Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives Contents Prev 275-361 Next Glossary

Denkard, Book 3

This digital edition copyright © 1997 by Joseph H. Peterson. All rights reserved.

Edited by Peshotan Dastur Behramjee Sanjana

Vol. 7, Bombay, 1894

Preface to the English translation of the Seventh Volume.

The following translation is from the Gujarati version of the original Pahlavi text by the learned Dastur. The original being an obscure work treating of metaphysical subjects, its translation must necessarily partake of this obscurity to a certain extent. My translation being based on a text itself a translation may not be found to coincide very closely in certain places with the original text. The reader is requested to bear this in mind while perusing the following pages.


Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that there are innumerable forms of the wisdom of the Mazdayasnian religion for the knowledge of man. (275)

Be it known that the thing embellished by all kinds of wisdom is the Mazdayasnian faith. And this faith is the sense of a superior order of knowledge for thanking the Creator Ohrmazd; and this sense renders all men better versed in the knowledge about the Almighty.

A knowledge of the transcendent wisdom of this faith is not possessed by the ordinary learned men. Among the intelligent learned, only those who are most so can understand it. The knowledge within the limit of the (pure) human reason can be obtained (only) through the wisdom of the Mazdayasnian faith.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the question: By virtue of what origin does the Almighty give strength to the invisible creation? (276)

Be it known that God himself the Author of the invisible creation, is the giver to all (earthly) things in an invisible manner of the principle of strength by virtue of its origin (i.e. according to its origin). Just as many kinds of clothes are made by spinning and weaving the thread of wool, so the Almighty creates all invisible things and endows them with the seed of earthly strength. The various kinds of earthly strength (i.e. existence) are distinguished, just as superior kinds of wool produce superior clothes.

Exposition in the good religion regarding those that were already in existence at the time of the creation (of this world) and those that will be at its end. (277)

Be it known that the Yazads and Amahraspands (angels and archangels) were created by and were in communion with the Almighty before the creation of this world. The creatures who shall be in communion with God till the end of creation, are those who endeavor to bring about the Renovation of the World (Frashegird) within the limits of finite time.

Exposition in the good religion as to who are those that prepare themselves for the highest grade of existence and those that are misled towards the lowest or worst (perdition.) (278)

Be it known that he who is obedient to his Creator and submissive to His commands, who respects the orders of His vicegerent the king, and who orders his life according to the precepts of the supreme Zoroastrian religious authority of his time, is the man who prepares himself for the state of supreme happiness. Whilst he is led to perdition who does not believe in God owing to his listening to the temptation of the false religion, who disobeys and is ungrateful to both the supreme Zoroastrian spiritual and the temporal authority.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the qualities which mark the race and family destined to bear rule among men and the indications appearing when the ruling power departs from it. (279)

Be it known that the scions of the family wherein shines the splendor of light, wherein resides divine reason, which is in communion through prayer with God and the angels, are the ones marked out for supremacy (in the state.) They are to have the precedence over high and low, to take care of them, and listen (to their wants and complaints.) They possess great righteous strength. They are to be blessed with abundance of male offspring. Through them mortality decreases in the world.

When however supremacy is to pass away from the family, it is deserted by right reason, and is the hotbed of ruinous quarrels. God loves not such a family. It helps for evil the high and the low who are not listened to by it. It is barren of male issue. It is instrumental in increasing mortality among men.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the soul's belief in the efficacy of prayer to God. (280)

Be it known that the man who is far-sighted (who looks to the other world) believes in the efficacy of prayer to God for the salvation of his soul; because he hopes to be saved from damnation by being in the good graces of the Almighty on account of his perfect veracity, his proper sense of justice, his fidelity to his plighted word, his companionship of the wise, and by his wariness in giving out his opinions and thoughts only at the proper time.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the distinctive characteristics of the good and the bad. (281)

There are many distinctive characteristics of the good and the bad whereof virtue distinguishes the former and vice the latter. By the perfect refinement of the spiritual youths (i.e. principles viz. Bodh, Akho, Urvan and Farohar) belonging to the soul, the light of virtue shines upon the good man; his species (i.e. person) is rendered resplendent by the supreme Head (Ohrmazd.) He occupies after death the abode of supreme felicity in the other world.

The soul of the sinner is very hardened by the leader (Ahriman) of the infernal host of bad odor. It is revealed that he is more powerful among the good on whom angels shed their luster; he who is distinguished for piety even among the good, prevails over the leader (Ahriman) of the wicked of bad odor. He who is notorious even among the wicked for his vices, is given over to perdition through him (Ahriman).

Exposition in the good religion about the race or those monarchs in the history of mankind who have been great civilizers and those who have shed a great luster on this earth. (282)

Be it known that all men are descended from Gayomard. Four noble and auspicious sons were born to Fravak* who civilized the world and was descended from Gayomard. These four were Hooshang, Vohudad, Ashodad, and Taj. To the house of Hooshang belonged Airik the head of the great civilizing kings of Iran. The venerable king Minocheher was the son of the saintly Neryosang+.

[* According to the Bundahishn Fravak was descended from Siyamak, and was the father of Hooshang.]

[+ King Minocheher was born of the daughter of Airik and the saintly Neryosang the son of Faridoon's brother. Firdausi has written his father's name in the Shah-Namah as Pashang, which may be explained as a misreading, owing to his ignorance of that language, of the word Neryosang in the original Pahlavi. Firdausi mentions Minocheher in the following verses in his Shah-Namah: (Persian quote omitted.)

King Minocheher being the heir of Airik, his name is thus mentioned with Airik's after that of Faridoon in the 28th para. of the Frawardin Yasht:

"We remember the holy spirit of Faridoon the sea of Athvian, we remember the holy spirit of Minocheher the son of Airik."]

From this Minocheher of the family of the saintly Neryosang, who rendered the earth illustrious, was descended the venerable ancestor of the Kayanian kings, Kay Kobad*. Every royal race that shall rule for a long time, shall be descended from these four. And the dynasty that shall flourish in every epoch shall in its form resemble the Kayanian which is one of these four dynasties. Those also who have knowledge about Frashegird, are of the race of these two kings, Minocheher and Hooshang. It is stated too in the scriptures that he who will reign again at the time of Frashegird will be of the same Kayanian race, that is Kay Khushrow+ will at that time wield supreme authority over the nations of the world.

[* As it is mentioned above that Kay Kobad the chief of the Kayanian dynasty was descended from Faridoon, so also in Firdausi's Shah-Namah he is made to mention this his descent from Faridoon in answer to an inquiry from the valiant Rustam.

Our prophet holy Zartosht has mentioned this Kayanian king's name immediately after Minocheher's as the first of this race of kings, in the 28th para. of the Frawardin Yasht, as follows:

"We remember the holy spirit of Kay Kobad."]

[+ Mention is made of the prophecy that at the time of Frashegird or final renovation and Rista-khez King Kay Khosraw will reign again, in the Zand-i Vohuman Yasht, the Pahlavi Jamasp-Namah and the Bundaheshn.]

Exposition in the good religion about those kings that are the best of rulers and of those that are the worst (283)

Be it known that the best king is he who is noble in glory, who creates divine faith among the people, who keeps the state ever prosperous, who sympathizing with the afflictions of others makes the world happy and looks to the welfare of all, who is the source of delight to others, who bestows freedom upon man and shines far and wide by his philanthropy. The worst ruler is he who has an evil appearance, who loves evil and defends the ways of the evil doers, who encourages the godless, who keeps the world in distress, who debases his subject by his rule, who is the source of all evil and injury, who oppresses others as well as aids those who oppress the world, who weakens his subjects but gives strength to his enemies, and who renders the world helpless through his meanness.

It is also said of those wise and far-seeing rulers that they magnanimously do charitable acts during their rule, they foster and maintain their subjects like their own children and raise them to a high level, they render their country renowned and beautiful, they adorn and embellish their countries, they subdue and outstrip their foes, they attain to a high order of wisdom, and practice all the earthly and heavenly virtues. Whilst bad rulers abuse their authority through mean motives, cause famine and starvation, weaken the people and tarnish their renown; the country fares badly under them, and their nobles and courtiers degenerate and become unhappy. They advance the enemies of virtue and degrade the righteous, and are wrong in their treatment of all the people.

