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Part 2

Electronic edition prepared 1998-2000 by Joseph H. Peterson.

In the 15th & 16th centuries, the Zoroastrians of India had lost much religious knowledge due to their isolation. Therefore, they sent messengers to Iran seeking proper guidance from the priestly authorities who had maintained the orthodox traditions.

The Persian Rivayats are a collection of epistles documenting their correspondence about a wide variety of topics, including marriage, divorce, juddins or darwands (i.e. non-Zoroastrians), ritual, and conversion.

Some of the dates can be identified as follows: around CE 1528 (Kama Bohra), CE 1594 (Kaus Kama), and CE 1570 (Shapur Bharuchi).

Spelling in this text has been normalized to facilitate searches and to conform with other texts in this series. Comments in [] by Joseph H. Peterson.


236. How should Barashnom be administered to one of foreign faith who has come in contact with nasa and who, therefore wishes to be purified.


Kama Bohra (tr. Dhabhar)

[MU. I. p. 279 11. 9-13 = H.F. f. 85.]

Q: An infidel (aniri) or one of a foreign faith has set his heart on the good religion, and Barashnom cannot be administered to him for fear of others. What is the decision?

A: It is said in the 5th fargard of the Vendidad that if any person who has become riman is 60 farsangs away from a Barashnomgar [qualified purifier] then he should proclaim (his case) aloud to a person (on the way) who should purify him with gomez and make (his body) dry (with dust). With a loud proclamation, he should take the padyab of the bull and with loud proclamation, it should also be poured on his head so that all parts (of the body) may be wet and then he should make himself dry with dust from the moisture of the padyab. He should wash himself with padyab for 30 times and dry himself with dust and then wash himself with water once: and he should yet abstain from whatever has been prepared or is being prepared for Yasht and Yasna. One of a foreign faith who sets his heart on the religion and who is riman should be purified thus.

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama (tr. Dhabhar)

[MU. I. p. 279 11. 15-18 to p. 280 11. 1-14. = H.F. f. 115, f151.]

Q: If a person of a foreign faith who has his mind and speech set on to the good religion becomes riman by nasa and if they are unable to administer Barashnom to him on account of some who are of bad nature,1 i.e., on account of this that the wicked tyrannize over the virtuous, what is the decision?

1. The writer refers to the ill-treatment by the moslems.

A: In the 8th fargard of the Vendidad, it is so enjoined that if (such) persons are away from a Barashnomgar, i.e., between them and the Barashmongar there is (a distance of) 30 farsangs and if a person (from amongst them) becomes riman (vadyab), then it is necessary that he should wash himself 15 times with padyab and make (his body) dry with dust, and then he should go to a Barashnomgar who will administer Barashnom to him. (He should wash himself) for these 15 times for the reason that if a stream or a river or plants come on his way, they are less afflicted.

If he is 60 farsangs away from a Barashomgar, he should act 30 times as I have said, and then he should engage himself in work, but should abstain from (the performance of) the Yasna-service until the time he comes upon a Barashnomgar who administers Barashnom to him.

And one should act in the same way in the case of one of a foreign faith who has set his heart on the good religion. Whatever has been ordered (to be done in such a case) by the Herbad Payadar from the religion has been enjoined in the 8th fargard of the Vendidad, and the evidence thereof has been manifest in the Avesta: - thrisatathwem. frasnatee thrisatathwen. upasatee (Vd. 8.98) i.e., he should wash himself 30 times i.e., with padyab (or gomez) and he should (thus) was himself 30 times: The commentary (of the Avesta) is thus given. Let it be known that there is not manifest (herein) the evidence of the Avesta as regards drying the body with dust.


Shapur Bharuchi (tr. Dhabhar)

[MU. I. p. 280 11. 16-19.]

Q: If one of a foreign faith who sets his heart on the good religion becomes riman and for fear of others, the Barashnom cannot be administered to him, what is the decision?

A: It is said in the 8th fargard of the Vendidad that if that Behdin is 100 farsangs away from a Barashnomgar and has become riman, then he should recite patet before another Behdin. Thereafter the (latter) Behdin may give him padyab so that he may wash his head and body clean therewith and then make them dry with dust for 30 times; then he should wash himself with pure water once. Then he should abstain from whatever has been prepared for Yashts and Yasnas. One of a foreign faith who sets his heart on to the good religion should thus be ceremonially treated (parkikhtan) and washed.

237. On peaceful and forcible conversion.

Kaus Mahyar:

[MU. I. p. 281 11; 1-2 = HF. f. 441 (MU. II. p. 454).]

Q: Can a grave-digger, a corpse-burner and a darvand (one of a foreign faith) become Behdins (i.e., be converted to the Mazdayasnian religion)?

A: If they observe the rules of religion steadfastly and (keep) connection with the religion, and if no harm comes on the Behdins (thereby), it is proper and allowable.

Nariman Hoshang:

[MU. I. p. 281 11. 3-5 (MU. II. p. 387).]

Q: A Behdin turns darvand (i.e., goes over to another faith). If he returns to the religion of the Behdins, is it allowed or not?

A: It is allowable. They should convert him to the religion in the way prescribed). He should be advised and admonished, should perform a patet and (then) Barashnom should be administered to him. He should again engage himself in performing penitential acts and should recant (his former deeds) Let it be known that he should be allowed (to be retaken) in this way.

Shapur Bharuchi:

[MU. I. p. 282 1. 6.]

If a person (of a foreign faith) exercises tyranny over a man of the good religion and tells him to turn Musalman with his family, then out of helplessness he should commit suicide [lit. take poison] but he should not turn Musalman.

Suratya Adhyarus:

[MU. I. p. 282 11. 7-9 (MU. II p. 476).]

Q: Musalmans convert a Behdin by force to Muhamedanism but the latter's heart is not set on Muhamedanism. (What is the decision)?

A: Whenever (such a person) is converted by force to Muhamedanism and if his heart and mind are not set on Muhamedanism [the word is written in Avesta characters], then it is no fault of his.


238. On the Treatment of juddins and on conversion.

Nariman Hoshang:

[MU. 1. p. 282 11. 11-18 (MU. II. p. 387-88).]

Q: If a Behdin kills juddins, does he become responsible for the murder or not?

A: If the juddins have been involved in margarjan sins and do not follow the advice of thd Behdin and squabble with him, then if they are killed, the Behdin is not responsible (for the murder).

If a (Behdin) farmer injures juddins (employed in his work) and if they become helpless (and are overcome), then indeed the Behdin is responsible for the deed.

Q: What is the retribution for taking away anything by force from the juddins and appropriating it?

A: One should give four for one in the spiritual world for (what is taken away by) oppression and violence, but if (a juddin) shows enmity towards a Behdin, then it is allowable to take away the thing from him by force.

Q: An innocent man is handed over to an unjust king so that the latter deprives him of his property by violence. What is the decision?

A: For every harm and injury that (the king) does to him and his offspring that person who has handed him over to the king should be punished in the next world.

Nariman Hoshang:

If slave-boys and girls have faith in the good religion, then it is proper that Kusti should be (given to them to be) tied,1 and when they become intelligent, attentive to religion and steadfast, they should give them Barashnom and it is also proper and allowable to eat anything out of their hands.

1. i.e. they should be converted to Zoroastrianism.

Kamdin Shapur:

[MU. I. p. 283 11. 1-2 = H.F. f. 213.]

A young (female) prisoner of war, bought (of another), if she has not been in menses, should be fed for three nights in a public place and then her head should be washed with the Barashnom. If she has been in menses, she should be fed for 41 days in a public place, and then her head washed with Barashnom and then she should be married.

239. Diseases and their remedies.

Kaus Kama:

[MU. I. p. 283 ll. 5-9 = H.F. f. l67.]

There are a thousand kinds of disease in the world and a thousand kinds of drugs and medicines. The diseases are owing to the damage done by Ahriman and the drugs and medicines too are created by God. It is ordained that these drugs grow up from the earth, and the diseases are owing to (the irregularity [277] of) the stomach.1 Then when such is (the case), it is better that the work (of healing) may be left to God and one should engage oneself in obeying the commands of God.2 All the commandments3 which Ohrmazd has spoken about to Zartosht should be acted up to, so that by their study of them, they may be (called) Behdins (i.e. followers of the Good Religion), but if they engage themselves in disobeying them, then let it be known that they are darvands.

1. i.e. by eating and drinking immoderately, men are prone to disease.

2. i.e. one should obey the laws of health so that one may not be in need of various remedies for various diseases.

3. lit. these words and those words.

240. To avoid calamities and to ward off diseases, Amahraspands and Yazads should be propitiated.

[MU. I. p. 283 ll. 10-19 to p. 284 ll. 1-5 = HF. f. 135 (MU. II. p. 65 l. 18 et seq., and p. 443).]

Dastur Barzu:— Then if a calamity befalls a person, it is necessary that he should give something to charity in the name of the Amahraspands and perform their Yasna so that the sinister aspect of a star may be removed from his horoscope, for virtue proceeds from Ohrmazd and the Amahraspands and vice from Ahriman and the demons; then it is evident that nothing should be given in charity in the name of the Ahrimanian planets. These seven stars and the sun and the moon are Ohrmazd's; in all nine, with the others.1

1. i.e., 7 more than the sun and the moon. (see below).

