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Avestan language: Vocabulary

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Highest frequency: Words occurring over 500 times

ahurO ,Oruha Ahura, the Lord, God (N) (509)
aCahe ,ehaCa Of Asha (Truth, Righteousness, World Order) (G) (621)
AaT ,TaA Then (adv.) (815)
mazdl ,ldzam Mazda, God, Omniscient (NG) (808)
nOiT ,TiOn Not (adv.) (564)
paiti ,itiap (V) m. lord, husband; a leader. 3: (prep.) against; along, back; on, upon; because of; with regard to, for; in exchange for (515)
WA ,AW Or (encl.); ~ ... ~: either .. or (684)
YaT ,TaY Who, which, that (n. NAV); when, as (conj.) (716)
Yaqa ,aqaY As; when; that; (conj.); ~ ... ~: either .... or (507)
Yazamaide ,ediamazaY We worship, honor, venerate (verb. cl. 1.) (1791)
YO ,OY Who, which (pron., mNV) (768)

Highest frequency: Words occurring over 200 times

ahe ,eha Of this, of that (mnG) (246)
ahmAi ,iAmha To (or for) this, to (or for) that (D); we (plD) (208)
ahurahe ,eharuha Of Ahura, of the Lord, of God (G) (292)
aCaonO ,OnoaCa Of Asha, of Truth, of Righteousness, World Order (G) (422)
aCawanvm ,mvnawaCa Ashavan, owning Asha, Asha-sanctified (A) (297)
aCAum ,muACa O Ashavan, O righteous one (V) (286)
aCvm ,mvCa Asha, Truth, Righteousness, World Order (NA) (400)
asti ,itsa Is (3/1) (218)
awi ,iwa towards (adv., prep. with A or G) (249)
ayese ,eseya I wish, I desire, I demand (1/1) (249)
dAtarv ,vratAd O Giver; O Maker, O Creator (mV) (249)
frawaCIm ,mICawarf Fravashi (farohar); guardian spirit or angel (A) (290)
haca ,acah From (prep. with I, Abl) (453)
hE ,Eh Of him, to, for him, of her, to her, for her (DG) (343)
mraoT ,Toarm (He) said (inj. pres. act. 3/1) (305)
ratUm ,mUtar Master, one who is in authority, judge (A) (275)
taT ,Tat It (nNAV); then (adv.) (216)
tlscA (tls + -cA) ,Acslt And this, that, he, she, it (GAV f. plN) (240)
WohU ,UhoW Good (A, nI, plA; GAv NA) (375)
YA ,AY who; which; (I, m.duNV, n.duA, fN, plN, n.pl.NAV); so that (conj.) (446)
YeSti ,itSeY With worship, adoration (f.I) (249)
Yezi ,izeY If (conj.) (249)
Yim ,miY Who; whom; which (nN, mA) (222)
YOi ,iOY Who, which (m.plN) (284)
zaraquStra ,artSuqaraz (also written ,ar!uqaraz) Zarathushtra, name of the prophet of Zoroastrianism (pr. noun. m.) (307)

