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Dhalla: The Nyaishes or Zoroastrian Litanies

This digital edition copyright © 2003 by Joseph H. Peterson.

NOTE: You will need Avestan fonts in order to read some of this text.






Edited by


Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages
in Columbia University



All rights reserved









All rights reserved

Copyrighted 1908
By The Columbia University Press
Set up and electrotyped. Published January 1909.

Press of
The New Era Printing Company
Lancaster, PA.



Parsi Pioneer of Zoroastrian Studies
in India



The present book is the first of several volumes on the Khordah Avesta of the Zoroastrian Canon, which Dr. Dhalla plans to publish in this series. It is pleasant to welcome the work as a contribution by one who is himself a Zoroastrian priest and who was sent by the Parsi community of India to pursue his studies for three years and a half in America.

A. V. Williams Jackson.



As the main points which I wished to emphasize regarding the scope and method adopted in this work will be found in the Introduction I shall utilize these few lines for the pleasant duty of expressing the feeling of gratitude that I owe to others.

Now that my work at Columbia University has come to a happy close, I recall with gratification the generous help given to me by my Parsi community in India in enabling me to come to America so that I might add to my Eastern equipment the knowledge of Western scholarship. For this privilege I shall remain under lasting obligation to them.

My most cordial thanks are due to Professor A. V. Williams Jackson under whose guruship I have passed three of the most instructive years of my life. Happy it was to have the oppor­tunity of work with one so inspiring as an aEQrapaiti; and pleas­ant will remain the memory of those many happy hours of instruction and enlightenment, when in the future, to adopt the noble words of Zatsparam [Zadspram], I shall try to deliver back to the worthy whatever is taught liberally by my teacher.

I have also to thank my friend and fellow-student, Mr. George C. O. Haas, who has greatly lightened my work by carefully going over the proof-sheets with acumen all his own, and thus adding to the accuracy of the book.

I should also like to record my appreciation of the work of the printers, The New Era Printing Company, who have executed it in a most creditable manner, especially when one considers the fact that more than half of the work (the italic portion) had to be done in not less than five different foreign tongues.

M. N. Dhalla.

Columbia University, New York,
May 25, 1908.



Introduction ....ix
Bibliography .... xix
Abbreviations .... xxi
Text and Translation of the Nyaishes:
1. Khurshed Nyaish .... 2
2. Mihr Nyaish .... 66
3. Mah Nyaish .... 82
4. Aban Nyaish .... 112
5. Atash Nyaish .... 134
Collation of the Pahlavi Manuscripts:
1. Khurshed Nyaish .... 191
2. Mihr Nyaish .... 202
3. Mah Nyaish .... 204
4. Aban Nyaish .... 208
5. Atash Nyaish .... 213
Notes .... 227



The Nyaishes. The Nyaishes, or Zoroastrian litanies, are a collection of five short prayers or ascriptions of praise addressed to the Sun, Moon, Water, and Fire, and to the Angels Khurshed, Mihr, Mah, Ardvisur, and Atash, who preside over these ele­ments. They are composed of fragments taken from the Yasna and Yashts which are found in the Greater Avesta, and they form an important part of the Khordah Avesta, or Lesser Avesta, a redaction of which, together with introductory Pazand prayers, was begun by Dastur Adarbad Mahraspand during the reign of Shapur 2 (310-379 A.D.), and kept up in a way for a long time. These litanies constitute a sort of religious chrestomathy, consisting of short prayers, invocations, supplications, depreca­tions, and obsecrations employed in daily use by laymen as well as by priests.

Like the greater part of the Avesta, the original Avestan Nyaishes were rendered into Pahlavi (about 700-900 A. D.), later into Sanskrit (1200), into Persian (1600-1800), and lastly into Gujarati (1818). The Pahlavi, Persian, and Gujarati versions of all the Nyaishes have come down to us complete together with commentaries of an exegetical nature. The San­skrit version, on the other hand, is complete for the Khurshed, Mah, and Atash Nyaishes; but is lacking in the case of the Mihr and Aban Nyaishes, so far as our manuscript material goes.

Scope and Arrangement. In the present work I have given the several texts in transliteration on one side, and have placed on the opposite page my translation of each into English. With the exception of the original Avestan text none of the texts has been previously translated. The complete Pahlavi text is likewise collated and edited here for the first time, and adds something, therefore, to the existing fund of Pahlavi literature hitherto published.