Everything is regarded as the cause of another thing and nobody can find the right path of existence and (wear) the robe of entity without cause or motive,2 and the state of every quality whose greatness and power comes into manifestation in this world of development and decay by the command of God cannot but be without a Causer or capable Agent. But when the Causer of Causes has ordered that everything should have a cause, and everybody a motive, it is necessary that one should make vows (unto God and the Amahraspands), and offer and give something in charities (in their names). Perhaps (by doing so), a favourable opportunity may arise and the (particular) star may leave off its sinister aspect, and assume a fortunate aspect. And again, out of the (thirty) days, there is not a single day which is not (connected) with the name of an Amahraspand, and when they give something in charity and think of (doing) meritorious deeds, then that charity (offered) in the name of an Amahraspand in (the shape of) the consecration of dron [Darun] or (the performance of) a Niyayesh [litany] is accepted and the wishes of Ohrmazd and the Amahraspands are accomplished. Our hopes lie in this that Ohrmazd and the Amahraspands may help us and the star which wears a sinister aspect may assume a favourable aspect. When God the most high sent Zartosht for the apostleship and conferred on us the Good Religion, Zartosht brought the 21 Nasks out of the sayings of Ohrmazd, [278] and of whatever was ordered by God, and made them manifest and explained its import to the people of the world; e.g., he showed us the way how to pass our lives in good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, and to keep ourselves away from bad thoughts, bad words, and bad deeds, and he showed us the path of virtue and vice, saying: "Love virtue and abstain from vice." We obtain reward and punishment, in the other world, for the obedience and disobedience we practise.

2. i.e., everything has a cause.

Bahman Punjya3:— Seven Ahrimanian planets are enchained under the custody of the seven Ohrmazdian planets: and again, the Ohrmazdian planets have been made subject to, and are in custody of, the Amahraspands, and they have been appointed in the manner as described below:—

(here the stars and planets are enumerated: MU. I. p. 284 ll. 608).

[MU. I. p. 284 ll. 4-5.]

3. S.D.B. gives this as B.P.'s Rivayat.

Shahpur Bharuchi:— According to the sayings of the Behdins of Samarqand and (the people of) that quarted, water and nirang (i.e. gomez) and every service they want to celebrate should be celebrated (in the name) of a different fireshte (i.e. an angel), just as I mention, so that advantage may accrue to a Behdin thereby:—

  • They should consecrate the dron of Ardafrawash in the name of Raghdast4 for repelling a powerful enemy from the Behdins.
  • If an enemy makes an attempt at depriving a Behdin of his property, they should perform a Yasna of Ardafrawash in the name of Zartosht.
  • For (repelling) the affliction of an enemy, they should perform the Yasna of Ardafrawash, of another description in the name of Ghobaru.

[MU. I. p. 284 ll. 11-19 to p. 285 ll. 1-3, = H.F. f. 243.]

4. A corrupt form of Aqrirp, a brother of Afrasiyab.
  • In order to avoid famine, they should perform the Yasna of Hom in the name of Yami.
  • In order to avoid pestilence, the Yasna of Hom should be performed in the name of Faridoon.
  • If one is bewitched by a demon, or a sorcerer or a fairy (or jinn) or an evil eye he should perform the Yasna of Hom in the name of Syavakhsh.5
  • In order to repel an enemy, one should perform, as an alternative, the Yasna of Hom in the name of Farshosht Khukh (Hvova?).
  • If one is frightened in a dream, the Yasna of Ardafrawash should be performed in the name of Faridoon.
  • For repelling the tyranny of kings, the Yasna of Khashashbad6 should be performed in the name of Gushtasp.
  • For increase of wealth one should perform the Yasna of Khashashbad in the name of Yân Jasan Vivân Jashan.
5. Aghriras, Gobru, Yemi, Syavakhsh are regarded as righteous persons and their names are invoked in the public ceremonies by the priests up to now.

6. It is not known who this is.
  • For fear of any disease, one [279] should perform the Yasna of Khashashbad in the name of Khumishna.
  • For (avoiding the effects of) plunder7 information whereof arrives later, the Yasna of Kjashashbad should be performed in the name of Vanif.
  • For seeking kingship the Yasna of Khashashbad should be performed in the name of Arda and (also), in the name of Khush Shavand Farvard.
  • For serving a king, one should perform the Yasna of Shashashbad in the name of Ardbari Farvâsh.
  • for the knowledge of penmanship, the Yasna of Khashashbad should be performed in the name of Shamidan.
  • For the acceptance of anything, the Yasna of Ardafrawash should be performed in the name of Arghui.
  • For (avoiding) sickness, the Yasna of Ardafrawash should be performed in the name of Faridoon.
  • For the concord of husband and wife, the Yasna of Ardafrawash should be performed in the name of Syavakhsh.
  • When the heart of a Behdin inclines towards darvandi (i.e., to another faith), and if you wish that he may again revert to his faith, the Yasna of Ardafrawash should be performed in the name of the Amesha Spentas.
  • For the consecration of dron-i Safar,8 the Yasna of Ardafrawash should be performed in the name of Raghdast.9
7. So MU, better Bk, "for one who is absent...," or F S.M., "for the same of any work...."

8. The dron consecrated when going on a journey (safar).

9. Generally this dron is consecrated now-a-days in the name of the Yazad Warharan (Behram).

Kama Bohra (?):— About praying for one's wants in sickness, it is thus enjoined in the religion: As many Mihr Niyayeshs as are vowed for should be recited on the day Mihr. As manu Hom Yashts as one has made a vow of reciting should be recited. The Yasna of Ardafrawash should be performed in the name of Faridoon.10 Thirty-three eggs or as many as are vowed for should be consecrated with the Hom-dron; or (the head of) a gospend should be consecrated in the name of the angel Mihr; or charities may be made on the day Adar for the court of the Atash Bahrams, or as many Ohrmazd Yashts as are solemnly undertaken should be recited on the day Ohrmazd, or as many Warharan Yashts, as are solemnly vowed for should be recited on the day Warharan.11

MU I p. 286 ll. 4-8.

10. According to Vd. 20, Thrita, generally identified with Faridoon, was the first person in the world who invented remedies from plants for various diseases, hence latterly many nirangs and afsuns (i.e. charms) with the intermixture of certain Avesta texts are composed in the name of Faridoon, to ward off fever, sickness, plague, and the various evils man is heir to.

11. See Sls. 12:8-10 (See Sadder Bd. ch. 22: MU I p. 286.): One is this, that while vowing for those gifts and favours for the sovereign moon and other angels, e.g. (the gifts of) the eggs and other food, they should vow this: 'I shall consecrate so much food for such an angel and not that (I shall consecrate) one dron with so much food.' The reason of it is that those who vow thus 'One dron out of so much food' and if there is one thing less (therein), even though one consecrates it many times, still it is not repaid, and those who vow thus 'I shall consecrate so much food for such an angel' and though one consecrates it with many drons, it is proper and in the 22 (sections) of the Sagadum (Nask) (it is said). Grievous things happen to those who do not make vows (austofarid) unto the angels.


241. The blind and the maimed should be content with their lot.

MU I. p. 286 ll. 13-15 (MU II p. 463).

Shapur Bharuchi:— If, in this world, a person in blind of his eyes, or lame in his legs, or has undergone sickness, he should offer thanksgiving and gratitude to (God), and Ohrmazd the good and the propitious will give him recompense thereof at the Chinwad Bridge. But if he has practised unthankfulness, disease and trouble will befall him in both the worlds.

1. As, God is not the Author of evil, but every kind of antagonism [adversity] proceeds from Ahriman.

242. On being grateful to God on every occasion:— Adarbad Marespand's miracles.

MU I. p. 286-289.

Bahman Punjya (in verse):— On the approach of any calamity, Adarbad Marespand would only offer thanks unto God and would never think of the Almighty as the author of evil. For one such calamity or misfortune befalling him, he would express his gratitude to God, ten times more. Under all such trying circumstances, he would say thus:—

(1) Thanks be to God that the affliction brought on me by Ahriman is not on the increase, for out of one evil there will always arise many. (2) Thanks be to God that this evil is now endured by my body here in this world, but not by my soul. (3) Thanks be to God that out of the many evils in store for me in this world, one calamity which has been orne has become extinct and this has made me fearless. (4) thanks be to God that the torture suffered on account of the evil and misfortune brought on by me is less. (5) Thanks be to God that the worst evil befalls the good and the pious only, who should, in return therefore, offer thanks to the Almighty, but should never blaspheme him. (6) Thanks be to God that the evil which has befallen me has not overwhelmed any other Behdin who would not have the power to endure it as patiently as myself. (7) Thanks be to God that the calamity has fallen on me only and it has not descended on my children, for if any evil destined for one will not, for the time being, reach one, then one's children will have to undergo the trouble. (8) Thanks be to God that the affliction which was due on account of my stars has now come to an end and nothing further thereof is in store for me. (9) Thanks be to God that the evil which has reached me was not on account of Ahriman but on account of my own deeds. (10) Thanks [281] be to God that I understand the religion and know my Creator. For one evil, I would offer thanksgiving unto God ten times more.1

1. The writer of these verses, Dastur Noshervan Marzban, says that this portion is extracted from Kitab-i bastan, i.e., an ancient book, which is no other than the Denkard. See Denkard, Vol. XII, Book VI (Darab Sanjana's ed) p. 99 (text).