Exposition in the good religion as to how man becomes powerful through glorious wisdom about finite and infinite time and how he becomes mortal or suffers pain during finite and infinite time. (284)

Be it known that in finite time (i.e. this world) man rises in the scale of existence and becomes glorious through wisdom. In every matter man becomes able through leading a worthy life. Man is known to be powerful in all things by possessing glorious wisdom. Thus the divine who imparts to all the knowledge of the infinite time pertaining to the holy Ohrmazd the source of creation (or the Creator of man), is well versed in all glorious wisdom. And men are enabled by means of this (knowledge) to lead heavenly lives during finite time.

The chief sinner (Ahriman) is doomed to suffer eternal pain during infinite time. Likewise the sinner is doomed to suffer pain after his existence in this world during finite time.

Exposition in the good faith as to expecting rewards for good deeds done. (285)

Be it known that there are four cases of expecting rewards for good deeds done, viz.

Firstly. It is not lawful if without knowing what constitutes a virtuous act one does an act which is not virtuous. But if in this way one does an act which is opposed to the faith he gets no reward whatever for his act.

Secondly. One does not get any reward for an unwilling good act which he has done not because he liked it as virtuous but simply because he considered it as somehow virtuous.

Thirdly. If a man be capable of doing personally a good act, knowing it to be such and desiring to do it, yet does not do it himself or has it vicariously done for him by another, he gets no benefit out of this act.

Fourthly. If a person knowing an act to be virtuous does not endeavor or wish to do it personally as he ought, he gets no credit for the virtuous act done for him or on his behalf. He ought to do willingly and zealously any act that he knows to be virtuous; if he endeavors to do this, he may hope to get due reward for it.

Two mental conditions are necessary for a virtuous act: first to know by all possible means what act is virtuous, and secondly to have the love of doing it; so that if a person endeavors by all efforts to fulfill these he gets credit for the virtuous act. Thus it has been ordained in the Avesta that the man who exhausts all possible means of doing virtuous acts, is to be ranked with the greatest heroes.

Beside the four rules above given about virtuous acts there are also four things which help in the efforts to do virtuous act, viz., wisdom, desire, ability and faculties.

Exposition in the good religion about the fact that injury is done by man to evil spirits owing to the frequent declaration to men of the religious commandments originally brought by Jamshed. (286)

Be it known that it is owing to the religious commandments of Jamshed that every thing is successfully done, and that Frehibut and Aibibut and their evil deeds are injured. These commandments aim to reform men through divine knowledge. By this divine knowledge they injure the followers of Frehibut and Aibibut who are similarly minded to the evil spirits or Devs. Men always triumph over the wrong-minded Devs owing to their possession of divine knowledge regarding religion. Men have to overcome vice by religious conduct. Therefore Frehibut and Aibibut should be weakened and men should live righteously.

He is the best ruler among men who possesses much of divine wisdom, by which he is able to avoid and expel from everywhere the violent and wrong minded Druj. He leads men on the path of righteousness by courageously having the religion expounded to them through wise and learned divines. Owing to the weakness of the source of all evil (i.e. Ahriman) the preaching of divine wisdom removed from all evil, has everywhere good effect upon men. Justice and religion continue to sway the world, and people become better through virtue.

Under the rule of the kings before the time of Jamshed, owing to the lawlessness of Devs, godliness was weak and wickedness was powerful. The moral standard based on divine wisdom had fallen so low on account of the evil genius of the Devs, Frehibut and Aibibut, that men had become like beasts of prey. Owing to the absence of godly advice they had fallen into evil ways. Frehibut and Aibibut (i.e., dishonesty and wickedness) having completely conquered them they had become lawless; and men sunk in irreligiousness being engaged in mere eating and giving and receiving and other godless things. It then seemed that in this world divine religious knowledge had fled from men and evil inclinations had prevailed with them, that all righteousness had departed from this earth and the wickedness of Frehibut and Aibibut had become deep rooted among me; and that owing to all this the whole world had become vicious and desolate.

By the wish of God Jamshed was placed on the throne especially to prevent men from following the Devs, and to liberate them from the evil ways of godlessness and unrighteousness. Through the divine wisdom of the religion men can see their way to oppose the wicked Frehibut and Aibibut of the Devs; and it is owing to this wisdom that everywhere the Devs are vanquished by men and become helpless and weak.

By the splendor of the divine religious wisdom wicked Frehibut and Aibibut are injured. and by this they are to be driven out from the world. And then peace and the brilliance and wisdom of age will become strong in this world which thus will become beautiful and happy and remain so. But when the divine superior dignity and aged experience are withheld from man, he is damned and his wicked race has to move in hell in the shape of Dev. Then he has no power whatever to overcome the Devs. These are rendered helpless and have to retire before the resources of dignified and God-fearing men. When the Devs are in an injured and defeated condition they have to fly helpless from men. Then the evil Dev keeps clear of mischief to men and Frehibut and Aibibut are weakened. Then also divine wisdom shines upon men and ideas of righteousness triumph upon this earth, and thus the creation of Ohrmazd is kept free from injury and damage. It is expounded in the faith that everywhere in this world the Devs were rendered helpless by the explicit religion of Jamshed.

King Jamshed spread the divine faith among men in order that they may make a beneficial provision for the soul which may have its pabulum in this world as well as the next, and that they may recognize every Yazad and Amahraspand, as the religious commandments are the source of every happiness to men. To keep men from following God and to start wrong notions among them is the eternally irreligious and lawless work of the wicked Frehibut and Aibibut.

Exposition in the good religion of the ten precepts of philanthropic Jamshed for the good of men and the ten precepts of Zohak the diminisher of creation against these ten good ones. (287)

Be it known that the following ten precepts were given to men by their well wisher Jamshed, as originating divine wisdom, doing good to men, and as being consonant to religion and the will of God.

Firstly. Men should consider and call Almighty God the Creator of this world and One who cannot do it any harm; and all should have faith in Him.

Secondly. They should never think of the Dev or Ahriman on account of obtaining things necessary for worldly prosperity.

Thirdly. They should think highly of religion among themselves and should trust in it.

Fourthly. They should conduct themselves conscientiously in every matter and by such conduct should put Frehibut and Aibibut to shame.

Fifthly. They should partake of food with other people in a brotherly manner.

Sixthly. The father should encourage his children to receive such education as would fit them later to perform their duties as fathers in their turn.

Seventhly. Those who deserve patronage (i.e. the poor) should be patronized as one's own; and if they are not satisfied with such patronage, then they should be admonished.

Eighthly. In order to be rewarded in the next world, everyone should lay by large quantities of corn in his house for feeding fat men as well as cattle.

Ninthly. People should be admonished to remove to a distance from the house dirt arising from keeping birds sheep and goats lest men should be injured thereby.

Tenthly. A sheep or goat should not be killed for food before it reaches the age of four, for it is ordained that their kind should be reared for four years. Therefore they should be allowed during this period to grow in appearance and size; afterwards their number may be diminished (by killing for food).

The ten precepts of the priest Zohak of the Hebrew religion who is an injurer of God's world, a diminisher of his Creation, and who is wickedly inclined against the above tell universally beneficial precepts of Jamshed of the good faith. (288)

Firstly. Against the precept of Jamshed that the Almighty is the creator and protector of the universe, Zohak has called him the injurer of the universe.

Secondly. Against the precept of Jamshed not to look to the Dev as the bestower of worldly prosperity, Zohak has advised men to worship the Devs as bestowers of all worldly goods.

Thirdly. Against the precept of Jamshed to hold justice as of high import among men, Zohak has spoken against justice and upright decision and has advised people to do injustice instead of justice.

Fourthly. Against the precept of Jamshed to behave conscientiously in every matter, Zohak has advised people to act unrighteously and disgracefully in every matter.

Fifthly. Against the precept of Jamshed regarding eating with people in a brotherly spirit, Zohak has advised people to be greedy and to lead lives like his own (i.e. selfish.)

Sixthly. Against the precept of Jamshed to the father to encourage his children to receive such training as would enable them to perform their duties as fathers later Zohak has advised the father to do no such thing.

Seventhly. Against the precept of Jamshed to patronize the poor as one's own, Zohak has advised the powerful to deprive such people of their presents and patronage.

Eighthly. Against the precepts of Jamshed not to kill for food goats till they had reached a mature age, Zohak has taught people to kill such goats according to the Hebrew usage.

Ninthly. Against the precept of Jamshed to remove dirty and malodorous things at a distance from men and cattle lest they be injured thereby, Zohak has specially recommended, according to the Hebrew religion, the bloody sacrifice of godly and pious men before the shrine of Devs.

Tenthly. Against the precept of Jamshed to lay by corn in summer and winter for men and cattle, Zohak has advised people to be cruel and revengeful and to slaughter men.