[x] Materials Used for Avestan and Sanskrit. I have based my Avestan text on Dr. Geldner's admirable edition, entitled Avesta, the Sacred Books of the Parsis, Stuttgart, 1896. In certain cases, however, I have followed readings suggested by Bartholomae in his Altiranisches Wörterbuch, Strassbufg, 1904. For the San­skrit text I have adopted Ervad Sheriarji's critical edition of Neryosangh's Khordah Avesta, Bombay, 1907.

Materials Used. In preparing the present edition of the Pahlavi text I have been much indebted to the generous aid of Shams-ul Ulma Jivanji Jamshedji Modi, who collected seventeen Avesta-Pahlavi manuscripts from different parts of India and sent them to America for my use. I feel deeply obliged to the several owners of these manuscripts for their readiness to put them at my disposal. I have likewise to thank Librarian F. W. Thomas and the Trustees of the East India Office Library at London, for their kindness in placing in my hands one Avesta-Pahlavi and one Avesta-Persian manuscript, at the request of my teacher, Professor Jackson.

I cannot at this stage of my work give a fully detailed descrip­tion or a comprehensive review of the merits and demerits of the various manuscripts, neither can I enter into any textual criticism of the same; this can be done only when, in addition to the Nyaish portion, I have edited the other parts of the Pahlavi Khordah Avesta, besides the Nyaishes themselves, as I plan to do in the near future. But I give here a general account of the codexes which I have used.

Manuscript Material for Pahlavi. The manuscripts used in the preparation of the Pahlavi text are, in the order used in this work, as follows:

Mulla Firuz Library, Bombay

Written by Mobed Kaus Rustam and finished on the 21st day of the 2nd month A. Y. 1135. Careful and correct.
Without colophon. Beautiful Iranian script. Very correct. Not modern.
No colophon. Modern. Carelessly written.

Manekji Rustamji Unwala

Written by Tehmur Naoroz Rustam Behram Sanjana and finished on the 1st day of the 5th month A. Y. 1162. Carefully written. With interlinear Persian glosses.
Without colophon. Carefully written.
Without colophon. Ervad Unwala writes that it was copied by Dastur Jamshedji Rustamji Mehrji Rana.
Written by Dastur Rustamji Noshervanji. Most closely akin to F2 Probably copied from it.

Darab Peshotan Sanjana

Written by Dastur Edalji Darabji Sanjana about a hundred years ago. Very correct. Copied from more than one original manuscript. Occasional explanatory glosses in Persian.

Kaikhusru Jamaspji

Without colophon. Hastily written, but correct. Often differing in construction from others.

Columbia University Library, New York

Used by Geldner in his edition of the Avestan text. For­merly belonging to Mobed Framji Fardunji Madan, now at the Library of Columbia University, presented by Dastur Kaikhusru Jamaspji through Professor Jackson. Carefully written. Finished at Yazd by Rustam Gushtasp Ardashir on the 28th day of the 10th(?) month A.Y. 1075.

Behramgore Tehmuras Anklesaria

Verbatim copy of F2. According to Mr. Behramgore, it was copied by Mobed Khudabax Farrudabad about thirty years ago.

East India Office Library, London

Finished A.Y. (11?) 24 = A. D. 1755. Carefully written. Used by Geldner in his Avesta edition. Also used by [xii] Darmesteter in Etudes Iraniennes, 2. 275-315, Paris, 1883.

Edalji Keresaspji Antia

Without colophon. Akin to U2. According to Ervad Antia, written by Dastur Sorabji Framji Mehrji Rana, of Navsari.

Jivanji Jamshedji Modi

Written by Mobed Jamshed Peshotan Hormazdyar Dastur Jamasp Sanjana, of Bulsar, in A. Y. 1123 (=1753 A. D.). Careless. Sometimes gives valuable explana­tory glosses.
Without colophon. Akin to U2.
Without colophon. Akin to U3.

Mehrji Rana Library, Navsari

Written by Sohrab Dastur Framroz Sohrab Rustam and finished on the 7th day of the 6th month A. Y. 1213. Akin to U2. It has an interlinear Persian version. Good.
Mr2 Written by the same scribe and finished on the 1st day of the 4th month A. Y. 1222, possibly from the same original. It also has an interlinear Persian version.

Other Manuscript Material. Other manuscripts which give the Pahlavi version of one or more Nyaishes, but which were not accessible to me, are, as named by Geldner in the pro­legomena to his Avesta edition, pp. v-xiv, as follows:

J15 This manuscript gives the version of the Khurshed Nyaish.
J58 This gives the Aban arid Atash Nyaishes. (Quoted from West's article, Pahlavi Literature, in Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie, 2. 88, Strassburg, 1896-1904.)