Highest frequency: Words occurring over 100 times

aECa,aCEa This (NI,fN) (150)
aECLm,mLCEa This (fA,plG) (122)
aEte,etEa This, that (m.plNA) (116)
ahmAT [azvm],TAmha Us (plAbl); this (Abl)(111)
ahmi [aEm or ah] ,imha This (L); I am (ind. pres. act. 1/1) (187)
ahurA [ahura] ,Aruha O Ahura, O Lord (V) (107)
ahurvm [ahura] ,mvruha Ahura, Lord (A) (127)
ahU [ahu] ,Uha Lord (mN) (154)
aMhaT [ah] ,TahMa To be (subj. pres. act. 3/1) (117)
aCaonLm [aCawan] ,mLnoaCa Of the Ashavans, of the righteous (plG) (148)
aCaone,enoaCa Ashavan, righteous one (D,fL) (169)
... aCaonIm,mInoaCa Ashavan, righteous one (fA) (121)
aCava [ashavan],avaCa Ashavan, righteous one (102)
aCaya [aCa] ,ayaCa Asha, Truth, Righteousness, World Order (L) (156)
aCAunLm,mLnuACa Of Ashavans, of righteous ones (plG) (117)
aT [-, aem] ,Tathen, but, and (adv.) (138)
awaT [awa],Tawa that, those (dem. pron); so long, this, that (adv.) (129)
azvm [-],mvza I (pers. pron. N) (167)
A,A At, to, near, by, up, towards (adv., prep. with A, Abl, G, L) (145)
ApO [ap],OpA Water (G, plNAV) (163)
Ayaptvm,mvtpayA Riches, gifts of grace, blessings, boons (NA, plA) (104)
druxS [druj],Sxurd Lie, deceit, deceiver, lier, Druj (a demoness) (NV) (168)
frasastayaEca [frasasti],acEayatsasarf And with praise, glorification, satisfaction (D) (158)
frawaCayO,OyaCawarf Fravashis, guardian spirits or angels (plNA) (103)
hazaMrvm [hazaMra],mvrMazah One thousand (A) (112)
hvNti [ah],itNvh We are (pres. ind. act. 3/3) (114)
hyaT,Tayh (An indefinite pronoun of the neuter gender, mostly used in the Gatha dialect, implying:) 'that which'; (also used as a participle, which following different meanings:) therefore, consequently; thereby; when; from the time; because; that is, i.e.; (as a connecting particle between a noun and its qualifying adjective, e.g.:) "manascā hyat vahishtem"; (in several instances, used as an expletive in the Gathas for the purpose of scansion. (Sp.) (see K605) (109)
mazdA [-],Adzam O Mazda, God, Omniscient (V) (181)
mazdLm,mLdzam Mazda, God, Omniscient (A) (112)
mA,Am ! (emph. particle); not, never (do this)! (negative particle/prohibitive); [azem] my (mN, m.plA) (130)
mE [azvm],Em For me, mine (encl. DG) (109)
miqrvm [miqra],mvrqim Mithra; a contract, promise, agreement, friendship, commitment, 7th month of the year (A) (110)
nasuS [nasa],Susan Dead matter; defilement; demon of corruption (m.f.N) (148)
nLma [nLman],amLn Name (n. NA, plA) (145)
raqBe [ratu],eBqar For or to the master (one who is in authority, judge) (D) (131)
raya [raE],ayar Splendor (see k433), riches, wealthy (see Bailey 10) (I) (181)
spitama [-],amatips O Spitama, family name of Zarathushtra (V) (177)
tE [ta],Et This, that; he, she, it (DG, duA, plNA) (127)
qwA [qwa],awq You, your (AI, n.plNA) (122)
upa,apu Near, towards, by, up, to (adv., prep.); high, much (adj.)(145)
upa-dwLsaiti [upa-dwLs],itiasLwd-apu to rush on, to fall upon (pres. act. 3/1) (101)
WahiStvm [WahiSta],mvtSihaW Best (n.m.A) (141)
WahmAica,aciAmhaW Adoration, prayer (D) (137)
WairyO [Wairya],OyriaW Agreeable, desirable; wish; will; self-commanding (N) (157)
WaMhuyl,lyuhMaW Of good, virtuous; a thing (orig.) goods, a good thing; a gift, creation (fG) (110)
WaMuhIS,SIhuMaW Good (see above) (f.pl.NA) (105)
WIspe [WIspa],epsIW All (m.plNAV) (109)
xCnaoqrAica [xCnaoqra],aciArqoanCx propitiation, satisfaction (nD) (122)
XarvnO [XarvnaMh],OnvraX Khwarrah (often untransl.), divine grace or fortune, favor, good things (NA) (111)
YasnAica [Yasna + -ca],aciAnsaY And with worship, sacrifice; prayer (D) (142)
YaqA [Yaqa],aqaY As; when; that; (conj.); ~ ... ~: either .... or (GAv) (175)
YLm,mLY Whom; which (fA) (103)
Yl,lY Who; which (f.plNA) (163)
zaraquStrO [ZaraquStra] ,OrtSuqarazZarathushtra, founder of Zoroastrianism (N) (124)
zLm [zam, zem],mLz Earth (fA) (106)


centurysatayArv ,vrAyatas
dawnWI-WaMh ,hMaW-IW
day (daytime)asarv ,vrasa
day (i.e. 24 hour period starting at midnight) xCapara ,arapaCx
duskuCaMh ,hMaCu
monthmlMh ,hMlm
morninguCA ,ACu
nightnaxtu ,utxan (n)
nightxCap ,paCx (f)
noonrapiqBA ,ABqipar
timezrwAn ,nAwrz
yearYArv ,vrAY


beararCa ,aCra
beaverbaBra ,arBab
boar, wild pigwarAza ,azAraW
cameluStra ,artSu
cow or bull gao ,oag
crabkahrpu ,uprahk
dogspan ,naps
eaglesaena ,aneas
fishmasya ,aysam
goatbUza ,azUb
hedgehogsIZaka, duZaka ,akaZud .,akaZIs
horseaspa ,apsa
livestock (small, i.e. goat, sheep, small cattle)anumaya ,ayamuna
livestockpasu ,usap
mousemUS ,SUm
otterudra ,ardu
snakeaZi ,iZa
vulturekarkAsa ,asAkrak
wolfwvhrkA ,AkrhvW

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