These ten universally noxious precepts of Zohak given against Jamshed's ten beneficial precepts were ordered by him to be well written out and preserved in Jerusalem as a religious work. The Jewish Patriarch Abraham who came after him followed his precepts. And people came to look upon these precepts of the religion of Zohak[1] as the work of the Prophet Abraham who was to come at the end of the world. The words received from Zohak were ordered to become current among the people. Thus every one of the Jewish race and faith came to look upon Zohak's religious words as meant for himself and to believe in them.

[1. Zohak is thus mentioned in the sacred Avesta, Yasna, Chap. 9.8.:

"Faridoon killed the malignant and sinful Zohak of three faces (i.e. a liar), of three heads (i.e. violent and obstinate), of six eyes (i.e. greedy), of thousands of evil designs, possessed of the great evil powers of the Dev and the Druj."]

Exposition in the good religion about the rulers of men and those who benefit them by their rule. (289)

Be it known that those are the rulers of people who have the good-will of God and the strength coming from wisdom: a ruler of this character among men was Thrita [2] of the family of Sam.

[2. Thrita was the son of the valiant Sam, who was fifth descent from king Jamshed. It is said in the sacred Avesta, Yasna Chap. 9.10, that Thrita having performed the Horn and Yazashna [Yasna] ceremony and asked of God to grant him male children, he was blessed with two renowned son, one the just Urvaksh and the other the valiant hero Kersasp. Our Mobeds in their recital of the names of the illustrious dead, call Sam by the name of "Sahem", and Thrita by the names of "Asrat."]

In this way just rulers have been called in the Avesta the lords of all men with bodies (i.e. mortals); and this means that they have complete authority over men. Just as God is the protector and by his good deeds the adorner of all men, so also is the earthly king of all mortals. And every man can be the lord of his race. The reason of giving a man ruling power over his race is that by ruling over his fellow creatures in a just manner he may lead them wisely, and may prevent them from going wrong by training them up to resist evil temptations; so that every one may be able to participate in the happy Frashegird (i.e. final reform) and may be governed in this world in, the happy manner which is to come at the time of the filial Doom. Owing to which the earthly king may become such a beneficent ruler over men's houses, villages, cities, and the whole world in the capacity of the omniscient, all-powerful, all-protecting God's representative, as He Himself is the benignant Lord of all his creation.

It is the duty of the king to look well after the good. of his subjects, and this duty is very virtuous as that of Jamshed the good monarch of this world. But if the king be a great evil-doer, he has the name of a bad monarch like Zohak.

Exposition in the good religion about giving our judgments thoughtfully and justly. (290)

Be it known that a man should not unless injured go as a plaintiff to anyone for justice. If a man complain before a judge of having been injured by a minor there should be discussion before giving judgment and the minor should be protected from all possible harm.

That woman should be considered free and innocent who has committed adultery with a stranger but who is proved to have received no aid from other people to save her from the faithless man; the reason being that she had received no help to resist the evil act forcibly done. If she be an unmarried woman and become a mother through such an act, great regard must be had for her reputation and modesty and her child should be held as born in wedlock or through khwetodas.

[Keywords: litigation, lawsuit, rape, illegitimate]

Exposition in the good religion regarding the power of the All-merciful God to suppress any thing which is injurious to the universe where it may exist. (291)

Be it known that God is intimately connected with the world and is kind to it as to his own born child. As a father does not injure his child and wishes that it should not commit any sins and should be virtuous, so God does good to his creation and does not injure or defile it. God loves his creation and tries to keep it at a distance from His opponent and enemy (Ahriman). For it is not by a child's loving father that it is injured but by the father's enemies. The wise and powerful Lord is not capable of harmful gifts. Neither does he injure any one without cause. Men cannot obtain liberation from the evil and restless Ahriman, and eternal happiness except through God. By his efforts to obtain final and eternal happiness man is saved from the defiled Ahriman, and gets the reward of the assistance of God. God has given to all men sufficient ability to save themselves from sin as well as from Ahriman the source of their sins and woes; owing to which every created being is known to be able to overcome Ahriman of evil origin.

Those priests who injure and corrupt the world and make all God's creation consonant with the usage of the Jewish faith should be made to know the wisdom of the All-merciful Lord, and should be admonished to desist from doing evil and harmful deeds and to do virtuous deeds.

Exposition in the good religion about immorality which is of evil origin. (292)

Be it known that the source of all morality is wise knowledge and of wise knowledge divine wisdom; and God is the originator of divine wisdom in Creation.

The source of immorality is false knowledge, and of false knowledge the wrong wit of Ahriman. The wrong wit of Ahriman gives birth to immorality, and it does not do good in this world but harm. Again every law of Ohrmazd is the originator of morality and by the luster of morality is the exposer of the evil results of following the Evil One. And this good origin of it increases virtue by its innate goodness.

That which is of evil origin increases evil by its innate evil. Among various kinds of knowledge that which belongs to divine wisdom is virtuous; that morality which is connected with divine wisdom is good owing to knowledge. Those things that rise from morality are virtuous in this world and in the next; and they are useful for the next world. The increase of virtue in this world is owing to morality.

The source in divine wisdom is an excellent thing for all virtues, and man is possessed of all virtues through it; he becomes good through virtues originating in divine wisdom.

Man does evil owing to the wrong knowledge of the evil-minded. That which is of false knowledge is immoral and by this immoral false knowledge does evil. The result of immorality is a miserable and vicious existence. The evildoer is miserable in this world and in the next. The injury and misery of this world and the next (i.e. bodily and spiritual misery) is owing to evil immoral men. The best result of false knowledge which is the origin of all evil is trouble and annoyance; and an immoral man is subject to all miseries owing to this; and the cause of all his miseries is this false knowledge.

The religion of those priests who belong to a faith of rich (i.e. divine) origin, is moral. The man of evil origin is owing to his wickedness called wicked. He who is moral (i.e. possessed of the virtues of Spenamino) is called the vanquisher of Ahriman (i.e. the curber of Ahriman) without any evil to himself.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that evil is seen among people where virtue exists (293)

Be it known that owing to the man who is obedient to God and of pure thoughts, where there be a man of impure thoughts, he too becomes pure; and thus impure thoughts remain nowhere. He who is free from evil has no evil in him. A moral and pure-minded man does not become evil and vicious. As long as creation exists moral vice does not appear in the thoughts of people. That which is of evil origin cannot become pure and virtuous. For how can evil origin be good? And goodness which is the origin of men of divine origin (i.e. of Ohrmazd) cannot be declared and published by that evil origin. And how can that which is the source of good to all men can be also the source of miseries?

Those priests who disseminate vice among men are morally blind. How can the religion defiled by eternal evil be like the religion of the pure in thought? How can the impure thoughts of the demon which make for evil improve into pure and clean virtues? That religion is called free from vice which is moral.

Exposition in the good religion about the desire of God that men should everywhere recognize Him and the corresponding desire of men to know Him. (294)

Be it known that God wishes that men should know Him. For this reason the person who has the ability to give men knowledge about God is called in the good religion a chief and excellent adviser. The need of preaching about the knowledge of God is not for immortal men (i.e. those who have been saved from the tortures of hell); but to those other men who are deified by the evil power of greed, lust, sloth, and other injurious vices, and who possess no knowledge about their Creator, the leaders of the faith should teach the knowledge about Ohrmazd. Divine wisdom gives an idea of the protecting power of the Creator to the man who has been perverted by the devil. And men receive the benefit of this divine wisdom from their preceptor the priest.

On him who teaches divine wisdom to men God bestows for this purpose the strength of knowledge; owing to which strength the teacher is not injured by evil thoughts and other like things.

Those priests who injure men and render them unhappy by false ideas and other evils do not possess the ability to teach divine wisdom and to expound morality. But they teach men to live without morality and to commit sins. Their religion is injurious to men.

The man who possesses the knowledge about God and does good deeds cannot be called irreligious or ignorant of God and fond of sin.

Exposition in the good religion about the five vices of the Evil One (Ahriman) which destroy virtue among men who should save themselves from them and render them powerless. (295)

Be it known that the five vices of Ahriman are the destroyers of virtue in every man. Men become tyrannical owing to them. These five are, viz.: the thought of injuring men -- of cheating them, -- of rendering them miserable -- of wishing ill to them -- and magic. Men should get rid of these. The thought of injuring men increases through greed; of deceiving them, through the nature of the Demons; of rendering them unhappy through revenge; of wishing ill to them through envy; and magic increases through evil intentions. The thought of injuring others is rendered harmless by increasing self-content. Again by increasing the virtue of self-content the vice of greed is removed; and thereby the evil ability of Druj becomes helpless. The man who is inclined to deceive others should think much within himself of doing virtuous acts, so that by strengthening the virtue of doing good acts publicly within men, this vice is weakened, and the man's inclination to deceive remains dormant within him.