University Library, Kopenhagen

This manuscript gives all the Nyaishes.

Kgl. und Staatsbibliothek, Munich

This has the Khurshed Nyaish.

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris

This contains all the Nyaishes.

Lithographed Pahlavi Text. In addition to the manuscripts, there is also a lithographed edition of the Pahlavi text which appeared in an edition of the Avesta-Pahlavi text of the whole Khordah Avesta, with a Pahlavi-Persian glossary. This edition is by Ervad Kavashji Nasharvanji Kanga, entitled  pAk khordeh avastA tenI pehelavI mAenI SuddhL, published at Bombay in 1859. The introduction to this is in Gujarati and was printed from type. The compilation of the text, as the editor says, is based on several manuscripts. It is a careful piece of work, but its critical value is impaired, as it does not give details of the collation which fixed the text nor does it enter into questions of textual criticism.

Persian Manuscript. My Persian text Is based on L25, used also by Darmesteter in Etudes Iraniennes, 2. 275-315, Paris, 1883. Besides this manuscript, I have made occasional reference to the interlinear Persian version which runs fairly constantly throughout MSS. Mr1,2. I have made similar references to the explanatory glosses in Persian which appear incidentally in other manuscripts, and I have embodied these in my notes wherever they seemed of value.

Gujarati Version. The last independent native version that appeared before the influence of Western scholarship penetrated into India was a version in Gujarati. Two separate renderings in this tongue appeared within five months of each other in the year 1818. Both of these were published at Bombay. The first was the Khordeh AvastA bA mAenI, iAne NIAeS tathA iaSt mAenI SAthe, by Dastur Framji Shohorabji Nosharivala, and the second, Khordeh AvastAno tarjumo, by Ervad Edal Darab Rustam Sanjana (afterwards Dastur Edalji Darabji Sanjana). As neither of these was accessible to me in its original form, I have based [xiv] my text of the Gujarati version upon a reprint of the second, or Sanjana version, which was published by Behedin Dadabhai Kavashji, and entitled AvastA bA mAenI, Bombay, A. Y. 1239 (= 1818 A. D.). This version, as the publisher states in the introduction, is a verbatim reproduction of the previous work by the learned Dastur and it therefore serves as an adequate substitute for the original.

Method Adopted in Transliterating Pahlavi. The method adopted for the transliteration of the Pahlavi, as also the Avestan and Persian, is substantially that used by the various writers in the Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie, Strassburg, 1896-1904.

In transcribing the Pahlavi I was inclined at first to adopt the method which I had employed in an article in the Spiegel Me­morial Volume, viz: of giving both the Huzvarish and the Pazand equivalents, the latter in brackets. But after due deliberation I decided against that course in this particular case, for the reason that the Persian version itself serves that purpose sufficiently well.

Difficulties of the Iranian Translators. It is to be observed that the Pahlavi version of the Avestan Nyaishes, like that of the other parts of the Avesta, is a word for word rendering of the original, except in the case of independent explanatory glosses. This very close adherence to the original construction, together with the inflectional poverty of the Pahlavi language and the use of transcriptions in the case of obscure Avestan words, adds much to the ambiguity of the Pahlavi rendering and makes it clumsy as compared with the Pahlavi of independent treatises like the Denkard or Dadestan-i Denig.

To overcome the obstacle thrown in his way by the imperfect inflectional apparatus, the Pahlavist generally meets the difficulty by the use of particles, which he often, however, omits. This omission of the sole means of indicating the syntactical relation of a word in a sentence greatly increases Neryosangh's difficulty in adjusting the proper bearing of one word upon the others, and of gathering the true significance of the construction, which is [xv] particularly concise in Pahlavi writings. It must be acknowl­edged, however, that he has succeeded on the whole remarkably well, owing to his intimate knowledge of Pahlavi. His Sanskrit version suffers, moreover, because of his faithfully following the Pahlavi construction and rendering it word for word into San­skrit. This method often obliges him to sacrifice the Sanskrit syntax to that of his original Pahlavi. Hence it is that his San­skrit assumes a hybrid type of Iranicized Sanskrit, which can be fully understood only in the light of the Pahlavi construction.

