is called the settlement of noble and illustrious Syaush, son of Kaus. The movement in Kang is arranged by spiritual, powerful glory.'
3. PEA: 'the chanting of the Manthra and the propagation (lit. working) of the religion.'
4. PEA: 'Also in his war has been arranged the glory (which will be) co-helper and companion at the time of the final millennium.'
8.
But, secondly, as to the whereabouts of the places which are theirs -- just like his -- of which there is no disquisition by me, this also is even owing to my not remembering. [1]
1. PKA: 'Even in those other territories there is much propagation of religion and meritorious deeds, but where is its exact location and what is its nature is not envisaged by me and not even recollected by me.'

CHAPTER 91.

1.
As to the ninetieth question and reply, that which you ask is thus: From what is the sky made, and with what is it prepared?
2.
The reply is this, that the sky is a dome (gardun), wide and lofty; its inside and whole width and boundaries (akhyakiha), besides its material existence, are the stone of light, of all stones the hardest and most beautiful; and the grandeur of its spirit and even its internal bow [rainbow] are like those of mighty warriors arrayed. 3. And that material of the sky reached unto the place where promise-breaking words exist, and was without need of preparation; as it is said of places such as those -- where wisdom is a witness about them -- that that which is not even itself a place, and its place does not yet exist, is without need of any preparing.
4.
The light is for existing things, and they cherish a faculty (niyuih) of motion also of two kinds, that causing motion and that of movables; as mobility is mentioned about thought [spirits?] and immobility about material things. 5. Immovables are not moved, while movables are moved by their power of movement; and those movables, that way causing motion, are afterwards themselves a moving secret cause of motion, and then a cause of motion is not moving the movable, since it is not incapable of causing motion secretly by movement of itself. 6. Just as the force (kunishno) of a movement exists and does not become a force; only then it is declared by wisdom, that the causers of motion have been the causing of motion by force before movement, and, being unmoved, they are subsequently made to move by the force; later on, the causers of motion have to cause motion, by their power of causing motion, in the non-causers of motion, from which it is certain though the force of a movement exists it does not become a force; but, finally, that which is prepared with a source of activity, before force, becomes unmoved.
7.
Natures without need of the trouble of a preparer are distinguished from such; where movement occurs through every force, the championship of a position (gah) not made to move -- except, indeed, of that whose force, when it is unmoved by other force, is its own -- is unmoving and thirstless. 8. It was restored immovably when there was an approach to the sky of that actual contender for the place, the fiend, and the sky was shaken by him; for connected with the sky were arranged so many possessors of all resources, dignified (afrankid) by their own all-powerful position and that well-operating, mighty, undrawn bow, righteous and well-discoursing (hu-fravakhsh), and many good spirits, gloriously cooperating for the preparation of the sky. 9. For that which was not even itself a place, when it is thus henceforth really a place, is in want of preparing; and, in the preparation of that visible place, with the material of the sky is mingled that triumphing, powerful spirit who made its existence a seeking for principle and seeking for intention, drawing up from below and drawing down from above, so that through that seeking for principle it becomes a concord, the resting-place of united champions, and unadmonishable through that power of seeking for intention; such as this it is if, indeed, it be the will of him, the creator of all goodness.
10.
And it is said summarily that the sky was shaken in the period of disturbance and restored with trouble; and, if the guardian spirits [Farohars] are in freedom from disturbance through the glory of the creator, when there is not even a place for it prepared by themselves, and their nature and own strength are approving the trouble of preparation, it is not moved, except by the creatures of his will, a will which is subduing.

CHAPTER 92.

1.
As to the ninety-first question and reply, that which you ask is thus: Of waters and rivers, and whatever water is good, is Arduisur the greatest (mas), or some other water or good river; and, again, where is the place of Arduisur?
2.
The reply is this, that it is the water of Arduisur; and what has gushed from Arduisur is as large a mass as all the water in the world except the Arvand [i.e. Tigris]; within the wide-formed ocean it is dominant over the thousand cascades (pashan) and thousand lakes of the waters, and its place is most renowned throughout the spheres. 3. There flows the water of Arduisur in a forest, the source of all seeds, whereby the species which plants possess are assimilated (aedunagido) by it, and healing existences of all kinds are mingled with it from medicinal plants. 4. The abundant power of the coming of healing to the purifying water is like the nature of the existences which it acquires, and then the nature which it thus acquires for its own the water draws up by the power which is drawing water to itself.
5.
The water of Arduisur is on Alburz, and flows even to the summit of the star station during the coming of the healing of purification, even unto Hukhir the lofty, all-gorgeous and brilliant; thence its flowing is effected into the lake of a summit to Alburz, Mount Aus-hindum [Av. us Hindvad], which is in the middle of the wide-formed ocean. 6. And from that flowing of waters that destined river, the utter destruction of every night, comes on in the light of a dawn; by the sprinkling of spray (pash-pashano) it extends through the seven regions [keshwars] of the earth, and from it arise the growth of their plants and the coming of the healing of purification; that which is called a drop (srishk) of the primeval creatures being a particle (aham) of water of the bulk of a horse.

CHAPTER 93.