I. Once Ahriman laid Adarbad Marespand low with a great malady, thinking that such a pious man would express his gratitude to God on all occasions, even for any evil which came upon him, would once for all be ungrateful to the Almighty. It was such a fell disease that worms gnawed his body for seven long years. For this, Adarbad would not be ungrateful to the Creator, but on the contrary praised Him and expressed his gratitude to Him and this, in season and out of season, would always take His name on his lips, and would simply say that the revolving sky had brought him to such a pass. By the grace of God, he was at last shown a remedy for the disease. He went to a fountain of water and on washing his body with the water thereof, he was all at once cured of the foul disease.

II. Once, when a shepherd saw Adarbad's wife, he at once fell in love with her. He was after her for three years. Once upon a time when she went out to fetch water, he waylaid her and made undue overtures to her. the woman who was a sdevout and God-fearing as her renowned hisband, turned away from the villain contemprupusly and told him to beware of doomsday, adding that she would not yoeld even if he were to cut up her body to pieces. Being enraged ar this, the shepherd at once drew out his knife, caught hold of her arms, and cut off one of her ringlets. He went straight to Adarbad and told him that on his way he saw the woman with a stranger, and that for her misdeed he had cut off one of her ringlets, which he had brought to Adarbad as a proof of what he had seen with his own eyes. Adarbad felt a great shock on hearing this, but he kept the secret to himself and offered thanks unto God, only saying that the wicked would go to hell. He entreated the Almighty to keep him joyful, and to have his wishes fulfilled in both worlds. When in the evening, the wife returned home, Adarbad was delighted on seeing her but was not at all disturbed in mind about what had been represented to him by the wily shepherd. When his wife sat by his side, Adarbad put his hand on her hair and felt for the ringlets, but he found that all her hair was intact on the head. The wife asked of him the reason of his doing so. Adarbad laughed and said, "Thanks be to God that I have never molested any one in my life; the chief mischief-maker here is Ahriman." Thereupon the wife unbosomed herself and recounted all that had passed. When Adarbad heard this, he again praised God and expressed his gratitude for the great miracle which this truly great and pious personage had seen wrought by the Creator on his behalf.

243. How man brings on himself calamities: Prevention is better than cure.

MU. I, p. 290 ll. 13-19 to p. 291, ll. 1-13—H F f. 141.

Kaus Kama:— Again, God has created cures for all diseases, yet if it so happens that all men act up to the commandments of God and learn wisdom, and make the most of their opportunities in the region of this world and obtain, at least, their livelihood (by such means), then they can reach heaven and their maladies will be mostly lessened. But when those who are sinners are not released from trouble [282] and indigence, and if they do not stir themselves (betimes) in (the removal of) them, they think that their salvation lies in this that one of them may get up and bestir himself so that he might, by chance, deprive a person of his things and then thinks that he will have support therefrom, but he has no idea of this that he will be made a prisoner (for the theft which he has committed) and executed, and he has no idea of the anguish of the soul as to how they will behave towards it (in the next world). (Such a person) gambles in the profession of a thief in this world and thinks that his salvation lies in theft. (Such being the case), although there is vigour of the body everywhere, they seek remedies for the infirm1 and they think that their salvation lies in that (direction). They do not know that the nourishment of the body is the destruction of the soul. Now let it be known to you that those who are healthy are the (only) rich and the afflicted (only) are the poor and indigent, because giving bribes to the humble and the lowly and making them useless and idle is like this that these poor ones go out in (search of) the salvation for the rich and it is also like this that a sick person gets up and goes out in search of health.2

1. i.e., although men are able to work honestly in this world, they think that they can get salvation by dishonest means, or by living in idleness, and thus they bring on themselves untold miseries.

2. i.e., the idle do themselves great harm in thinking that their salvation lies in idleness and theft. The rich are also to blame for their supineness in letting matters as they are and not reforming the idle. Thus, in place of health, men covet disease and indigence.

Again, there are the traders who endeavour so that they may buy cheap (and sell dear) and all of them find their salvation in such (transactions). Again, there are kings who possess countries, armies, and subject-peoples, and they are lost in amazement (when they see themselves masters of all they survey, and of their own greatness). (They get up) and risk their lives and their armies and have no consideration for themselves. They turn their attention to another king so that they may deprive him of his kingdom and thus they seek their own salvation in this. Now all this comes to this: If you look closely, such persons do not diagnose the disease nor find out a remedy.3 Then you ought to know that the smiters of Ahriman are the pious and people bring on themselves4 wrath and rage by drugs5 but for the destruction of hatred, much wisdom is necessary so that they can annihilate it (outright), because hatred is such that when they allow it access to their bodies, the way of the religion is intercepted, and that hatred would perhaps descend to the relatives and children. And perhaps there would be acute suffering in the world, just as the destruction wrought by the Turks has remained (in [283] the world). First there was the slaughter of Irach,6 and when hatred arose among the Moslems, the calamity thereof befell 737 sects, and none of them pronounces the name (of the other sect), which may be taken as one belonging to the religious order (of the same religion).8 This hatred was all (due) to the slaughter of Hasan and Husain9 who have departed, but the hatred has been left in the world. Then, it is better that no onr should give access to hatred in their bodies, since prevention is better than cure. The drift (of it all) is this, that the destroyer of every vice is virtue, the destroyer of hunger is bread, and the destroyer of thirst is water, and the destroyer of nakedness is clothing, and these (things) are created by God, who has made this world, and (has created) these cures which grow up from the earth and the plants (whereof these drugs are made), but the blowing of the wind and the fire and the sun are of another mould. Although one drug is the destroyer of one disease, yet there are many drugs which, when swallowed, will make a disease more painful. If you are unacquainted with this saying, go to the physicians and ask them. I even know that you are aware of this much that when one is in the anguish of hunger, that anguish of his will be lessened if he eats three loaves of barley-bread and drink one cup of whey; but if (such a person) has a pain in the belly, his disease will be on the increase (although he eats and drinks to satisfy his hunger and thirst), therefore both these (considerations, one should have in mind).10

3. The writer means that every one looks to his own good, but forgets the maxim, "The greatest good for the greatest number." If people, besides looking to their own welfare, were to turn their thoughts towards their neighbours, this world would be rid of many evils.

4. lit. they buy (for themselves).

5. Bk substitutes, "(the pious) are smiters of wrath and rage."

6. See Menog-i Khrad, Ch. 21:24-26: "It is clearly declared in the pure religion that the origin of the estrangement of the Arumans and the Turks from the Iranians was owning to the hatred which arose from them through the slaughter of Irach, and will continue upto the renovation.

7. Properly, 72.

8. i.e., each sect although conforming to the same religion acts according to its own usages and doctrines, and tries to avoid mentioning the other sects, whose religious practices vary from their own.

9. Referring to the two principal sects, viz. the Shias and the Sunnis.

10. The clause ends abruptly, but BK substitutes instead, "then observe this well so that you may be wiser."

Maneck Changa.—Again, they should keep the water, the earth, and the trees and plants pure and clean. There should be concord and peace amongst men and there should be no squabble, or strife or quarrel, because the Creator Ohrmazd and the Amshaspands [Amesha Spentas] will (thereby) be pleased and propitiated.

MU I, p. 291 ll. 13-15.

/// [327]

328. The Barsom.

Kamdin Shapur:

Y24.3, or, Vr11.5 quoted:--

"This tree of the Baresman, the most help-giving prayer offered at the proper time and the recollection and practice of the good Mazdayasnian religion."

Yasna 57, karda 2. (whole) quoted and translated according to Pahlavi Version:

"Who first spread forth the Barsom, 3-fold, 5-fold, 7-fold, and 9-fold, as high as the knee and the middle of the thigh1 [(with separate layers (or, selections) keeping the bundles apart, which when so it was (arranged), was just what it should be,] for the Yasna of the Ameshaspands."

1. om. in Rivayat.

329. Barsom twigs of the gaz (i.e., of the tamarisk tree) only to be used in the service and not of any metal.

Kamdin Shapur and not Shapur Bharuchi:

The Barsom should be (made) from the tree, but it should not be (made) of metal; as, it is said in the Avesta:--

Yo urvarãm baresma frastarenti hamô-vareshajim pouru fravâkhshem1 "He who spreads the Barsom of the tree, with one stem but many branches: whose stem is one, but whose limbs are several."

i.e., the Barsom should be made from the tree, i.e., the tree of the pomegranate or of the tamarisk (gaz): but the Barsom should not be (made) of metal, as it is nowhere so ordered and we do not know anything of it.2

1. See Nirangastan f. 179a; cf. also Vd19.18.

2. See MU. II. p. 32 l. 18.

Antia's MS. f. 303 (MU. p. 484).