Value of the Traditional Versions. By bringing together four different versions of the original Avesta, I have endeavored to give side by side, in consecutive order, the tradition as repre­sented at various periods of Iranian study. Besides its other value, tradition often proves to be a safeguard for the elucida­tion of obscure ideas and for the interpretation of native thought, which might otherwise be unintelligible. Even the thorough ­going linguist, when his philological attempt at analysis of a word has failed to yield result, can turn ultimately toward tradi­tion for some light. As an example, I might cite certain in­stances in which the tradition contributes to a better understand­ing of a word or expression, even if it has nothing particularly new to add to the results that might otherwise be obtained. Such instances in the Nyaishes are the following: [///] pad^a-xfa-stati-, sarmumant-sfira- (Ny. 1. 8), taste t&sca (Ny. 1. 16), gao.cidra-, paiti.dlti- (Ny. 3. 1), tfad-ro.nahi- (Ny. 3. 10), hn.bdr3ti-, vltd.-fonti-y vantaMrHi- (Ny. 5. 13), dzd.bug- (Ny. 5. 11). In the same category we must include the various explanatory glosses given by the commentators. We may accept their interpretation or we may reject it, as we choose, but we cannot deny the fact that their interpretation gives at least views that were closer to the original teachings in point of time and associated more closely in a measure with the thought then current than we are to-day. The Pahlavi version was made at a time when the language of the Avesta had become almost dead and the knowledge of the sacred text was on its decline. The Sanskrit, Persian, and Gujarati versions belong to a still later period and are based upon [xvi] the Pahlavi. Except in the case of Neryosangh, the knowledge which their composers possessed of the original Avestan lan­guage was practically reduced to nothing. The Pahlavi version was for them the only medium through which to interpret the Avestan writings. Such being the case, we can hardly expect these translators to make any marked improvement on the Pah­lavi version and help us to interpret the original Avestan books better than was done by the Pahlavi commentators themselves. We therefore find that wherever the Pahlavist has failed to grasp the meaning of the original Avestan words and has rendered them erroneously, the authors of the later versions repeat, for the most part, the same mistakes. Compare, for example, jayaurva/t- (Ny. I. 8), Ahuranis (Ny. I. 18), misti- (Ny. 3. 6), afnah'vant- (Ny. 3. 7), dayata (Ny. 3. n), afrasah'vant- (Ny. 5. 12). Neryosangh occasionally corrects the Pahlavi rendering when he thinks it faulty. This shows—and I would emphasize the fact—that he had recourse at times to the Avestan text itself. Compare, for instance, his rendering of abyo (Ny. 1. 5). This is never the case with the later Persian and Gujarat! translators; in fact we may say that the more remote the tradi­tion becomes from its original source, the less is its value. And yet these later versions have their own merit, since, like Neryo-sangh's Sanskrit version, they often help us to a better under­standing of some obscure and ambiguous passage in the Pahlavi version, if not to a clearer understanding of the original Avesta. Parts of the Avesta in which, the Commentators are More Free with their Glosses. The Pahlavi commentators in general have written more upon those parts of the Avesta which they have thought to be more useful for the common people. This is one of the reasons why there are more commentaries on the Vendidad, ' the Leviticus of the Parsis/ than on the Yasna, which is mainly liturgical. The former contains the rules and regulations that affected the daily life of the people and accord­ingly, needed more expounding, whereas the latter, being used chiefly for liturgical purposes by the priesthood, did not require [xvii] long explanatory. glosses. In the same manner, the Khordah Avesta, which forms that portion of the Zoroastrian literature that the laity had to use daily in common with the clergy, was thought to require more extensive commentary by way of expo­sition. It is also true that the more abstract and obscure an Avestan passage is, the less has been the attempt of the com­mentators to explain it. We find this in the case of those Nyaishes in which certain stanzas from the Gathas occur. These verses as a rule have very few glosses, as contrasted with the other parts of the Nyaishes, which are often accompanied by elaborate glosses. In making their version, moreover, the com­mentators sometimes differ from each other not only in the form of statement and construction, but also in the matter of intro­ducing interpretations of their own. Neryosangh's Original. More than one independent version of the Pahlavi Khordah Avesta existed in oral and written tra­dition, and Neryosangh had access to these when he compiled his Sanskrit text. Unfortunately the old manuscripts have not come down to us, as all the copies that we now possess were made some time during the last two centuries. These have various additions that are due to the copyists; we cannot therefore point to any single manuscript or group of manuscripts as having been the original actually used by Neryosangh. Neryosangh's Style. From what has already been said re­garding the method adopted by our versionists, it is easy to understand that Neryosangh's Sanskrit style would naturally dif­fer from the ordinary Sanskrit literary style. I cannot here go into the question in detail, but shall reserve that for treatment in a succeeding volume. I may mention here, however, one of his peculiarities; it is his treatment of the rules of Sandhi. Neryo­sangh does not follow the ordinary rules of euphonic combina­tion, because he had reasons for employing the pause, or virama-form of the words which he used In making his translation. Hundreds of examples might be cited offhand; I need only re­fer to such forms as m&itri adhipatim, sahasram lajdsndm. yah amarak, ataeva, vrsph dradkaye, yebhyah ay am, nirndtd asti, [xviii] narastrlakrtin, pravrttik CandrasUryayoh. In my transliteration I have preserved in general these peculiarities of the text, with the exception, however, of changing Neryosangh's anusvara (m) to the consonantal m throughout before vowels and the labials. It would have been more consistent to have followed the orig­inal text in this respect likewise. Plan Adopted in the Notes. As the different versions are given side by side with their respective translations, I have not thought it necessary throughout to draw the reader's attention to the scores of instances in which the tradition deviates from the original Avesta, or where one particular version differs from another. I have made, it is true, a slight exception to this rule in the first Nyaish, where I have occasionally pointed out some of the more striking variations. I have, likewise, generally omit­ted to cite references to the original Avestan passages which have inspired the commentators, as these are already familiar to every student of the Zoroastrian literature. My purpose throughout the work has been to be as brief as possible. Value of the Present Work for the Parsis. The present work, I hope, will be of special interest to the Parsis, as it places before them versions of their sacred literature made by their own priests at different periods in the history of the Zoroastrian relig­ion. This will enable them to see and judge how their scriptures were understood and interpreted by their learned clerics at vari­ous epochs from the bright days of the rise of the Sasanids to the dark days that followed long after the fall of their empire.