The man who is disposed to render men unhappy should give prominence within himself chiefly to the virtue of benevolence and of taking care of others, so that by this the vice of revengefulness is weakened and the power of the vindictive Druj is rendered harmless.

The man who is inclined to wish ill to others should nourish strongly within him obedience to God; for by the strengthening of the virtue of obedience to God the vice of envy is injured and the evil of the Druj becomes weak.

The man given to magic should strengthen especially good intentions or the thought of loving people well; for by this the vice of the evil eye or the intention of doing harm to people is injured and the power of the Druj of magic is weakened.

He who explains the above-mentioned things with zeal to wise and religious inquirers injures by his act these five Drujs (i.e. the above five vices.) This man deserves well of the good faith by this his religious act. He becomes the savior from the misery of tyrannical darkness, and becomes related to the Supreme Virtuous One (i.e. God).

Exposition in the good religion about the supremacy over men. (296)

Be it known that the man is noble in person whose desires are ruled over by God. He improves himself by humility when he rises in rank by his wealth and good deeds. (He is like) the rider who by means of the reins takes his horse backwards and forwards, and the skilled rider who is strong in guiding an obedient and trained animal. Again (he is like) a skilled rider whose object is to free himself from his opponent and by skillfully guiding his horse to vanquish him; and a vigilant rider who takes his horse into the fray and brings him back uninjured owing to his skill. On the other hand ho who is evil-minded injures himself and benefits his enemies by his evil wishes, and is lowered in the eyes of all; and is like a clumsy rider who takes his horse near the enemy to be killed himself.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the object of the work of the good religion which consists in believing in Ohrmazd. (297)

Be it known that the object of the work of the Mazdayasnian faith is to prevent unconscientious and disgraceful acts among people by making them conscientious; and by this to free them from hell and render them happy. Again Ohrmazd has revealed the Mazdayasnian faith in order to injure Ahriman and thereby to give happiness to the world. It is his object through this faith to make people pure by saving them from Ahriman, and to beautify his creation in various ways by giving it a knowledge of the final state. Man obtains the honest aid of all the Yazads by thinking of the one God. Those men who have the two vices of Frehibut or unconscientiousness and Aibibut or profanity possess the evil power of the defiling Ahriman.

Ohrmazd prevails by this conscientiousness of men. By Frehibut man is unconscientious, by Aibibut he prevents Ohrmazd's creation from being conscientious. The man who keeping himself aloof from Frehibut behaves conscientiously, and by conscientiousness keeps Aibibut at a distance from him, saves himself from all harm by his foresight in accordance with the Mazdayasnian faith. Man becomes virtuous through the sacred religion. In this connection it has been asserted by the heads of the faith that conscientiousness creates a liking for the good or Ohrmazd's faith. Whilst Frehibut and Aibibut create between them a liking for the faith of Ahriman.

Exposition in the good religion about the wisdom which frees men from sin and obtains for them the experience of age. (298)

Be it known that the wisdom by which Ohrmazd's entire creation has to obtain freedom from sin and become wise through virtue, consists in understanding the mysterious power of God. Again by obtaining the knowledge about the mysterious power of God they all remain in communion with the Yazads. The defiling Ahriman diminishes the number of the followers of God's religion. That man shines with the divine luster who gives men purity and absolution from sin.

Exposition in the good religion about that man being faultless who on every occasion improves and adorns his fellow men by telling them to believe in the writings of this good faith. (299)

Be it known that the safe man (i.e. who lives without fault in this world) is he who graces and edifies his fellow-men by belief in the writings of the good faith. The benefits of the good faith are owing to the pure ideas of this religion. That man who is a lover of the faith and always keeps it in mind is unselfish, and obeys the commands of the heads of that faith; and by receiving his religious education at the hands of learned doctors of the faith, he sheds luster upon the sacred writings.

Exposition in the good religion about that man being unconscientious who possesses the skill of the immoral Druj and fights on the side of the sinful Ahriman. And the man who is connected with the evil one fights with the support of the Druj. Again a man may be connected with the evil Druj but may not be so with Ahriman; a man may not be connected with the immoral (Druj) and may be so with Ahriman; and may not be connected with either the immoral Druj or Ahriman. (300)

Be it known that the man who aids unwise and wicked conduct like that of the unconscientious Druj and evil Ahriman fights with the assistance of the defiling Ahriman. The man who possesses the power of the demons wages satanic war in this world with the aid of the evil Druj. The man who is connected not with the evil Druj but with Ahriman is a still greater cause of disturbance in the world. The man who is not connected with Ahriman is charitable to those who deserve charity and does other good deeds. The man who is connected neither with the evil Druj nor with Ahriman is a follower of Ohrmazd's Mazdayasnian faith and recites the sacred Manthras.

Exposition in the good religion about the man who inspires zeal for religion. (301)

Be it known that the man who freely gives religious knowledge is the priest of the faith; as long as he inspires zeal for the faith among people he receives a good income from God. But if such a priest withhold the free knowledge of religion and stop such work, he is damned in the next world and goes to hell.

As long as a man is possessed by the spirits or minds of the faith, these guide him in this world and provide for him in the next. The man who is possessed by the good spirit or mind reaches through him the realms of Light; whilst he who is possessed by the evil goes through him to the regions of Darkness. Therefore men should propitiate the good mind or Spenamino and injure the evil or Ahriman, so that thereby he may obtain the kingdom of bliss.

Exposition in the good religion about the ideas of justice of the judge of this world and of the Judge of the next. (302)

Be it known that the Judge of the other world inquires into the reason why a man should be saved from hell and not damned; with his penetrating lustrous eyes (or spiritual instinct) he sees this, as well as knows the man who cares for his soul, and who possesses the evil desire of Ahriman, who is thievishly inclined, who speaks the truth and who is a liar.

The judge of this world absolves men and acquits them from punishment after hearing evidence. For he does not see everything and has not a perfect understanding like the Judge of the other world who sees everything clearly by his spiritual eyes or instinct. He is thus an imperfect judge and is obliged to hear the witnesses of the plaintiff and accused, and to decide accordingly by this rule of evidence who should be acquitted and who punished by law.

Exposition in the good religion about the precepts which concern the safety of life. (303)

Be it known how essential to the miserable are the words about the safety of life. For the kings of Iran used to recommend these three things for the benefits of the subjects of those kings with whom they were fighting at the time.

First the virtue connected with man's life (or protecting their lives); secondly, giving pasture to cattle; thirdly, giving proper food to the soldiers that they might be in good condition.

The first to recommend these excellent things was the God-worshipping king Minocheher of Iran. He recommended the philanthropic practice of keeping the prisoners of war well according to the precepts of the faith, of feeding the cattle lest they starve, and of giving proper food to soldiers that may remain in good condition. By this king's charitable recommendations for the benefit of the enemy's soldiers, the Iranians were victorious over other nations.

Why should it not be virtuous to save men's lives according to the true precepts of the faith?

Why should it not be lawful to feed the cattle to keep them from starving?

Why should not the people be held benefited if provisions be bought from the evil forestallers of these things and given to the soldiers who protect the people?

Exposition in the good religion about regular virtue. (304)

Be it know that regular morality is through truth. Those who are lovers of truth are doubtless the great helpers of mankind, have foresight and are obedient to the omniscient Lord.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the protection and salvation of men. (305)

Be it known that it is not possible for a wary man to lead life in this mortal world without fear. For though he may live without fear of tigers and other wild beasts, yet he cannot live without fear of robbers, armies, of Ashmogh the preacher of the false faith, or of an evil monarch. Supposing that a man may live without fear even of these yet owing to the demon of death and other unseen mortal dangers he cannot live without fear. But mortal man will be enabled by God to live without fear in the endless time of the future renovation. For the man who becomes free in this mortal world will be so at the time of the renovation. In this world men live good lives by the triumph of godly ideas (that is by the spreading of such ideas in the world.)