Shapur Bharuchi:

The Barsom: It has been ordered that it should be 3-fold, or 5-fold, or 7-fold, or 9-fold: All the Barsoms strike and destroy the Daevas. How many (twigs of Barsom) for the Dasturs, how many for the kings, how many for the Amshaspands, how many for the agriculturalists, how many for the Gahambar, how many for the Hu-tukhsh i.e., the artizans -- every one of these (Barsoms) have been ordered for their (proper) stations. These Barsoms strike and destroy the demons as the evidence thereof is (thus) manifest in the Avesta thri-yaxshtishca, etc. (Y57 karda 2).

330. Thirty-three âlâts or apparatus of the Yasna-gâh.

Kama Bohra and Nariman Hoshang:

What are the 33 hunar round about Hawan?
Thryascha trisãscha nazdishta, etc., (Y1.10). These 33 hunars are these: They are the apparatus1 of the Yasna service, used when they perform the Yasna with the 21 Nasks of the Avesta in the Yasna-gah. The hawan (metallic mortar), the jâmdân (the vessel holding the jivâm, i.e., milk), the urvarâm, the parâhom, the Barsom, and the apparatus1 of the Yasna service of all kinds are 33. The are 33 antagonisms of Ahriman for the religion and for the destruction of (all these), each one (of these apparatus) is created for the annihilation of one [329] (antagonism): This has been taught to Zartosht by the Creator Ohrmazd and Zartosht taught men how this should be done.2

Maneck Changa:

What are the 33 crafts (pisha) of the Ervads?
They are: Vaspaeibyô aeibyô ratubyo ... i.e., all the chiefs (rad) which are holy (Y1.10). These 33 (hunars) which are round about Hawan and about which Ohrmazd taught Zartosht and Zartosht taught men how it should be done. These are 33 crafts (pisha) of the Herbads wherewith they perform the work of the Yasna in the Yasna-(gah). There are 33 wicked counterparts3 thereof (created) by Ahriman; and every craft or implement (pisha) is for the destruction of one counterpart of Ahriman.
1. 'kâr' is here the same as 'sâz' apparatus, implements, utensils, and other organic requisites used in the Yasna ceremony.

2. Cf. Y1.10: (Pahlavi version): "Those lords who are the 33 lords of righteousness, round about Hawani, and who are of the best righteousness -- and it was inculcated by Ahura Mazda and promulgated by Zarathushtra."

Cf. Denkard Book VIII, Ch. 7.4 and 7.14:

(4) "And this, namely, what efficiency (or, skill) is most required for the leadership of the presiding high-priest and other priestly authorities."

(17) "About the 33 chieftains that are nearest round the Hawan; (as to) where, which, and how many are spiritual, and how many earthly; and which, the second and which, the third, (and so on) of the spiritual and the earthly beings."

Here no enumeration of the 33 chieftains is given in this summary of the Pajak Nask.

See Haug's Essays (pp. 275-276): Haug draws attention to the 33 (trayas-trinshad) devâh of the Brahmanas.

See, also, pp. 104-105 of the Sir J. J. Madressa Jubilee Memorial Volume. Anquetil and Harlez take these 33 hunars as the ceremonial vessels and other organic and inorganic requisites used in the Yasna ceremony, such as hawan, tashta, darun, urvarâm, etc. etc. Mr. K. R. Cama takes these 33 rads as the 12 ratus mentioned in Yasna 1 and the 21 ratus mentioned in Visperad 1 (See Translation of Yasna, by K. E. Kanga, p. 13, note).

Mr. S. D. Bharucha takes these to be the 33 ayaras, asnyas, mahyas, yairyas, and saredhas.

Mr. R. J. Dastur, in his edition of Darab Hormazdyar's Rivayat in Gujarati (p. 56) thus gives the 33 ratus (mentioned in Y1.1-9):
  • Ahura Mazda and the Amshaspands (7)
  • The five gahs and the two hamkars of each (15)
  • The Mahyas (3)
  • The Yairyas (6) and the day when the Yasna is performed (1)
  • The Saredha (1)
In all, 33, as mentioned in par. 11.

3. 'dâd', measure, part, portion; also, law.

331. Fifteen characteristics of a Herbad and the five virtues to be practised by Behedins.

Kama Bohra, Jasa, and Nariman Hoshang:

What are the 15 virtues (or characteristics) which the Herbads should practice?
The Herbads who perform the Yasna should practise these (15) virtues:--
  • (1) Avija hîm. = pure disposition.
  • (2) Asn-khrad. = innate wisdom.
  • (3) Din-aspanârgân. = restoring or embellishing the religion.
  • (4) Yazdan-minidâr = remembering God.
  • (5) Mainyô-vinashni. = looking up to the spiritual world.
  • (6) Pâk-minashna. = of pure thoughts.
  • (7) Râst-gavashna. = of truthful utterance.
  • (8) Khardi-kunashna. = doing deeds of wisdom.
  • (9) Yozdâthra-tan. = of pure body.
  • (10) Shivâ-hizvân. = of sweet tongue.
  • (11) Narm-nask. = having the Nasks by heart.
  • (12) Rast-avesta. = reciting correct Avesta.
  • (13) Pâdyâv-sâjashni. = observing cleanliness (lit., performing ablutions).
  • (14) Hîv Nirang. = knowing the Nirangs (ritualistic formulae) well.
  • (15) Nâbar zîvân. = living the life of a Nawar (i.e., a qualified priest.)

    The Herbads should practise these virtues so that God and the Amshaspands may be pleased with them, and their Yasna-services may be accepted (by them).1

  • 1. Cf. the following passages with this:

    (1) Dadistan: Purishna 47.38: (...)

    Here, in this quotation the first 14 out of the 15 virtues are the same as in this Rivayat, but the last one of the Rivayat, viz., nâbar-zivâ is (...) in Pahlavi, which last means, "undivided and faultless."

    Hence it appears that nâbar-zivâ which in itself gives a good meaning is read incorrectly from this Pahlavi original.

    (2) Cf. Epistle I. Ch. II.2: (...)

    A righteous man, of fluent speech, or truthful utterance, chanter of the Gathas, knowing the nirangs, trained for the work, of renowned disposition and a friend of the soul.

    (3) Cf. also Vd9.2 (Pah.):--

    "a righteous man ... who is a (fluent) speaker (i.e., he can speak (well)), a truthful speaker (i.e., who does not tell a lie), inquirer of the Manthra i.e., who has performed the Yasht (i..e. who is qualified as a Herbad), and holy; who knows well the purification (as enjoined) by the Mazdayasnian religion (i.e., who knows the Nirangs).

    Kama Bohra:

    What are the 5 virtues which the good should practise?
    These 5 virtues are the following:
  • (1) They should know how to praise and propitiate God so that they may be grateful.
  • (2) (They should know) the goodness of the good so that they may learn goodness from the good.
  • (3) They should keep away vice and defects from themselves.
  • (4) They should act up to the sayings of the Poryotkeshan and the Dasturs so that the soul may be released (from hell) thereby, and they may go to heaven on account of it.
  • (5) (They should practise the professions) either of Athornan (priests) or Rathaeshtar (warriors), or Vastryosh (husbandmen), or, of Hutokhsh (artisans) so that they may obtain their livelihood thereby.2
  • 2. Cf. p. 129 of Pah. Texts by Dastur Japaspji M. Jamaspasa.

    With the original Rivayat, Cf. Denkard, Book VI (Vol. 13, E. par. XLV 20):

    He who is not always observing one out of these 5 things has his intelligence and wisdom lost and his passage (to heaven) afflicted. (They are, namely):-- the praise of God such that (. . . . . . See Rivayat).

    Kamdin Shapur:

    That man is of an auspicious nature who has chanted the five Gathas, and who possesses these five things: (1) (Good) disposition. (2) Wisdom (3) Concord. (4) Moderation (5) Justice (or Equity).

    i.e., Disposition is this that one oneself does not deceive anyone.
    i.e., Wisdom is this that one cannot be deceived by anyone.
    i.e., Concord is that which is with one's own soul.
    i.e., Moderation is this when one has (proper) judgment. [332]
    i.e., Justice (or Equity) is this when one stands by the religion of God.3
    3. Cf. Denkard Book VI, (Vol. 12 p. 89 D. pars. 7-8):

    (7) "That man is fortunate (lit., fortunately-placed) who has succeeded under these five conditions and he succeeds under these five conditions, who has these five things: (1) Disposition, (2) wisdom, (3) concord, (4) moderation, (5) lawfulness."

    (8) "Disposition is this when one does not deceive another. Wisdom is this when one cannot be deceived by another. Concord is this when one is peaceful with one's own soul. Moderation is this when one would not practice excess or deficiency. Lawfulness is this when one abides by the religion of Ohrmazd."

    Cf. also Denkard Book VI, (Vol. 10 p. 4, IV pars 1-2).