1.
As to the ninety-second question and reply, that which you ask is thus: From what place should Tishtar [Sirius] seize the water? How does it pass into a cloud, and how does he make the cloud move on? How does it rain upon the world? How can he carry on a struggle with demons, and with which demon can he carry it on? How does this always happen with the hail and snow, whenever hail and snow occur? And who can force away that hail and snow?
2.
The reply is this, that the high-priests have thus said, that Tishtar seizes a place which is called 'abysmal' (varunak), that is the last place of filtration in the ocean, and there are no removal of any kind and causing rain from any other place. 3. And the cause of its (the rain's) establishment is spiritually active, more particularly, however, through two kinds of material agency: one is that which is the rule (mang) in the atmosphere of the earth, whereby it is drawn up in atoms similarly to smoke, and in larger masses, well-soaring from the rivers; and one is that which blows with the power of the well-operating wind, and the blowing of the great united breath (ham-vae) and strength of the community (chandiganoih) of spirits [or thoughts], from the fully perfect distillation (pur-hu-zuhigih) of the mighty ocean to the upper regions, and thereby the clouds are blown.
4.
Afterwards, it (the rain) speeds in the cloud, through the great strength of the mighty wind, to where there is a necessity for it, to divert it from where there is no necessity; and so long as there is a necessity for it it (the cloud) discharges. 5. And when there is a necessity and it causes rain, and the necessity is for no more acquisitions of water, and the advantage is the effect of water upon the place, and it distributes it to the existing rivers for the use of the sea, and it causes rain again, it thereby produces even new water, new flowing, new coming of healing to plants, new growth, new golden coloring to lands, new purification to animals, new procreation, new proper breathings for other creatures, new dawn, and new things of that description. 6. The thriving of the world makes the advantage and perfection of the good creation increase; and, apart from a great craving for the effect of the glory of the spirits in the operations of cultivation and the performance of spiritual mysteries, it is said labors are aided even for one gloriously destined.
7.
And Tishtar in seizing the water should seize upon the great strength of the wind of whirlwinds (gardinakan), which is figuratively (minishnik) the dragging and blowing that follow the whirling; and the purified water is expanded and carried up aloft to the higher regions of the atmosphere, just as that which is seen where it reaches up with the heaviness and weight of earth, and then is discerned in the plain accompanied by the dragging of the whirling wind which would carry it afar to settle like that which is owing to dust; it (the atmosphere) is called Andarvae ('the intermediate air'), and the wind is a whirlwind. 8. As the water is lighter, and owing to the more strongly dragging wind on the ocean than that which exists on the plain, so, also, the water from the ocean is much more in proportion, and transportable farther up than the dust from the plain. 9. And as in the midst of a plain a medium whirlwind of wind is expanded into the wide plain by a medium dragging of the wind, and plenty of much buffeting is the violence of the dragging of winds, a whirlwind of wind which is seen very lofty and large is unknown; so, also, one is ignorant of what is spreading among the movements of the sea. 10. The water of that full and abundant flowing -- which is through the power and glory of the heavenly angels and Tishtar's control of the work -- is blown up, both by the well-characterized water-drawing power, and also by the force of various kinds, the dragging, and upward blowing of the winds, into the atmosphere; and thence it rains the complete rain, as they have recounted from observation and much full evidence.
11.
The demon who resists the doings of Tishtar -- and the glorious Tishtar, meeting him, properly drives back such improper resistance of his -- is a demon of the name of Apaosh [Av. Apaosha], which is interpreted as 'the destruction of water' (ap-aosh). I2. He contends, moreover, with the uppermost and lowermost water; and desirous of its destruction that demon contends at three periods: first, for the non-existence of rain; secondly, for converting it into a cause of damage to a place; and thirdly, at the place of producing it with advantage; and the struggling is like a tree (vano) which is set moving.
13.
The seizers of the feminine pure water are a benefit for the existences of the whole world; and the formation of rain, and the triumph and ascendancy of Tishtar over the demon, through that seizing (falanih) of water, are due to the creator who strengthens him, the archangels [Amahraspandan] who have him assisted, the religious who reverence him, and the worldly beings who glorify him. 14. Very properly do the archangels propitiate him, and mankind promote the strength and power, which are engaged about the business, by glorifying and invoking the good spirit who increases them in consequence of glorifying and worship, and through which arises that advantageousness of his which owing to that benefit is the benefit of every one else for this advantageous business.
15.
And Tishtar shall gradually (padmanikiha) seize upon the water to distribute it liberally, assiduously a similitude of that which a learned ruler said, in extolling a wise high-priest, that, 'just as the wind draws the up-flying water from rivers and springs and from seas, Tishtar, through his own liberality, bestows the prepared apportionments of the whole production for the advantage of the creatures by the will of the sacred beings, and makes it rain. 16. And through that which he shall purposely seize to distribute suitably he distributes the water purified, he moistens the pleasant existences of animals and plants and spares the polluted, he provides for the thirsty, he causes harm to the dye-like bloody one, and he makes the world thrive. 17. When that widespread liberality of his, the production of rain, is from the pure, healing water which he shall thus seize gradually and with just apportionment, and when through that acquiring of water-seizings the rivers, springs, and other existences (shavandagano) are well-expanding, and even the diminution which is owing to the wasting (airikhtagih) of rivers and springs does not occur thereby, it is thus, too, the lordly, by a law (dado) moderate and varied -- if the regulation (gun) is to reach away from the region -- are as much contributing, as Tishtar is by causing rain for the region and the good, to the aggrandizement of the many grades and the replenishment of the region and creatures.'