Exposition in the good religion regarding the protection and salvation of men. (306)

Be it known that a man is saved from hell by his receiving from the doctors of the faith excellent education and instruction about the soul and purity. A man's body is protected in this world by philanthropy and by that good monarch who makes people happy. Philanthropic men are of three kinds as follows: First, the religious philanthropists who are such owing to their love of the religious reward. Second, the pure philanthropists who do good to their fellow-subjects through love. And third, the philanthropists to trustworthy persons who are so through zeal and love. whose who are philanthropists of neither of these three kinds are called bad philanthropists.

Exposition in the good religion about best and worst among men. (307)

Be it known that a person is the best among men owing to his knowledge of the good faith. For purity has been called the best quality of the soul and by it a man is saved from hell; and a man reaches heaven especially through knowledge of the good faith.

A person becomes the worst among men owing to his ignorance of the good faith.

Those among the kings of the wicked who are also their priests are considered the equals of Ahriman. For the same reason the wicked priest who is devoid of the divine knowledge of the Mazdayasnian faith is considered in the faith a man of wicked understanding.

Exposition in the good religion about remembering the spiritual Yazads for obtaining spiritual assistance. (308)

Be it known that a man receives signs of favor from the invisible Yazads by remembering them; and such a man assisted by the Yazads remains supreme in both worlds. And we are informed of Zartosht's wish for which he prayed to the Yazads thus: Grant me that I may become a good leader in this world, (and a propagator of the Mazdayasnian religion)!

By remembering the evil spirits a man gets assistance from the demons and thereby becomes very wicked in both worlds. Thus, for instance Zohak, descended from the world destroying Taj, having remembered the Dev Eshm, received from Ahriman venomous horn-shaped serpents on the shoulder bones below the neck.*

[* It is mentioned in the Shah-Namah that Satan in human guise became the cook of Zohak who being much pleased with his culinary skill showed him willingness to grant any request made by him whereupon Satan desired to kiss Zohak's two shoulders which being kissed, lo! two horn-shaped serpents sprang forth from both of them.

In the Sacred Avesta Zohak is called three mouthed, three-headed, and six-eyed, etc. If we do not take these epithets to apply metaphorically to his inherent evil nature, and take it to allude to those two serpents, the Avesta confirms what is said here in the text.]

Exposition in the good religion regarding the great power of the chief Zohak who injures men's soul. (309)

Be it known that Zohak had greater power over men in these two ways. First he was possessed of the full strength of the knowledge of the false faith. Secondly, he injured men's zeal for diligence. He had a twofold wicked power which assisted him. First, he had the evil genius of his commander Ahriman, and, secondly, evil slothfulness which destroys diligence, was on his side.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the fact that all virtues arise in man through the Mazdayasnian religion; and that owing to the evil faith of the Jews all vices arise in man. (310)

Be it known that all good qualities continue to arise in this world from the Mazdayasnian faith; and all wickedness has been known to arise through the devilish faith of the Jews. Thus the world becomes better through the Mazdayasnians and gets ruined through the Jewish abomination.

Men acquire contentment, diligence, zeal, obedience to God, modesty, dignity, power of cherishing, morality, wisdom, courtesy, magnanimity, charity, truth, faithfulness, good intentions and other good qualities by the divine wisdom of the Mazdayasnian faith. And a man possessing this improves the world.

Avarice, revengefulness, slothfulness, idleness, pride, obstinacy, insolence, envy, immorality, ignorance, selfishness, disobedience, indifference to religion, miserliness, falsehood, ingratitude, evil intentions and other vices arise through the Jewish abomination which by its false knowledge and weakness injures the world.

Exposition in the good religion about the king who improves his subjects for happiness in both worlds; and the king who injures his subjects. (311)

Be it known that the king who improves his subjects or happiness in both worlds is a spotless ruler in this world. That king who for protecting his subjects by the strength of religion propagates indefinitely divine wisdom, renders by this act the universe prosperous; he obtains heavenly bliss, and the renown of age and virtue.

The king, who gives pain to his subjects, diminishes the happiness of this world and is forever in league with the misery of the next world and the vices of hell.

Exposition in the good religion as to the first man who was the beloved of God; and as to His messenger. (312)

Be it known that the spiritual Yazads were the first to reveal and expound God's faith to Gayomard in this created world. [1] Again this revelation and exposition were made a second time for Mashye and Mashyane. [2] And the message of this religious advice was sent to Siyamak the son of first Mashye and his descendants through Vohuman and Srosh. And for the edification of the nations of the earth this message of revelation was taken from Persia over the seas to other pious men in a regular sea-faring ship of the shape of a cow, called "Sarsvak-Gai." [3] It was also carried by land to various places, so that all mortal men inhabiting this entire earth may become perfectly acquainted with this religion.

[1. Vide Frawardin Yasht, para. 24, and section 87 for the authority of this fact.]

[2. On the authority of the Avesta it is mentioned in the Bundahishn that:

"Ohrmazd. said to Mashye and Mashyane: You being men are the parents of the world; as I have endowed you with the excellent idea of prayer to me, do religious works with humility, think good thoughts, speak good words, and do good deeds, and do not worship demons."]

[3. Vide for an account of this, the Bundahishn ed. Westergaard p.45.]

Exposition in the good religion about man's connection with the Mazdayasnian faith being for the acquisition of divine wisdom. (313)

Be it known that the reason of man's accepting the Mazdayasnian faith is respect for divine wisdom. The excellence of divine wisdom is made known by the words of this faith. Likewise this Mazdayasnian faith is the strength of divine wisdom. And for this reason the words of the Mazdayasnian faith are the words of divine wisdom. The words of divine wisdom about those that now exist, those that have existed, and those that shall exist in the future, are all contained in this faith. Thus divine wisdom is the Mazdayasnian faith itself. And this faith itself is the divine wisdom about those that are, shall be and have been. The man who is the reformer in this mortal world, by virtue of the strength of the truth and goodness of the Mazdayasnian faith, of those that prevail by the evil faith, is a real participator in the thoughts, words, and deeds of the men who are reformed by the good faith. When this mortal world shall reach in every way the state of truth and goodness, the Drujs shall become helpless by this; and the evil power of Ahriman the leader of these Drujs shall be broken in the world; and at the time of Frashegird or final renovation the entire creation of Ohrmazd shall become virtuous forever.

Those priests who do not accept this divine religion do not work for good having not obtained divine wisdom; but having chosen Druj (or the power of false knowledge) their religious precepts depress divine knowledge and spread false opinions. Their faith is devoid of the precepts of divine wisdom and of the ideas of Ohrmazd. They are evidently the servants of the false one (or Varun) and the followers of Druj (or Ahriman.)

Exposition in the good religion about the source of virtue and vice. The virtuous becomes such by zeal for good; whilst the vicious becomes of evil passions by evil zeal. The wicked are the followers of the evil One or Ahriman. (314)

Be it known the virtuous man always remains in the side on Yazad and the vicious always on the side of the demon. The Yazads are always for making men virtuous; and the demons for making them wicked. A man becomes wicked by being perverted from the good Yazad to the evil Demon. Thus the soul of the follower of Yazad is virtuous through piety, and that of the follower of the demon is wicked through sin. Those that are wicked are the followers of that sinful Ahriman; whilst those that are virtuous follow the holy Spenamino. For the virtuous man is such owing to good health, youth, liberty, purity, cleanliness, diligence, perseverance, charity, truth, and other good qualities. Whilst the vicious man is such owing to illness, senility, wretchedness, filthiness, idleness, want of occupation, miserliness, falsehood, and other evil qualities. For this reason the manner of all wicked men is considered opposed to that of the virtuous. Therefore it is incumbent on men at once to give up this path of wickedness. And likewise to remove Gospands [livestock] and other kinds from contact with this wickedness. The wicked should be converted to the good faith and the followers of the good faith should be quickly turned away from vice that they may do good deeds.

Exposition in the good religion about the man of foresight being a profitable leader of men by his saying wise words to him who willingly listens to them. (315)

Be it known that the man of foresight is bound to say words required to guide his race with profit in this world to the disciple who comes near him willing to listen to such words. But if the wise man of foresight desist from giving to the world the benefit of his wisdom owing to want of such disciples, he is like the gardener who allows his garden though it is well watered to lie useless and barren without making it yield vegetables and fruit. By the approach of disciples able to learn wisdom towards the wise man of foresight, sweet wisdom continues to flow in this world to the profit of all like beneficent water.