    Maneck Changa:

    What are the 5 virtues?
  • (1) (They should offer) praise unto God so that they may be grateful.
  • (2) (They should know) the goodness of the good so that they may learn it.
  • (3) (One should be made aware) of one's own defect so that one may set it right.
  • (4) (One should act up to) the sayings of the Poryotkaeshan so that one's soul may be release thereby (from hell).
  • (5) (One should practice the profession) either of Athornan, Rathaeshtar, Vastrosh, or of a Hutokhsh so that one may obtain one's livelihood thereby.
    What is the law of the Creator Ohrmazd and of the Amshapands?
    The law of the Creator Ohrmazd is the love of man. The gift of Vohuman is concord. The law of Ardwahisht is truthfulness. The gift of Shahrewar is the maintenance of relationship. The gift (or, law) of Spandarmad is humility and complete mindfulness. The law of Hordad is charity and thanksgiving. The gift (or, law) of Amurdad is consultation (with the wise) and moderation. [333]
    These two means (or, implements) are the best: to be good oneself and to do good to others. [4]
  • 4. This Pursesh is taken from Denkard: Book VI, (Vol. 13, p. 33 (Text) E, pars. 12 and 14.

    355. The story of Tiragan

    (Dhabhar pg 342, Antia's MS. f. 330)

    It is related that when the wicked Afrasyab, the Tur, ruled over the country of Iran, it did not rain, at that time, for 8 years. Afrasyab, the Tur, asked the wise and the astrologers why it was not raining. Zu Tahmasp answered: "You turned faithless, because Faridun had allotted to you Turkestan (only) and entrusted it to you whereas he had allotted Iran to us and given it to us. You turned away from that covenant and set it aside. It is for this reason that, owing to this sin of yours, it does not rain." Afrasyab asked how this could be ascertained. Zu Tahmurasp said: "I shall throw an arrow from here, and where my arrow falls, there will be the boundaries (of your territory)." Afrasyab accepted it and entered into a compact thus: "I shall consent to have as the boundaries (of my territory) that place where your arrow settles and I shall go out of Iran." When this compact was entered into, it was on the day Tir of the month Tir that Zu Tahmasp uttered the name of God and threw the arrow from the country of Iran and that arrow fell in the country of Turkestan by the command of Lord Ohrmazd. When that arrow settled in the country of Turkestan, Afrasyab took this witness that the rains did not come on account of his faithlessness. Then Afrasyab arose from that place and went out of Iran with his army and settled in the country of Turan. The intelligence of this spread on the day Govad and heavy rains poured down on the day Govad. Then they assented to institute a festival in the country of Iran on the day Tir of the month Tir and upto now the Dasturs of Iran write a Nirang (formula) and tie it on the hands of the faithful and remove it from their hands on the day Govad, throw it into the sea on that day for the reason that the glad tidings of the return of Afrasyab to Turkestan had reached on the day Govad. It is for this reason that this nirang is untied from the hands and thrown into the sea so that all calamities may sink into the sea.

    425. Zartosht and the future Apostles.

    Dastur Bazru:

    Ushedar will remain before Ohrmazd for 10 years, Ushedarmah for 20 years, and Saoshant for 30 years.

    Kamdin Shapur:

    How old was the holy Zartosht Spitaman when he went in the presence of Ohrmazd?
    When he was 30 years old, (he went there) and remained there for 10 years. When he propagated the religion, he remained 37 years more in this world. This is, in all, 77 years.

    Kaus Kamdin:

    On what day and what month does the rozgâr, (i.e., the anniversary of the death) of Zartosht Spitaman fall?
    We hold the rozgâr of Zartosht Spitaman of the holy Farohar on the day Khwarshed of the Month Dae. There is no doubt about it. We are quite certain and without doubt about it.


    The rozgâr, (anniversary of the death) of Zartosht Spitaman of the holy farohar (falls on . . . . . . . . . .).1 The family seat of the holy Zartosht Spitaman is Rae (as is evident from the following quotation):-- chathrush ratush; raghi Zarathushtrish (see Y19). The dead body of the holy Zartosht has been deposited in the city of Balkh.

    1. Something omitted in the text.

    426. The Resurrection.

    Kamdin Shapur:

    When will Ahriman be annihilated?
    At the resurrection.
    In what country will the resurrection take place?
    It will take place in all places, but when the dead will be raised up Saoshyant will be in Iran-shahar of Khwaniras and those six makers of the Renovation will be (respectively) in the (remaining) six Keshwars, like unti Havanan, Athravakhsh, Fraberetar, Abereta, Asnatar, and Rathwishkar. Ohrmazd will select the time1 (for the work of resurrection) with the 6 Amshaspands and the seven makers of the Renovation. Ohrmazd will be himself the Zot (the officiating priest) with Saoshyant2 (as the assistant priest), and Vohuman (Amshaspand) with Roshn-chashm3 as Havanan, Ardwahisht with Khoreh-chashm as Athrevakhsh, Shahrewar with Afrid-Khoreh as Fraberetar, Spandarmad with Dast-Khoreh as Aberet, Hordad with Varnîm as Asnatar, and Amurdad with Varan-Sud as Raethwishkar -- every one of these will perform Yasna in his own region according to the will of Ohrmazd, and the dead body of everyone will be raised up at the place where he was born or at the place where he died. Whatever was written like this (in Pahlavi books) is then written down (here, for your information) in the same way. God's will be done.

    Nariman Hoshang:

    Will the Juddins (i.e., persons of different faiths) be made alive at the resurrection?
    The creatures of Ohrmazd, i.e., the doers of meritorious deeds as well as the sinners, all will be alive after the retribution of the Resurrection.

    1. gâh - gâh girand = time, as well as place.

    2. In the Bundahishn, Srosh is mentioned in place of Saoshyant.

    3. All these names are more or less corrupted from their Avesta names (Yt13.128-29, which are: Raochash-chaeshman, Hvare-chaeshman, Fradat-khvareno, Varedar-khvareno) Vouru-nemo, Vouru-savo (cf. Dd36.4).


    431. The meaning of dreaming a dream.

    Kaus Kamdin:

    What is the meaning of dreaming a dream?
    About the reason why men dream a dream, it is manifest in the religion that the Creator Ohrmazd created the body and soul in eight parts. [1] The body is like a house and the soul (is) the master of the house. That band [2] within the body is the fire which is called bôi [2] (= conscience). The hôsh (intelligence), the farohar, and the âina [3] (the image or form) -- these three are co-helpers. When men dream a dream, the bôi which is like the fire and the farohar go out of the body, wander everywhere and they see, they perceive, they speak, and listen (to various matters) and again re-enter the body. This is the interpretation of the dreaming of a dream by men.

    1. Only 5 parts are mentioned here and not eight.

    2. band, lit., connection: here Av. baodhangh is read band as well as boi.

    3. Cf. Pah. (...) in Pah. Yasna I.1: (...) which Darmesteter translates by 'corporeal image' in accordance with the Sanskrit translation.

    432. Division into 25 parts of the things of this world.

    Shapur Bharuchi:

    It is said [1] that (the various things of) this world are divided into 25 parts. 5 parts (are attributed) to luck, five to deed, five to the disposition, five to the nature, and five to ancestry (avarmând). [2]

    • Life, wife, children, power, and wealth are through destiny.
    • Priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, good deeds, and sins are through effort.
    • Visiting women, and doing one's work, eating, walking about, and sleeping are through disposition.
    • Love, respect, charity, truthfulness, and humility are through one's nature.
    • The body, its lustre, intelligence, and strength [3] are through ancestry.

    1. This whole piece is taken from Pahlavi. See Pahlavi Texts by Dastur Jamaspji, p. 82, and Denkard Book VI, Vol. XII of Dastur Darab's Edition, pp. 87-88 (of the text).

    2. Cf. Pah. Yasna 9 where Vis, (a family) is thus interpreted.

    3. Pah. has 'intelligence'. The fifth part is not mentioned here. According to DK it is ditan, i.e., (good) look, or appearance; and the Pahlavi Texts (cf. Dastur Jamaspji) has 'intellect and strength'.

    433. Composition of men's body (from `Ulema-i Islam).

    (See the text and translation of `Ulema-i Islam.)


    434. Mount Alburz.

    Suratya Adhyarus:

    About Mount Alburz: It is a pillar of the sky and the sun, moon, and stars revolve (round it) like the turning of a water wheel. [1] (This revolution of the luminaries) keeps the lands, cities, amd regions high as well as low. The stars set when they go down the earth and the regions go down the earth when (the stars) are below the earth. When they rise, (these regions) come high over the earth.

    1. Cf. Bd25.3-4.

    435. The signs of the Zodiac and lunar mansions

    (See Pahlavi Bundahishn, ch. II.1-8 and `Ulema-i Islam (MU. II p. 83 ll. 1-5).

    436. The Seven Planets and the Seven Heavens.

    [MU. II. p. 58 ll. 8-15 -- H.F. f. 389 and f. 390.]