Anquetil du Perron. Zend-Avesta, a. 8-24. Paris, 1771.

Bartholomae, Christian. Altiranisches Worterbtich. Strassburg, 1004.

Bharucha, Sheriarji Dadabhai. Collected Sanskrit writings of the Parsis. Part 1, pp. 8-19. Bombay, 1906. Bleeck, Arthur Henry. Avesta; the religious books of the Parsees; from Spiegel's German translation, 3. 6-13. London, 1864. Cavashji, Dadabnai. Avasta ba maenl. Bombay, 1818. Darmesteter, James. Etudes Iraniennes, 2. 275-318. Paris, 1883. ------Le Zend-Avesta, traduction nouvelle, a. 691-708. Paris, 1S92. (An- nales du Miisee Guimet, vol. 22.) -----Tlie Zend-Avesta, 2. 349-361. Oxford, 1883. (Sacred Books of the East, vol. 23.)

Geldner, Karl P. Avesta, the Sacred Books of the Parsis, 2. 37-51. Stutt­gart, 1889. de Harlez, C. Avesta, Livre sacre du Zoroastrisme, pp. 575-582. Paris, 1881.

Kanga, Cavasji Edalji. Khordeh Avesta, pp. 25-49, 55-86. Bombay, 1902. Kanga, Cavasji Nasharvanji. Pak Khordeh Avasta, tenl Pehelavi maenl suddha, pp. 20-67. Bombay, 1859.

Kleuker, Johann Friederich. Zend-Avesta, 2. 104-114. Riga, 1786. Madan, Hehrjibhai Palanji. Khordeh Avasta. Bombay, 1887. Mulla Firozna, Dastur Ardeshar Hustamji. Khurdeh Avasta ba maenl. Bombay, 1861.

Nanabhai Nasharvanji Palanji. Khurdeh Avasta. Bombay, 1866. Kosharivala, Faramji Sorabji. Khordeh Avasta ba maenl. Bombay, 1818. Sanjana, Edal Darab Hustam. Khordeh Avastano tarjumo. Bombay, 1818.

Spiegel, Friedrich. Avesta, die HeiHgen Schriften der Parsen, 3. 8-18. Leipzig, 1863. ----- Commentar iiber das Avesta, 2. 469-473. Wien, 1868.

Westergaaid, If. L. Zendavesta, pp. 313-317. Copenhagen, 1852-54.