Exposition in the good religion about the soul being kept fresh, and the body being preserved by eating drinking. (316)

Be it known that the soul works for its immortality by improving the mortal body. The body is kept strong by food and food is necessary for the strength of the body [1] without food it becomes resourceless and languid. In the absence of food it is vanquished by hunger. The man who keeps it from eating and drinking, which are the gifts of Hordad and Amurdad, takes from it the energy of movement. Food helps it to resist the attacks of hunger. When the body does not get its share of eating and drinking, the gifts of Hordad and Amurdad, and is not aided by food it succumbs to the attacks of hunger and becomes languid. And the soul cannot improve the body which without this improvement must die.

[1 It is ordained by God in Vendidad 3. that:

Indeed every mortal created being lives by food and dies without it; strength ebbs away without food. Without food none can be fit to do virtuous deeds, be prosperous, and have the gift of children.

Exposition in the good religion as to how men's life becomes eternally unhappy and eternally happy. (317)

Be it known that men's life becomes eternally miserable by communion with the evil Ahriman ; and their final habitation is the infernal regions of Ahriman (or Hell). The communion of Ahriman with God's created beings is owing to their not being able to resist him. Ahriman's continuous intercourse with men in infinite ways is for rendering them eternally unhappy. Men may hope to be happy at the time of the final renovation (or Frashegird) by resisting the evil and damning designs of Ahriman. Thus finally Ahriman himself becomes miserable.

Men obtain eternal happiness by leading lives in communion with the Amahraspands, and by attaining the happy regions of Satarpaya, Mahapaya, and Khwarshedpaya. Those who give this boon to he peoples of the world are the prophets and kings who always preach to them about Frashegird or final renovation and prepare them for it.

Exposition in the good religion about the power of death and sin to do harm. (318)

Be it known that the harmful powers of death and sin are in this wise. He who is subject to death is acquainted with sin. Death carries on its war in a quiet unobserved way. Every man in this world has a tendency towards death and sin. A notable instance of this is Zohak who in spite of his knowledge of the religion of God was seduced by the guile of Ahriman to death and sin. And he was known to have willfully, short-sightedly, and unnecessarily rendered men's lives miserable.

Exposition in the good religion about the final triumph of Spenamino over Ahriman being through his superior strength. (319)

Be it known that the final triumph of Spenamino over Ahriman is by his sufficient superior strength. For Spenamino is above Ahriman by his superior strength of resources, Ahriman not having the knowledge of obtaining his final salvation cannot provide for it in time.

Exposition in the good religion about man getting good reward for protecting good men from the harm and injury of bad men, and for keeping them pleased; and about man getting severely punished for patronizing and pleasing those wicked men who do harm to the good. (320)

Be it known that the reason of protecting and pleasing every good man is that by keeping many evil men from doing evil things and by gratifying them these may be made to behave better. And the reason of inflicting pain and punishment upon many a wicked man is that he pain not behave properly. Just as the reason of rendering every good man better fitted for future happiness rather than punishing and injuring him is obvious, so the rather of protecting good men from the harm of the evil and of keeping them pleased is very high. Whilst the punishment is great of protecting and pleasing the wicked that they might harm the good.

Exposition in the good religion about good wishes or blessings, and evil wishes or curses. (321)

Be it known that the effects of blessings and curses are felt at their proper time. Blessings are for those works that deserve them; and curses are owing to cursed works. The effects of blessings or curses are felt at the proper time by the man who by his works has deserved the one or the other. Blessings should be given to the man according to his deeds. Faridoon was great among those that blessed and also among those that cursed. For before Neryosang [1] he prayed to God as follows:

O God! make me prevail over those Western rulers, (i.e. grant me the valor to defeat Toor and Selum the kings of Turan and China.) May they be deprived of their rule. May the glory obtained by each of my sons through my blessings depart from them!" They felt in due time the effect of this grievous curse.

The same Faridoon had thus given his blessings to these sons in giving them royal authority: "I am your king: and I have bestowed this wealth upon you. As long as you do not depart from the righteousness of the Yazads (or, as long as you act according to my precepts which are God's), so long I shall grant you every thing however rich you may demand. And may you enjoy in peace all the wealth that you may receive hereafter." Thus it is clear he who can bless, may also curse. Again the man who blesses may also feel the effects of curses as well as blessings. The blessings of a good man benefit him who deserves them; in the same way his curses are also harmful. When a man from being blessed becomes evil then only he deserves to be cursed. He becomes miserable by the propriety of the curse and has to suffer pain and injury. Whilst a deserving man remains good and pleased.

[1 NERYOSANG -- In the Afrin-i Ardafravash and the sacred book of the Atash Niyayesh, the fire Neryosang is reckoned as the most excellent of all. In the description given in the Bundahishn of the five kinds of fires, this fire is not mentioned.

But in the Atash Niyayesh it is said to be of royal descent e.g.

"Among all fires the first is the fire of royal descent of Neryosang Yazad the follower of Ohrmazd."

In the Pahlavi comment on this sacred text the phrase "of royal descent" is thus explained: the family and progeny of dignified and brilliant rulers, kings, and holy and aged men are redeemed from evil state by the Godlike splendor and luster of the Yazad Neryosang.

This fire Neryosang was first enthroned as a sacred element symbol and on a mountain with great ceremony by king Hooshang the first of the Peshdadian line. And this ceremonial feast was called by King Hooshang "Jashan-e-sudeh, but this latter phrase is an error in Persian for "Jashan-e-shideh", as the Persian word shideh, meaning luster or light, comes from the Avesta word "khshaiti." Firdausi has mentioned this in his Shah-nameh.]

Exposition in the good religion about that prince succeeding to the throne who is the legitimate child of royal blood. And the child that is not of royal descent has no right to the throne. (322)

Be it known that the prince born in wedlock of royal blood is very nearly related to the throne. Just as the produce of the ground obtained by the cultivator's own labor and implements belong justly to that cultivator, so the royal house of Faridoon the descendant of Athwian is worthy to rule over the world. And a prince not belonging to this house by birth cannot be a king. For how can the produce of a land not belonging to one, be justly called his own? In the same way a natural born son is not legitimate. That man who assists the evil Prince of Darkness (Ahriman) is incapacitated from being a king. Just as the wicked descendants [1] of the house of Athwian are not born to rule over Iran, so also the progeny of the life-destroying Zohak are not of a royal race.

[1 i.e. Tur, Selum, Afrasiab, Arjasp, and others.]

Exposition in the good religion about the lasting happiness and unhappiness of living men; and the evanescent happiness and unhappiness of the lifeless. (323)

Be it known that the lasting happiness of living [1] men is the happiness in this world related with that of the next. And the evanescent happiness of the lifeless [1] is earthly happiness having no relation to happiness of the next world.

The lasting unhappiness of living men is earthly sorrow connected with the uncertainty of the next world. And the evanescent sorrow of the lifeless is earthly sorrow not relating to the uncertainty of the next world (or without any care for the next world.)

[1. By living and lifeless are meant here religious and irreligious men.]

Exposition in the good religion about the final effects of the rule of the good ruler and of that of the bad. (324)

Be it known that the effect of the rule of the good ruler is happiness, freedom and greatness. And through justice the people become good under him as under king Jamshed.

The effect of the evil rule of the bad ruler is injury through injustice and repentance. And such a ruler does harm to the people of the world like Zohak mentioned in the sacred writings.

Exposition in the good religion about the evidence that the Mazdayasnian faith is the word of God. (325)

Be it known that of the many evidences of the Mazdayasnian faith being the word of God these three are the chief:

First that it contains perfect wisdom. Second, that it contains more of the truth than other faiths. Third, that to him who is anxious about religion it gives a complete knowledge about the existence of God.

Exposition in the good religion about the king's reforming and guiding those who have been perverted from the divine faith. (326)

Be it known that all creation is regular through the gift of the Creator. Ohrmazd is the bestower of life to men in this world. And the good ruler who keeps men regular and able is the king of cities. About the king's method of dealing by law with those who have turned away from both these (i.e. God and king) it is expounded in the religion that the king should aid people with good intentions and to punish those with evil intentions. And by creating a taste for wisdom to give these men the knowledge about immortality. And by doing this and keeping them from having the evil knowledge of the wicked Varun to keep them under control. Men have to become glorious by virtuous disposition and religious knowledge, and by such disposition and knowledge they have to save themselves from hell and to obtain the happiness of heaven. By the corruption of good disposition and religious knowledge, the man of a wicked disposition and false religion is damned. A man gets respect and glory among men through charity, by which the world becomes easy and happy. Want of charity and miserliness is a vice among men; and through these the world is distressed. The happiness of the world is increased when the king renders his subjects happy; and then the world prospers. By his thought of inflicting pain the happiness of the world is jeopardized, and the world languishes. A liberal and charitable king is like wind, ordinary clouds, and clouds charged with rain, in the physical world, which do so much good to the earth and keep it fresh. To guide all men by the power of this world and the next is by

"rendering happy those who are miserable,"

as is said in the first paragraph of the Fargard of Spand Nask.