    Names of the 7 planets (setârgân):

    (1) The Sun, (2) the Moon, (3) Mars, (4) Mercury, (5) Jupiter, (6) Venus, and (7) Saturn. Râs1

    1. lit., the head, i.e., the head of the Dragon, i.e., the ascending node as opposed to the tail of the Dragon, i.e., the descending node.

    Seven planets which are on the four sides:--

    On the eastern side are Saturn and Venus. On the western side are Jupiter and Mercury. On the Southern side are Mars and the Moon. On the Northern side is the Sun.

    Names of the 7 heavens:

    The first is the Hamistagan which is also called the wind-station; The second is the star-station; the third is the moon-station; the fourth is the sun-station; the fifth is the Garothman-station; the sixth is the Pashom Axwan (i.e., the Best Abode), and the seventh is Anagran (Av. Anaghra Raochah, i.e., the brilliant and endless lights.2

    2. Cf. with this, Pahlavi Texts by Dastur Jamaspji, p. 72, par. 4.

    Dastur Barzu

    [MU. II. p. 58, ll. 17-18. (MU. II. p. 443).]

    The heavens up to the Pashom Axwan (i.e., pâhlûm khvânân, i.e., the Best Abode) which is the brilliant Garothman are like firmaments within firmaments, one over the other: e.g., the starry firmament of the Hamistagan; the firmament of the Moon which is the first paradise; the firmament of the sun which is the second paradise, etc., up to Garothman which is the seat and station of Ohrmazd.

    From a Rivayat:

    [MU. II. p. 59, ll. 1-5, -H.F. f. 228.]

    From the world to the star station there are 33,000 farsangs; from the star station to the moon station there are 33,000 farsangs; from the moon station to the sun station there are 33,000 farsangs; from the sun station to the station of Garothman there are 33,000 farsangs; from the Garothman station to the Pashom Axwan (lit., the Best Abode) there are 33,000 farsangs; and from [427] Pashom Axwan up to Anagran (i.e., the Endless Lights), there are 33,000 farsangs.3

    From Axwan (i.e., Pashom Axwan) to the Sky there are 33,000 farsangs. The density of the sky is 900 farsangs. The length and breadth of the sun is 400 farsangs. The length and breadth of the moon is 200 farsangs; the length and breadth of a star of large magnitude is 33 gaz; the length and breadth of a smaller star is 5 gaz.

    A heavenly farsang is equal to 12004 gaz; and one gaz is equal to (the length of) a hand.

    3. This last clause is omitted in S.D.B.: and H.F. has a blank here as in the text. In fact, this clause is repeated below where Asman is substituted for Anagran.

    4. 12,000 according to the Rivayat of Shapur Bharuchi (see l. 11 below).

    Shapur Bharuchi:

    From the world to the star-station there are 34,000 farsangs; The first firmament is the star-station. The second firmament is the Moon-station which is 34,000 farsangs (from the star-station). The third firmament is the sun-station, which is 34,000 farsangs (from the Moon-station). The sky is above as well as below the earth, and the water is like (the egg of) an egg. The sky is made of ruby.

    The density of the sky is 900 farsangs. The length and breadth of the Sun is 400 farsangs. The length and breadth of the Moon is 200 farsangs. The length and breadth of a large star is 33 gaz. The length and breadth of a midling star is 5 gaz; the length and breadth of a small star is like the head of a bull.

    The measure of a heavenly farsang is 12,000 gaz; and a gaz is of the measure of one hand.

    437. Chekat Daiti and Chinwad Bridge

    [MU. II. p. 59, l.13 (MU. II. p. 444).]

    Dastur Barzu:

    The throne of Ohrmazd is on Chekat Daiti (bridge) in Garothman.

    Shapur Bharuchi:

    The Chinwad Bridge is over hell. The soul of one fit for heaven moves three steps1 (on it to go to heaven). Above it (i.e., the Bridge) is suspended the Hamistagan which is below the sky.

    The seven Keshwars: Arezahi, Sawahi, Fradadhafshu, Widadhafshu, Wouru-bareshti, Wourujareshti, Xwaniratha Bami. The seven climes which belong to Xwaniratha Bami are these: Tazagan, Iran, Mazandaran, Rum, Turan, Chinistan, and Hind. [428]

    This is also said that Iran-Gavij,2 Kangdaz, Var-Jamkart, Kashmir, and other countries of these seven climes beling to Xwaniratha Bami.

    Arezahi, Sawahi, Fradadhafshu, Widadhafshu, Wouru-bareshti, and Wourujareshti, — all these (six) are 4,000 farsangs each and it should be known that Xwaniratha Bami is 12,000 farsangs.

    1. According to Pahlavi, the three grades of humata, huxta, hvarshta.

    2. Parsi-Persian name of [Eranwej,] Av. Airyana-vaeja.


    438. The Influence of the Stars.

    [MU. II. p.62 to p.66 11.1-14.]

    Dastur Bazru1

    1. This Rivayat is chiefly made up of different subjects treated elsewhere. Thus, for MU. II p. 62 ll. 1-19 to p. 67 l. 1 see MU. II p. 81 ll. 4-19 to p. 82 ll. 1-7; for MU II p. 63 ll. 15-19 to p. 64 l. 1 see MU. II p. 82 ll. 7-10; for MU. II p. 65 ll. 18-19 to p 66. ll. 1-7 see MU. I p. 283 ll. 13-19 to p. 284 ll. 1-4 and for MU. II p. 66 ll. 12-14 see MU. I p.283 ll. 11-13.

    Let it he known about the creation of the world and the stars and the revolution of the skies and about light and darkness and virtue and vice which are in this world; now, in a Pahlavi book, it is said that the world is created. It is manifest that except Time all other things have been created and Time is also called the Creator. Time is without bounds; its top is undiscoverable and its bottom is undiscoverable; it has always existed and shall ever be. He who is endowed with wisdom will not say whence came Time; on account of all this greatness, how can it not be so, (but) there was no one who could call it the Creator. Why? because it had not (yet) made the creation. Then it (Time) produced fire and water and when these intermingled, Ohrmazd came into existence. Time is (therefore) as well the Creator as the Master with regard to the creation produced by it. Now, Ohrmazd was pure, bright, of a fragrant smell, and beneficient, and was powerful over all goodness. When He looked into the lowest abyss he saw Ahriman at (the distance of) 960,0002 farsangs, black, filthy, stinking, and maleficent. It appeared strange to Ohrmazd that it was a terrible enemy. When Ohrmazd saw that enemy, he thought that He should remove this enemy from the midst and thought of the various means (to remove him). He thought out all this and began to produced the creation. Whatever Ohrmazd did, He did with the assistance of Time. All good indispensable in Ohrmazd was given to Him. Ohrmazd created the Time of long endurance and connected therewith the celestial chart. As to the twelve constellations which are fixed in the sphere, every one of them has its duration of 1,000 years. The spiritual work was accomplished in the period of 3,000 years. Aries, Taurus, and Gemini had a duration, each of 1,000 years. Then Ahriman lifted up his head for the assistance of Time3 so that he might fight with Ohrmazd. He saw an army prepared and formed in battle array and rushed to hell. On account of the truthfulness he saw in Ohrmazd, he could not move about for 3,000 years, and the work of this world was accomplished for 3,000 years. (Then) the promotion of the world devolved on Cancer, Leo, and Virgo. As regards the creation of the world, (Ohrmazd) first created the heavens which reached to the extent of 576,000,000 farsangs upwards to Garothman which was over the heavens. [429]

    2. See p. 81 l. 10.

    3. The words biary zman are omitted in `Ulema-i Islam (See p. 81).

    After 45 days, the sky4 was created; after 60 days, water; after 75 days, the earth; after 30 days, large and small vegetation was produced; after 80 days, cattle and Gayomars were created and after 75 days, Adam and Eve* were created: in one year of 365 days, the aggregate of all this was made, and when the arrangement of the worlds had devolved on Cancer, Adam and Eve had been created.4 When these 3,000 years passed away, men, the earth, and the other creatures had (already came into existence.

    4. This sentence as given here and also on page 82 ll. 2-3 should be amended according to the text of Bk. (See note on p. 82.)

    * [i.e. Mashye and Mashyane. -JHP]

    Again the wicked Ahriman stirred and it was so brought about by Time5 that he (Ahriman) perforated the earth and rushed forth into the world and whatever there was in the world, he polluted with his own wickedness and filth. He was in the world for 90 days and nights and made warfare. The heavens rent asunder and the Spirits came to the assistance of the world. They seized seven worst demons and carried them to the celestial sphere. Out of those seven divs, they captured four divs who were the worst and were bound with spiritual chains on the eighth sky which is called the Immoveable Sky, and the star Vanant was appointed guardian over these four divs so that it was not possible for them to do evil. The three remaining divs -- one of them like Saturn who is very unlucky -- were assigned to the seventh sky. Underneath this sky which is the sixth sky, Jupiter which is very fortunate was consigned. The second div who is Mars, the least unlucky, was assigned a place on the fifth sky. And on the fourth heaven which is the centre of the skies the Sun was consigned and was appointed sovereign of that sky. Saturn and Mars were assigned a place opposite the sky, but higher than the firmament of the sun, so that the poison and pollution they pour in the world may be melted away by the heat of the sun and may not reach the earth. On the third sky, Venus which is the least fortunate is assigned and the third div who is Mercury and who is called mumtazij (i.e., mixed) was given a place on the the second sky, and he was made a prisoner in the hands of the sun so that he (the sun) may have the affairs of the (second) sky before him. But he is never separated from the sun because his sky is more underneath the sky of the sun and the poison and pollution which he pours reaches entirely the earth. It is called mumtazij (i.e., mixed or compound) for this reason, that although he is addicted to wickedness, yet when he is a captive in the hands of the sun, he cannot do much evil as he desires and as his habitation is in the midst of the fortunate planets (viz., Venus and Jupiter), he is helpless. When he is with an auspicious star, he practises beneficence, and when he is with an unlucky star, he practices evil; for this reason he is not called inauspicious (nahs), but he is called mumtazij.