?Zr =: ablative. see. = accusative. ? adj. — adj ective. adv. = adverb. Air. Wb. = Altiranisches Worterbiich (Bartholomae). Ar. = Arabic. Av. = Avesta. =:Bundahishn. . *, = (confer), compare. tlat = dative. dem. = demonstrative. . :• ? ok. = Denkart. ???•"*'" .4$& =: dual. ed. =: edition of, edited by. fit. In = Etudes Iraniennes (Darmesteter). fern. = feminine. fut. = future. . Fr. W. = Fragment Westergaard. gen. = genitive. # GIrPh. =: Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie. Guj. =: Gujarati. i ». ^ (id est), that is. = (ibidem), in the same work. ittf. = infinitive. instr. = instrumental. JRAS. = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. LeZA. = Le Zend-Avesta (Dannesteter). lit. — literally. l«* = locative. ' niase. = masculine. Mod. Pers = Modern Persian. MS. = Manuscript. =: Neryosangh. ! neut. ^ neuter. nom. = nominative. 1 H>. = Nyaish. oai. = omit, omits. op. cit. = (opus citatum), the work previously cited Paz. = Pazand. Pers. =: Persian. ? PWr = Pahlavi. j& = plural. A. oref. = prefix. \ [xxii] ,*t ~ ? pres. — present. ' '? ' pron. = pronoun. i ? . ptcpl. ~ participle. , - sing. = singular. i Skt, — Sanskrit. Sp. —Spiegel, Sr. =Sirozah. . tr, = translated by, translation of, transcr. = transcription. Vd. = Vendidad. vers. ™ version. Vsp. = Visperad. " '?' - VYt. = Vishtasp Yasht. Ys. = Yasna. Yt. = Yasht. ZDMG. = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. ( ) = these parentheses indicate glosses that occur in the versions. [ ] =the square brackets indicate my own additions. ... = these dots are used to indicate abbreviations in the text, answering to the use of ia and vad of the Iranian writers. [ , . . ] =a the dots in the square brackets show that the text is missing. f"''"'





I. Khurshed Nyaish.


Avesta. [The introductory passage does not occur in the Avestan text.]