Exposition in the good religion about the communion of men with all the Yazads and about his separation from them; and about his connection with the demons and the reasons of his separation from them. (327)

Be it known that the communion of men with the Yazads is through their friendship with these; and they separate and their friendship is dissolved when avarice, anger, envy, and revenge prevail among them and when they are deprived by the demons of the wisdom of the Yazads.

The union of the demons with men is for harming mankind. But when these men break their connection with those demons for redressing the injuries, and for obtaining the love and favor of their protecting Yazads, these Yazads renew their friendship with them. Thereby the demons are frustrated in their object of harming mankind and owing to resentment keep at a distance from men. The good protecting Yazads do not want to give up their love for men as they want to benefit them at the time of the final renovation, when the demons finally cease in despair from troubling men. By being thus prevented from communicating with men on various new pretext, and from running to and fro among them for tempting them, the demons lose power. At the time of this final renovation the entire Creation of Ohrmazd shall be reformed and renovated, and the people of the world shall live in an everlasting state of virtue without any fear.

Exposition in the good religion about the real pleasure of rulers. (328)

Be it known that rulers feel pleasure in many ways from ruling justly and worthily. And such pleasure was felt by the great ruling race of Osadin. The grandeur and happiness of the house of this Osadin was owing to its descent from Athwian. According to the account given in the good religion of the descendant of Osadin [1] the Kayanian, they received wisdom and good advice from the Yazads, owing to which they protected the lives of their subjects virtuously and fearlessly, and preserved those virtues which would be of, great use to men for the final renovation. As supreme monarchs are delighted by the ambrosial drink of "arunj," so their subjects are delighted when they receive impartial justice from their kings.

[1. Kay Usadan is the name given in the Avesta to the Kayanian king Kay Kaus.

In the Frawardin Yasht, 13 chap. 132 sec. this renowned monarch is thus remembered in the Avesta with the illustrious and holy dead:

"We remember the holy soul of Kay Usadan or Kay Kaus."

Kay Kaus mounted the throne of Iran in succession to Kay Kobad the first monarch of the Kayanian race. In his great historical epic, the Shah-namah, Firdausi mentions in the following verses, the four sons of Kay Kobad, -- Kay Kaus the eldest, next after him Kay Ars, and Kay Pishin, and Kay Armin the youngest:

In the Frawardin Yasht, 29th ha amongst the names of the holy and illustrious dead, that of "Kay Apivunghu" comes next after Kay Kobad, and after him Kay Kaus, Kay Arsh, and Kay Pishin. Guided by this Prof. James Darmesteter calls Kay Apivunghu the son of Kay Kobad. But looking to the fact that Kay Kaus came to the throne as the eldest son, we must consider Kay Apivunghu as Kay Kobad's younger brother, and the learned Professor must thus he in error. For from the fact that according to our traditional usage we Zoroastrians couple the names of Kay Kaus and Kay Pishin with that of Kay Kobad, but couple those of Kay Arsh and Urvund with the name of Kay Pishin, we are justified in conjecturing that Kay Arsh and Kay Urvund were the grandsons of Kay Kobad. And Kay Armin mentioned in the Shah-Nameh or "Kay Urvund" was the father of king Kay Loharasp.]

Exposition in the good religion about the power of religion being able to overcome Ahriman from the time of the creation to that of the final renovation. (329)

Be it known that the power of religion is able to overpower Ahriman by its great goodness. And the man possessing the power leads an exalted spiritual life, and by his communion with the Yazads is connected with the source of never diminishing strength (or Spenamino). Owing to his moral wisdom he is not touched by mans' worldly rise and fall, (i.e. he does not care for men's worldly dignity, high or low). The power of Ahriman is much diminished in this world by man's disregarding Druj. Druj or vice is absent in this world so long as men disregard and pay no attention whatever to Druj. When vice becomes powerless man possessing the strength of virtue prevails over moral darkness, as the sun of light dispels the dark night, and always lives in an exalted state. By his superiority he keeps the whole world happy, every family becomes prosperous through him. The world remains happy as long as no evil star is shedding his sinister rays upon it and its sky is not overclouded. But when it is covered with clouds it is cut off from the benign rays of the sun; and owing to the disappearance of the sun, darkness (Ahriman) prevails and has the power to suppress all things connected with light.

Again as darkness exists with light so the power of Ahriman exists among all those who have the strength of virtue, and the man possessing the power of truth may come to have the strength of falsehood (i.e. the follower of Ohrmazd may became the follower of Ahriman). By the evil effect of sin among the followers of Ohrmazd's faith, the man who possessed the strength of virtue is ruined, and does not regain his original strength, (i.e. he does not again belong to Spenamino). Through original truth man becomes pure in his wishes; but by neglecting this original truth men become the servants of the demons in this world by evil thoughts, evil words and evil acts. In the same way by good thoughts good words and good acts they become the servants of God. Owing to wickedness sin has appeared in this world for six periods of thousand years. According to the exposition in the religion the first period of thousand years was Jamshed's and it was full of the glory of virtue, it destroyed sin in the world and weakened Ahriman. During the second period, that of Zohak, Iran was ruined and desolated by his devil-worship. The third [1] period is called that of Zartosht, in which great wrongs ceased to exist, and the great power of Ahriman obtained through the knowledge of his false faith deception and falsehood was stopped. In it people remembered and believed in God, and by this the knowledge of Ahriman's false faith and his deception were dimmed. The fourth period is called that of Ushedar, and the fifth that of Ushedarmah. The sixth is said to be that of Soshyant, during which the demons and Drujs will be finally worsted and Ohrmazd's creations freed from hell, and by a miracle there will be Frashegird or final renovation and men will become immortal.

[l. Owing to the inadvertence of the copyist, the Pahlavi Ms. has here instead of the "third," fourth, and this error affects the enumeration that follows. We have kept thin error in the Pahlavi text of our work; but have corrected it in the Zand transliteration and the Gujarati and English translations.]

Exposition in the good religion about the existence of light and darkness. (330)

Be it known that the existence of light is felt by the sight of its spreading rays and by this shining sight being reflected in the eyes of man. Darkness is not felt in its own nature (i.e. it has no nature, being mere negation). But it is owing to the closing of man's sense of sight, and to the source of light being not seen by him. The wise man possesses the light of wisdom even though he be deprived of mortal sight.

Exposition in the good religion about the nature of the king and of the priest of Ohrmazd's religion and about that of those of Ahriman's religion. (331)

Be it known that it is the nature of the ruler of Ohrmazd's faith to create by his strength of virtue among people good wisdom, pure justice and the ability to cherish others. And the habit of the ruler of Ahriman's faith is to strengthen by his strength the evil genius of him who injures virtue among men, and injustice and cruelty.

It is the nature of the priest of Ohrmazd's faith to do the virtuous deeds of the good Vohuman. Whilst the nature of the priest of Ahriman's faith is to train and habituate men to do the dark and sinful deeds of the evil Akoman.

Exposition in the good religion about every man's getting truth and justice by remaining on the side of the Good One Ohrmazd and by not being on the side of the evil one Ahriman. (332)

Be it known that Ohrmazd by his power of comprehending everything is truthful and the judge of all. And every truthful man gets justice at his hands. Those who cannot comprehend everything, cannot deal out impartial justice to all. Thus those who do not possess the faculty of comprehending everything, are helpless in the matter of the wrong done when pure justice is not given to every body. But God gives due justice to him who has been wronged by an unjust judgment. Therefore those should give a just judgment about criminals, who are able to observe and understand the methods of the spiritual world; so that their judgment may be upheld the next world. Again the man who is not capable of judging justly but who is God-fearing and conscientious, is considered to behave properly; and his behavior being then proper, he is saved from hell.

Exposition in the good religion about the origin of the good and the bad faith. (333)

Be it known that the good faith is the light about the virtuous nature of Ohrmazd; and its origin is known by ideas about Him. And ideas about Ohrmazd are obtained by the recitation of Manthra (or the Avesta prayer) and by doing conscientious deeds. Again the revelation of the good religion giving ideas of the origin of God is like the root of the pomegranate tree which remains invisible under the ground; and like the man who takes for the purpose of worship and ceremony the leaves and fruit of the pomegranate tree which are above ground, knows through them of the seed and root of that tree.