    5. ... the words are omitted in the treatise of `Ulema-i Islam (See p. 82).

    In the first sky the moon was given a place and again beneath the sky of the moon there is another sky which is called the sky -- like that of Venus, and the tail and the head of the Dragon and Kaid6 are in that sky. When the sway of Aries, Taurus, and Gemini [430] passed away and there was the beginning of the sway of Cancer, i.e., when the latters turn came, they made a survey of the destiny of the world, and every planet was fixed in a house of its own altitude, on the twelve zodiacal signs. (These planets) are fixed as in the diagram (sûrat) so that it may he easily understood.7 Afterwards, Ahriman inflicted a thousand diseases on Gayomars so that he died and several things came into existence from him. From the Bull also, several things and animals came into existence. Then they caught Ahriman and carried him to hell from the very hole through which he had penetrated the world and they bound him (there) with a spiritual chain. Two angels, viz., the Amshaspand Ardwahisht and the Yazad Warharan (Behram) have stood over him as guardians.

    6. kaid -- called kaid qat., a very inauspicious star who cuts off (qæt) the lives of men. This planet is also known as katad.

    7. See the diagram on p. 63.

    It is so related that Ohrmazd has created the world like a ball and from the empyrean heaven to the terrestrial globe it is (created) in this manner (see diagram on p.64). The Alburz Mountain was created in the middle of the world such that its peak was higher up the empyrean heaven and its bottom lower down the terrestrial globe, and Ahriman was bound beneath the Alburz Mountain with a spiritual chain and there would be the way of many thousand farsangs for going up from the top of the heavenly bodies to Garothman (i.e., the highest heaven) It is known for certain that whatever there is of light and purity belongs to Ohrmazd and whatever there is of darkness and pollution belongs to Ahriman. When Ohrmazd and Ahriman are each others opponents and when both are out of the orbit of the world, the seats of joy and sorrow, affluence and poverty, health and disease, all are on account of the revolving sky and the stars: moreover, fortune and misfortune (caused) by the stars is manifest thus: The revolution of a sky is 360 degrees, and every constellation has 30 degrees, every degree has 60 parts (minutes) and every minute has 60 seconds, and as in this way the tenths are made up and as every planet has its degrees on those twelve constellations, then when it is in a house of a certain degree, it is fortunate and confers glory and happiness and that house is (therefore) the zenith of cheerfulness and is one of a triad8 (of those heavenly bodies). And again there are degrees so that when it reaches (one of these) places, it makes one inauspicious and bestows weakness and misery and that (sign, therefore) is (full of) misery, contention, and is the nadir (itself). When any signs show fortune and misfortune, that is like friendship and enmity they show towards one another and it is thus:-- When they are in a quadrature or confront one another that is an aspect of enmity; and when they are in a trine or in a hexangular aspect, that is the height of their friendship and happiness, in the manner shown (as in the diagram, p. 65). Now, when one of these stars becomes inauspicious and [431] causes injury and misery, it is evident and clear to the people of the world that God, the Glorious and the Most High, created the sky, the earth, the fixed stars and planets, and the revolution of the skies was made the cause of the oocurrences of events in the nether world.9

    8. A triad of heavenly signs: e.g., the watery three: Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces; the fiery three: Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius; the airy three: Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius; the earthly three: Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn.

    9. For the translation of the remaining portion upto p. 66 l.7. see MU. I., p. 283 ll 13-19 to p. 284 ll. 1-4.

    It is so said in the book of Bundahishn that whatever reaches men is on account of the seven planets and the twelve constellations.10 The are Ohrmazdian stars and Ahrimanian stars. When Ohrmazd made a contract11 with Ahriman that each one should have his share divided in two, i.e., Ohrmazd should be in Garothman and Ahriman in hell, they left 'action' in the hands of the skies so that whatever of health and disease, or of affluence and poverty, or anything which happens unto men is on account of the revolution of the skies and the stars, but righteousness and wickedness arise from mens actions.12

    10. More properly, it is the Mino-Kherad which makes the most of this idea.

    11. See Bd1 where the terms of the contract with Ahriman are quite different and not as represented here.

    12. For the translation of p.66, ll. 12-14 see MU. I, p.283 II. 11-13. See MU. II, p.443.

    440. Hell.

    Dastur Barzu:

    It should be known that Ahriman is underneath the earth in the darkest hell on other more abysmal hells. The gate of hell which is beneath the Chinwad bridge is bound with a spiritual chain.

    441. Ten principal divs residing in men.

    Names of 10 devs who reside in men:

    (1) Hisham1 - Proud, (2) Niyâz - Indigent, (3) Âz - Avarice, (4) Rishk - Jealousy, (5) Dêr - Tardy, (6) Khashm1 - Wrath, (7) Varan - Lust, (8) Bushyasp - Sleep (lit., sloth), (9) Padmoz - Ungrateful, (10) Pas - a Calumniator.

    The Demon Nâi-batar takes away the lives of men.

    The Demon Vazarush2 causes harm to the soul just after death for three days.

    The Demon Nasash3 makes everything polluted.

    The Demon Mihr-druj is a liar and breaks contracts.

    The Demon Ashmogh is a hypocrite and a calumniator.

    The Demon Afsus4 practises ungratefulness.5

    1. (1) Hisham and (6) Khashm are here regarded as two separate demons whereas in Pahlavi they are only variants of the same word.

    2. Avesta:- Vizaresha.

    3. Nasush.

    4. lit., banter, derision.

    5. With some of the names of the demons mentioned here, cf., Bd28 (S.B.E., Vol., 5, p. 105 et seq.)


    442. Livelihood obtained by the creatures of Spenta-Mainyu and of Angra-Mainyu.

    Nariman Hoshang:

    How do the creatures of Ahriman obtain their livelihood? Can Ahriman supply them with the livelihood or not?
    According to the religion, (in this) creation, Spenamino has undertaken upon himself to supply (the creatures) with livelihood, and Ahriman has run away with death.

    443. The righteous and the wicked.

    Shapur Bharuchi:

    The good are righteous; the bad are wicked.

    There are five (kinds of) world-adorning men and there are five (kinds, of) spirit-destroying men.

    The soul which is revengeful is wicked. the soul which is full of doubt (about the religion) is wicked. For the soul of a revengeful man, the (Chinwad) Bridge becomes narrower than for other wicked men and it is more difficult (to cross). The soul which is in doubt (about the religion) is wicked, and it is called Medyôb-manish1 (i.e., of false mind). 1. Cf. Av. mithaokhta.
    A proud man is called tar-minash and his soul is also wicked. A cheat is called afsusgar (i.e., a banterer), and his soul is also wicked. The indolent are called azhgahan and their souls are also wicked.

    Again, virtue is the quality of the Creator and vice is the (quality of Ahriman. If you have the means, be diligent; if you are helpless, be contented.

    444. The blind, the deaf and the maimed should be content with their lot

    (For MU. II, p. 67 ll. 8-10, see MU. I, p. 286 ll. 13-15.)

    445. Going on a Journey without any Safeguard.

    Shapur Bharuchi.

    Again, if one goes on a journey, and does not hold in his hand a sword or any weapon or even a stick, then what is the sin (committed) by him?

    It is said in the religion, that such a person would have performed (as it were) the Yasna-service of all the demons, i.e., all the demons would have been worshipped by him. This is certain, there is no doubt about it.1 1. What is meant here is that in case of being assaulted on the way by any ruffian, he must defend himself and deal him a counter-blow; otherwise, he is a coward, and cowardice is demon-worship.

    Kaus Mahyar:

    If a person goes on a journey and he dies, and if two persons (only) are his (travelling) companions, what should they do if there is no height or Dakhma (in order that the dead person maybe disposed of there?)
    It is not permitted that less than four Behdins together should go on a journey. If any death occurs, then the dead body should be carried to a place far from cultivation, water, and plants. If there is no large stone, they should gather together small pieces of stone and leave (the dead body) on the small pieces of stone with (the ceremonials of) paiwand and safdid. If there are no stones, it should be placed on a promontory.

    Faridun Marzban (not Kama Bohra):

    Do you know that if a man goes alone on a journey and he dies and if his dead body is burnt or buried under the ground, then Yasna-service cannot be offered (in his name)?2 2. Because his body has not been properly disposed of in a Dakhma.