Pazand. 0 (pa n&m i Yazd&, stAem zbAem dAdAr hOrmvzd i rayOmaNd i XarahemaNd i harWisp AgAh i kardagAr i XadABaNd& XadABaNd i pAdiSAh bar hamA pAdiSAh& i nagAhdAr i xAlik i maxlUk arizk rOZI dahiNda i kAdir u kaWI u kadIm i baxSAiNda i baxSAiSgar i mihirb&n, tw&nA u dAnA [GJM, GKE append "u dAdAr"] u pAk parBardagAr, Adil pAdiSAhI iqO bVzaWAl bASaT,
hOrmvzd i XadAe i aBazUnI gurz Xarahe aBazAyAT,
XarSVT i amarg i rayOmaNd i aurwaNd asp [bV rasAT]
pa nqm i Yazdq-. stdem zbdem ddddr Hormazd % rayomand i x*arahemand i harvisp agah i kardagdr i x°addiuandq. x°addtva?id i padisah bar hams, padisdhq i nagdkddr i xalik i maxlnk alrazak rd&l dakinda i kddir u kavl u kadim i baxS&wda i baxsaisgar i mihirbq. tvqnff, u ddnd u pdk partvardagar. adil padilahl bazaval bdsaU Hormazd i x"adde i awasUnl gtirz x°arahe awazdydt. Xvars3t i amarg i raydmand i aurvand asp bs rasat. az hanid gundh . . . pa patit hdm. Pahlavi. pavanx Ism i Yasdan {aS^2 ?mn Sim i Yazddn petlsdr3 vabidunaiti). stayisn* u azbdyiSn vabidfmam6 ddtdr Ohrmazd rayomand gadB.dmand* rd vispdkas7 (aSy8 harnd* dkasih xavililnH10) kdrkartdr11 martumann madam13 hamakli x^atdyanlft x*aiQ, pataxldh1B madam harvisp17 pdtaxsdhan l8 pas-pdnlh19 vabiduntak™ petdk71 vabidUntak22 hamdk^ martum2* w26 tordn u™ gospandvdyandakitn'i& rd rdclkyekabilntakw tuvdnn x°affii2 kudrat*3 xelkuyitak39 vinds hamd bandakdn40 alt uil baxlaiskar mitrbani% titvdnil u dan&k upak fravartdr.** nSwak*6 Sahidth45 Id stiwdl*" yehvunt.iS Ohrmazd*9 x°atd (xvatdm 3 gihdn awzHnik*1 vabidUn-tak hamd mandavamzkd rd) rawdii u rolnih awzun yehvftndt. X^arsUM amark6S rdydmand** arvadaspBS {aydwdrth59 yehanitnndt.. min ham.dk vinds . . . pavan patH hav&m. ir\ -I. O ZOROASTRIAN LITANIES , i. Khurshed1 Nyaisli English Translation of the Avesta, Pahlavx, Sanskrit, Persian, and Gujarati Versions o Avesta. [The introductory passage does not occur in the Aves­tan text.] o Pazand. In the name of God. I praise1 and invoke the creator Ormazd, the radiant, glorious, omniscient, maker, lord of lords, king over all kings, watchful, creator of the universe, giver of daily bread,2 powerful, strong, eternal, forgiver, merciful, loving, mighty, wise, holy, and nourisher. May [His] just kingdom be imperishable. May the majesty and glory of Ormazd, the beneficent lord, increase. [Hither] may come the immortal, radiant, swift-horsed Sun. Of all sins . . .8 I repent. Paolavi. In the name of God (that is, I begin in the name of God). I offer praise and invocation unto the creator Ormazd, the radiant, glorious, omniscient (that is, He foreknows every­thing), maker of men, lord over all lords, king over all kings, protector, creator of all men, cattle, animals, and birds, giver of full means, powerful lord, strong, powerful, eternal, forgiver of the sins of all beings, the merciful, loving, efficient and wise, holy, nourishing. Let [His] good sovereignty be without an end. May the activity and splendor of the lord Ormazd (the lord of both worlds, the promoter of all things) increase. May the im­mortal, radiant, swift-horsed Sun come (for our help). Of all sins ... I am penitent. [4] I. O- KHURSHED NYAISH O Sanskrit. [. . .] samastebhyah pdpebhyah . . . pa'scataptena asmi. o Persian, ba ndm /sad. sitdyis' kunatn u zikr kunam dadar Hor-mazd nurmand u wizah ra danandah lam&m asrdr {as Injahdn u as an jahdn ast) u kirdigdr (ya'ni paida kunandah ast) xudd-vand tamdm xuddvanddn u pddisdh bar tamdm padisahdn nigah-darandah paida kunandah tant&mi paida hidagan u pakvastah rUzl dahandah qudrat darandah u qavl u qadim u baxldyandah baxsdisgar mihrbdn tavdnd u ddnd u pak u parvarandah, 'adil padisdhl b£ zaval baSad (ya'ni hargis b-dxir na rasad). dn kih Hormazd xuddi hast u da'im dar afzun b&dan ast. busurgi u nUr XursSd bimarg kih rosnt ddrandah u Us asp hast dar afsfinl bad, az tavtdm gunah . . . ba patit hastani. Gujarati. (saru kariic) Iajddnd namthl dadar Hormajd khales" ane nurmand iamdm khabarno j&nndr ane kdmno karnar Mhebono tahcb ane tamdm pddsdho Upar padsdhd negaha rSkhndr khalakne pedd karndr ghant rojino apnar kudratmand ane jordvar ane kadlm ane bakhaindr bakfiSdvndr ane meherbdn Sakto ane ddnd ane pdk parvaral karndr. {tehni) ddel padsdhl kdem die. Hor­majd potanl mele peda thdelo vardhino karndr che tehent tarlf karU ane iad karu. ane bemarag khdle$ tej ghoddno khdvand Khnrshednl bulandl ane nur jiddd thdo {ane te mdhdrl inadade) pohoco. hu tamdm gundhthl . . . tobd karl pdcho farfi cheu. Avesta. fmmas? ft Ahura Mazda $n$cit pard anyail ddman. fismo V3 Anidla Spsntd vlspe kvaraJiasaosA. artat jihdt Ahursm Mazdqnt aStal Aimls Spmt9 aStat alaonqm Fravalit aitat Vayqn LITANY TO THE SUN O -I. I Sanskrit. [. . .] Of all sins ... I am penitent. Persian. In the name of the Lord. I praise and commemo­rate the creator Ormazd [who is] brilliant, pure, knower of all secrets (of this world and the next), maker (that is, he is the creator), lord of all lords, and king over all kings, guardian, creator of all creatures, giver of continuous nourishment, power­ful, strong, eternal, bountiful, merciful, benevolent, efficient, wise, holy, and nourisher. May [His] just sovereignty be imperishable (that is, may it never reach its end). The lordship of Ormazd is eternally on the increase. May the greatness and splendor of the Sun that is immortal, possessed of light, and swift-horsed, increase. Of all sins ... I am penitent. o Gujarati. (I begin) in the name of God, the creator Ormazd, the pure and glorious, knower of all information, and doer of work, lord of lords, and king over all kings, guardian, creator of the universe, giver of much provision, powerful and strong and eternal and bestower and causer of bestowal, and kind, able and wise and holy, nourisher. (His) just kingdom is abiding. I praise and commemorate Ormazd [who] is self-created and maker of increase. And may the greatness and glory of the Sun that_ is immortal, pure, lord of swift horse, increase, and may he come (for my help). From all sins ... I turn back with repentance. 1 Avesta. [[Homage unto Thee, O Ahura Mazda,1 thrice2 prior to other creatures.8 Homage unto you, O Archangels, all of one accord* with the Sun. May this5 [homage] seek its way so as to reach6 unto Ahura Mazda, this [homage] unto the Archangels, this [homage] unto the Guardian SpiritsT of the righteous,8 "this unto Vayu,8 that follows its Own Law for the Long Periodr]