CHAPTER 94.

The first eleven sections of this chapter are quoted from the beginning of the sixth book of the Denkard.

1.
And those of the primitive faith, the ancients of those acquainted with the religion, thus considered, that in the spirit of life (ahvo) there is a thought and one appointed who holds the position (gas), and there is a fiend who stops the way; and in the thought there is a word appointed which holds the position, and there is a fiend who stops the way. 2. In the spirit of life is a thought and Spandarmad ('bountiful devotion') holds the position, and the fiend Taromat ('scornful thought') stops the way; in the thought is a word and Ard ('the righteous') [Areta or Ashishwangh] holds the position, and Vareno ('lust') stops the way; in the word is a deed and Din [Av. Daena] ('religion'), the good, holds the position, and self-conceit (khud-doshagih) stops the way. 3. We men of all descriptions have to become very cautious that, while we do not desist from that way, we do not go on to the way of the demons and fiends. 4. For the struggling of men is in these three ways and paths; and whoever is saved in these three ways and paths is saved from every place, and whoever is misled there comes into the hands of the demons and fiends, and is thenceforth not master (shalita) of himself, except when he shall do that which the fiends order him.
5.
And this, too, was thus considered by them, that that nature only is good when it shall not do unto another whatever is not good for its own self; and that wisdom only is good when it thoroughly understands how to utilize the advantage of that happiness which has occurred, and shall not suffer vexation on account of harm which has not occurred; and that intellect only is good which understands that it does not understand that which it does not understand.
6.
And this, too, was thus considered by them, that one is to become a friend of every one, and this is thy nature; also, bring them on into goodness, and this is thy wisdom; also, consider them as thine own, and this is thy religion; also, through them it shall produce happiness, and this is thy soul.
7.
And this, too, was thus considered by them, that, when one shall do even that which he knows to be sin, that is disobedience, and disobedience is the nature of the adversary; when one shall not do even that which he knows to he a good work, that is cupidity (varenoikih), and cupidity is the wisdom of the adversary; and when one shall do even that which he does not know to be a good work or a sin, until it comes fully to his knowledge, that is self-conceit, and self-conceit is the religion of the adversary.
8.
And this, too, was thus considered by them, that Ahriman would do everything for the injury of Ohrmazd, but when it is done by him it is then an injury of him himself, and an advantage of Ohrmazd; and Ohrmazd would do everything for his own advantage, and when it is done by him it is then, indeed, an advantage of him himself, an injury of Ahriman.
9.
And this, too, was thus considered by them, that a person of whatever description is to be kept in remembrance of the affairs of the spirit at every period and time, and of the happiness of heaven and misery of hell at that period when comfort, happiness, and pleasure have come to him.
10.
And this, too, was thus considered by them, that happiness, indeed, would be there, in the heaven of light, when even here it is so happy, though, owing to many things, Ahriman -- with whom the happiness there is not connected -- is even here so happy at the time when distress, vexation, and misery have come hereto; and this, too, was thus considered, that evils, indeed, would be there, in hell, when here is such misery, though even here much of the earthly happiness of Ohrmazd -- with whom the misery there is not connected -- is here so evil.
11.
And this, too, was thus considered by them, that that person is the more fortunate, in whom are soundness of body, happiness, and energy (rayinishno); who has done those things about which the last wish of him who departs from the world is then thus: 'I will strive to do more;' and who shall have exercised much complete abstinence from those things about which his last wish, when he departs from the world, is then such as 'I will strive to do less, and it would have occurred more comfortably for my soul.'
12.
Do you good people of those of the good religion of these countries of Iran keep in use the laws appointed by those of the primitive faith who were high-priests, so that your bodies may become more renowned, and your souls more perfect, in the radiant supreme heaven which is the seat of Ohrmazd and the archangels [Amahraspandan], of the angels [Yazads] and all the guardian spirits of the righteous [Asho Farohar]. 13. So these are so many answers of the questions provided, and are given explanatorily from the exposition of the religion and the statements of the high-priests of those of the primitive faith, and are the nature of the teachings that Manuschihar, son of Yudan-Yim, pontiff (rado) of Pars and Kirman, and director (farmadar) of the profession of priests, ordered to write.
14.
Steadfast in the propitiation and praise of the creator Ohrmazd is the righteousness of obtainments of prayers, perfect is Zartosht, and one only is the way which righteousness [Asha] obtains, the others are no ways; homage to the exalted pontiff sent from the creator Ohrmazd, the heavenly, most righteous Zartosht the Spitaman.
15.
Completed in peace and pleasure, joy and delight; happy for him who reads, and happier for him who keeps it in use and shall take his duty therefrom, if they exist unto time eternal.


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