    446. The Zand-Avesta.

    Kaus Kamdin:

    Were the Zand-Avesta (texts) brought from before the Creator Ohrmazd by Zartosht Spitaman, or were they (extant) before Zartosht Spitaman?
    From the time of Gayomard up to the coming of Zartosht before King Vishtasp, there was a little of Avesta, the praises (of Yazads and Amshaspands) and nirangs (i.e., ritual) and there was (also) the keeping on of the Kusti. Zartosht brought the 21 Nasks of Avesta and Zand, e.g., the Shayast Na-Shayast (i.e., the proper and the Improper), the ceremonials of religion; and the breaking off of the bodies of the demons became manifest from the time of Zartosht and King Vishtasp.1
    1. Cf. Yasna 9 § 15.

    447. The Coming of Behram Varjavand, the last Apostle.


    Kamdin Shapur:

    When shall Ahriman be annihilated?
    At the resurrection. As has appeared from the religion, Ushedar, it is said, will come in (either of) the years 943 and 944.
    When will Behram (Varjavand) come?
    It is said that from the east,1 and from the quarters of Hind or China (he will appear) and as appears from the religion, the sign at his birth will be the falling of the stars.2 As has been known on this side, (i.e., in Persia), he will appear in the Parsi year 903 of King Yazdagard.

    For the rest, God (alone) is the diviner of mysteries.
    1. Lit. from there where the sun rises.

    2. See Bahman Yt. III §§ 14-15 (S.B.E., V pp. 220-21).

    Kamdin Shapur (in verse):-

    The signs (of the appearance of the apostles) are these :There would be (manifest) a king from Hind (i.e., India) or China from the lineage of the Kayans during those revengeful times. He will have a son of worthy motives and that son is called Behram (Varjavand). The sign is this that when he will be born in this world, stars will fall from the sky. This king of pure extraction (pâk-zâd) will be born on the day Wâd (i.e., Govad) of the month Aban.3 3. See Bahman Yt. III §§ 14-16.


    Say whether there are any Behdins anywhere else besides Gujarat. In a previous letter we had written that Varjavand Behram will come from the city of Tabbat or the city. of the Maidens from the midst of India or China.4 You should ascertain this, and should explain it (to us). Of what you have asked (about the time of the coming of Varjavand), our hope will be fulfilled in the religious year 920. 4. See Bahman Yt. III §§ 14-16.
    Again, we will write (the answers to) the questions you had asked, in another letter. May your good fortune be eternal. We hope that you will remember these humble ones (i.e., the Persians) in any Yasna-service you might offer. God's will be done.

    Dastur Barzu: About the coming of Varjavand:

    Every sect calls him by a (different) name. All of us have the eye of expectancy on his road. The Omnicient (God) only knows when he will appear: but it is said that there will be several signs before the coming of Varjavand, and some signs have (already) been effected. Our (only) hope is this that he may appear soon.

    448. The Immortals.

    Kamdia Shapur:-

    How many Immortals have accompanied King Kai Khusraw who has passed away?
    As it is known (to us), they are Giv of Gudarz, Tus of Nodar, Gustaham of Nodar, in all 1001 Immortals there are who belong to Ohrmazd and they have accompanied him, but these three (mentioned above) have been ascertained.

    Dastur Barzuji:-

    King Kai Khusraw is immortal and is in Kangdez. His food is spiritual.

    449. Good and bad effects of drinking Wine: about meritorious deeds.

    From the Ketâb-i Zand Avesta1:-


    1. Cf. this passage with Dastur Jamaspji's Pah. Texts, p. 37 and p. 74, ll. 1-4. There the passage is incomplete and begins at [mart (for martum) dush] manesh - i.e. , Enmity with men. Cf. also "Gajastak Abalish" by Barthelemy, p. 55.
    In the name of the Creator:
    If a person drinks wine, then five things will be made manifest1 to him2 as signs of his (good) disposition3:-- (1) Righteousness, (2) Complete-mindfulness, (3) Possession of Vohuman (i.e., the good mind.) (4) Friendship with men, (5) Charity and (6) Desire for concord.4 1. îrd sesh for îr pêdâish (see p. 70 l. 1)

    2. Vêsh for Vash = hsh = to him.

    3. xîg dâshâe.

    4. anâhic = (khvâhesh). Here 6 things are mentioned, but the opposite term for vohuman-dârîh is omitted in the following.
    And these five things will be made manifest, as the signs of his (bad) disposition:- (1) Wickedness, (2) Arrogance, (3) Discord, (4) Enmity with men and (5) Stinginess.
    Akoman, Andar, Soval, Akâit (for Nâkâit), Tavrez and Zavrez.5 These names of the Daevas are an interpolation. -- Cf. Bd. Ch. 1.
    Meritorious deeds nourish the soul, just as parents (nourish) their offspring. Good deeds will open the door of the resplendent heaven. Good deeds are like Garothman, the abode of Ohrmazd, which is great, good and more beautiful. Every grades (of the heavens) is made manifest from the testimony of the Avesta in the Hadokht (Nask) from the following quotation: (the heaven) as high as the knee, as high as a man, as high as a mountain; and the cloud-station, star-station, moon-station, sun-station and (the heaven of) self-sustaining endless lights.

    It is manifest that all these are the places of virtue (i.e., reserved for virtuous men), and the grade for the righteous is connected with meritorious deeds. One should do oneself these meritorious deeds. All men will approach Ohrmazd and the Ameshaspands [Amahraspands] through good deeds. At the Future Existence (tan-pasin), in the assembly of Isadvastar those who have practised good deeds will obtain reward, and recompense and retribution will be shown for crimes. Practise virtue, for virtue is good. Ashem, i.e., righteousness, is good.

    450. Agriras or Yovad Shah.

    Bahman Punjya:-

    God, the Honoured and Exalted, has given a son to Agriras. He is very virtuous like an angel and he is always (sitting) on the sea-shore. From [436] the waist (downwards), his body is like a bull, and from the head to the waist, he is like a man. He is called Yovad-Shah1 and he is an Immortal. 1. By this name, Agriras, son of Pashang and brother of Afrasiyab, is himself known in later Pahlavi writings. This and the following Rivayat take Yovad-Shah, i.e., Gopat Shah as the son of Agriras. See Menog-i Khrad, ch. 62 §§ 31-6.

    Dastur Barzu:-

    Yovad-Shah is the son of Agriras. God, the most High, has created him like an angel. He is like a man from the head upto the waist and like a bull from the waist to the feet. He is offering Yasna on the sea-shore, and because the angels are his associates, he is an Immortal.

    451. The Vow to be fulfilled on the birth of a male child.

    Kamdin Shapur:-

    About the day Mihr, of the month Mihr: everyone to whom an offspring, who is a male child, is bestowed by God, should cause the head of a gospend [livestock] to be slaughtered on the day Day-pa Mihr of the month Mihr1 in honour of Mihr Yazad for three years. The head should be separated from the body, and (this) meat-offering (Zur) should be placed on, the Darun (for consecration), and the gosend consecrated and carried to the Dar-i Mihr. One part of the (consecrated) gospend should be given to the owner2 (of the Dar-i Mihr) and one part to the Dastur (the High Priest) whom he acknowledges (as such), and the neck (of the gospend) should be given to the nurse (of the child). 1. As at the beginning we have the mention of the day Mihr, it follows that the gospand should be slaughtered on the preceding night, i.e., on the day Day-pa-Mihr.

    2. Sâhib: lit., the master or owner.

    [452. Parahom to be given to a newly born infant for drinking]

    453. The Seven Wonders of Pars -- invented by Jamshed.

    Kama Bohra:-

    It is thus stated that the good pastor Jamshed had erected a palace in the city of Bâlist1 and he had devised seven things in that palace (which stood there) until the accursed Sikandar Rumi2 came to Iran and destroyed it. 1. for Pars (see MU. II, p. 416. l. 1 and l. 4).

    2. [i.e. Alexander the Great. "Rumi" (<Roman) is a generic term for foreigner. -JHP]
    One was a lamp put within it which burnt without oil.

    Secondly, there was a bird which stood in front of the palace underneath the sky, which did not throw its shadow under the sun; but if a person stood in front of that bird, the latter would throw its shadow on him; and if a thousand persons stood there, it would cast its shadow on 1000 persons.

    Thirdly, he had made a harp whose handle was of lapis lazuli and four musical strings were tied on it. When the wind blew over it, a sound like that of the harp would proceed; and if one had ague and heard the sound of the harp, (the fever) would subside.

    Fourthly, he had made flies of gold which flew (like ordinary flies). If a person had taken poison and heard the noise of the wings of the flies, the effect of the poison would disappear. [437]

    Fifthly, he had made a flask. If a hundred men would participate in a feast (myazd) and if wines of all colours poured within it in the name of every one (of the hundred men), then (the particular) wine would go to (the lot of) that individual (in whose name the wine was poured first in the flask) and even the colour (of the wine) which had been selected in the name of the person would come out (the same) for him.

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