[6] I. I- K.HURSHED NYAISH Pahlavi. namaz1 yedrunam2 d Lak Ohrmazd j bar levin3 min* hamak5 daman, namaz B o7 lakmn 5 Amahraspandan9 harvisp l0 pavan hamkdmik " u n hamdosisn.13 kkamB,u bard.I5 yekamtnnetl8 datar11 Ohrmasd litamtH13 Amahraspandan19 UtamB.w ahravan Fravahran11 litamd22 Vdy i23 Der X'ata24 (ae25 Ram Yazaf). Sanskrit, namas te Svctmin (Guro) Mahajfianin tridha {kila manasd vacasa karmand ca) purvam anyaydh srstek. namo yusmabhyam he Amtfaspintah sarve ekabhildsah {amtiah iti amar&k spintdk iti gurutar&h saptamurtayah SvaminaK). atra sampr&pnotu Svami Mah&jfta'nl atra Amartl finrutarah (sapta-mftrtayah SvaminaK) atra muktatmanam Vfddhayah atra Ramo Dirgliam Rajs, Persian, nam&z Turd, ay Xud&i mih ddnd. sih dytna (ya'nf bah menlt u gttftar u bah karddr) pis az tamam paidait. llama's sumd. ra ay Ams&sfand&n tamam yak murad ddrandah hastand {AmiA ya'nl amarg u spanta bah ma'nl buzurg haft sttrat dadar Hormazd ra). inja barasid {ya'nl bayayui) dadar Hormazd injfi, Am-Sasfajidan {haft sUrat Xudai) inja Farohar asavOn Inja Ram Izad Dir Xudai. Gujarati. namilc Tune e Hormajd taran martabe tamampeda-ebie {narnu teheni) agan. namuc tamo tamdm ek moradna rakhndr neklna cdhdnar AmSdSpandone, e jago pohoco dadar Hormajd. e jago {pohoco) Amtes'pando. e jago {polwco) aio Faroharo anc e jago {pohoco) Ram I/ad Lambl Mudat laglno S&heb, m 7 LITANY TO THE SUN -I. I I Pahlavi. I bring homage unto Thee, O Ormazd, thrice before all creatures. Homage unto you, O Archangels, [who are] all of one will and one accord^. Hither come, O creator Ormazd, hither, O Archangels, hither, O Guardian Spirits of the righteous, hither, Vayu the Lord of Long Duration (that is, the Angel Ram). Sanskrit. Homage unto Thee, O Lord (Master) Thou of Great Knowledge, in threefold manner (that is, by thought, by word and by deed) before the rest of creation. Homage unto you, O Archangels {Amisaspintah), [who are] all of one will {amisah, that is, immortals, spintah, that is, very venerable ones, seven forms of the Lord). Hither may come the Lord of Great Knowledge, hither the Very Venerable Immortal Ones (seven forms of the Lord), hither the Guardian Spirits of the righteous, hither Ram, King for a Long Time. ?I . Persian. Homage unto Thee, O Lord, Thou Great Wise One! in three ways, (that is, by thought, word, and deed) before all creation. Homage unto you, O Archangels, [who] are all pos­sessed of one will {Amsha means immortal and spantd, means great, seven forms of the creator Ormazd). Hither reach (that is, come), O creator Ormazd, hither, O Archangels (seven forms of the Lord), hither, O Guardian Spirits of the righteous, hither, O Angel Ram of Long Lordship. Gujarati. I do homage unto You, O Ormazd, thrice before (I do homage) unto the entire creation. I do homage unto you Archangels, all of one will, wishers of good. May the creator Ormazd come to this place! May the Archangels (come) to this place! May the righteous Guardian Spirits (come) to this place, and may the Angel Ram, the Lord of Long Duration (come) to this place! [8]