The evil faith is the abomination of the dark fiend or Ahriman. And its source is the worshipper, the imposter Ashmogh (or the priest of the evil faith) who is possessed with Ahriman. The origin of the evil faith is known by accepting its falsehood. The work of the followers of the false faith is of the kind of Frahibut and Aibibut, of Ahriman's own nature. And the source of this false faith remains among its evil impostor priests as poison lies within the serpent. And as this poison appears when death is caused by the bite of the serpent, so the evil designs of the followers of the false faith appear through their love of falsehood.

Exposition in the good religion about him who takes care of his soul and about him who injures it. (334)

Be it known that he is to be held as taking care of his soul who preserves his thoughts, words, hands, mouth, and backbone, from evil. And he is to be held to injure his soul who thinks the house of the devil to be superior.

Exposition in the good religion about three kinds of superior strength. (335)

Be it known that among various kinds of strength in the world there are three of a superior character. The first is the strength of wisdom; and its source is the Dastur (or head-priest) of Ohrmazd's faith. The second is the strength of rules and its source is the monarch who is the splendor of the throne. The third is the strength of work. By means of these three kinds of strength the world increases in faith. For by wisdom 6 it gets the knowledge of recognizing things. By rule great and heroic acts are done. And by the strength of work commerce is carried on among people, and the world is improved by it. Ohrmazd has given these three kinds of strength to his servants. The strength given to men by Ahriman is for ruining things that exist and for weakening men guided by wisdom; and by weakening them to dissuade the priest and make him desist from explaining the people the strength that is permanent in things. Men in this world are injured by putting 'khrafstras' [noxious creatures, vermin] into fire, water, earth, and the vegetable kingdom. And the khrafastras enter into them like the virulent poison of the serpent. In spite of many cures being applied to men for removing the disease of these khrafastras, the weakness and injuries caused by it remains. Ohrmazd bestows wisdom on the good ruler renewing the strength of wisdom and of work in the man who believes in the good faith of divine origin. By this the soul continues in the body. The man of the divine faith gets an increase of strength through his divine faith. A man's sins are expiated by his perfect knowledge of the divine faith and by his doing good works for his final renovation. All creation is freed by Ohrmazd from Ahriman by men's working in this world for their final renovation and by making them eternally happy.

Exposition in the good religion about men having high aims being virtuous leaders; and men having low aims being vicious. (336)

Be it known that the noble nature of heroes and rulers has zeal for high aims, such as morality, strength, aid,

powerful youth, charity, godly thoughts, truthfulness, courage, perseverance, doing of virtuous public deeds, [1] and other good qualities of rulers. The virtues of a priest of high aims are the noble qualities connected with prayer to God, -- such as patience of persecution for the faith, firmness of faith in prayer, assisting the respectable, having courage for good intentions, preparing food for the soul (i.e. performing the Yazashne [Yasna] ceremony), charity, speaking profitable words, truthfulness, humility, courage, contentment, perseverance, doing public acts, as the leader of the faith and obedience of other good kinds.

[1. By public deeds must be understood such good religious deeds as are beneficial to the whole community, and as render men happy in this world as well as the next. It is ordained in the Sacred Avesta that "public deeds are for pleasing Ohrmazd and injuring Ahriman, (i.e. virtuous deeds for obtaining the love of God and injuring Satan). And these are connected with men's hope of final renovation."]

The nature of the ruler instructing people in the bad faith are evil qualities of low and base aims; and they are as follows. Injuring religious works as their enemy, to be the foe like Baratrut of him who suffers for religion, obtaining the strength of the sinful Baratrut who is against humility, the vice of aiding Baratrut in opposing honor and respectability, sinful courage for vice which opposes a virtuous nature, sinful miserliness in liberally providing food for the soul, marring the good intentions of God by speaking high things, speaking the truth with the sinful motive of benefiting by it, pride which opposes magnanimity, avaricious endeavors that oppose contentment, the open gifts and deeds of the sinful for diminishing virtuous acts by great sins, and all other vices of the wicked people connected with the Baratrut who opposed the virtues of Jamshed who belonged to the original faith. Thus the two kinds of qualities mentioned above oppose each other. The bad qualities of the leaders of base aims are for injuring virtue, and these are as follows: cherishing sinful thieves who oppose religiousness, vindictive and sinful humility which is opposed to courage, the impudence of the sinner which is opposed to obedience to God, secret vindictiveness of the sinner opposed to open valor, miserliness of the sinner about providing food for the soul which is opposed to liberality, base cringing obedience of the sinner opposed to high and noble ideas, ignoble and slothful contentment opposed to diligence and besides these all other bad qualities of the sinner of base aims are opposed to the good qualities above mentioned of the virtuous.

Exposition in the good religion about the nature of the Mazdayasnian religion, its foresight, gifts, wisdom, diligence, work, ideas, power, and advantages. (337)

Be it known that the nature of the Mazdayasnian religion is the foresight of God; and the gift of this foresight are wise acts. Again this foresight is a mine of superior wisdom for improving those who want it and is an emanation of the entire nature of Ohrmazd. Its diligence is about the salvation of the sins of the world. Its work is by its reason and wisdom to distinguish the innate strength of everything and to take it into proper use. Its power of work is employed to save men from unhappiness in this world and the next by keeping men away from the sinful deeds of Ahriman in order to preserve intact and pure the innate strength of things. Its benefit is derived from its continuing within finite time to reform creation by the aid of the knowledge of good works to be done during that time. And this work of reformation and renovation is accomplished by recognizing the innate strength of things. And by saving men from the wickedness of Ahriman through this work, they are to be renovated for complete and unmixed eternal happiness.

Exposition in the good religion about the head of the Mazdayasnian faith and the chief of the religion of demon-worship. (338)

Be it known that the heads of the Mazdayasnian faith or its Dasturs are those who having received their education and obtained a knowledge of the saving faith as his disciples at the hands of that holy and true teacher of religious knowledge, the prophet Zartosht, have the firmness to believe sincerely in him as the prince of their faith, through their faith in God. And the pious disciples who obtain this training are the persons who obtain renown as the holy. Heads of the Mazdayasnian faith by giving to the world the benefit of the true faith through making the good ruler and king of a religious disposition owing to their friendship and influence with him and inducing him to spread over the world the true faith, and by loving and ruling virtuously all living beings, and lastly, by preserving men's souls for the happiness of the final renovation.

The leaders of the demon worshipping religion are the leaders of the religion of Zohak. They obtain wicked power by not believing in God; and thus they believe in Zohak the leader of the false faith; and as his disciples give to people evil knowledge connected with Ahriman; and give to people the spuriously brilliant education in the School of the false religion to do wicked deeds. They injure men and spiritual religion by their obtaining the friendship and love of the ruler of the false faith for deceiving people, and by their inducing him to behave wickedly. And finally they make the whole world wicked.

Exposition in the good religion about the religious teacher who can save every man from sin and make him virtuous. (339)

Be it known that to make a man free from sin and to make him virtuous are both done in the same way, [1] that is by making him live without sin and in virtue. The holy priest is the man to explain what is virtue; and by this explanation every soul has to lead a good life. Every man obtains from the Dastur the knowledge of what to do and what not to do. A man lives in the world without sin by not injuring virtuous men, and then the man obtains the love of God. All men not having the benefit of the Dastur's true knowledge about every thing, they do not possess the knowledge of God, religion and virtue. How can an ignorant man know of virtue without the aid of a religious teacher? Therefore every one amongst men has the need of a teacher of the salvation from sin and the acquisition of virtue.

[1. i.e. Living without sin means obtaining salvation from hell, and obtaining salvation from hell is by becoming virtuous.]

Exposition in the good religion and advice about keeping the body as much as possible well-clothed; and about not remaining without Sudre and Kusti. (340)

Be it known that the reformation of all through the good faith is by the wisdom of Ohrmazd whose servants we all are. This faith gives us knowledge to know this world and the next. And this knowledge is the true wisdom highly to be accepted about this world and the revelation of the next. And it is expounded in this faith that man should not as far as possible remain naked; for this reason that his body being seen naked is subject to much injury from magicians. Therefore it is incumbent on him to put on ordinary clothes. Again when a man is entirely naked his person appears indecent and ugly. Such an indecent and ugly looking man strengthens his enemies the demons, and through this strength these demons succeed in injuring his body.

It is advised not to remain without Sudre and Kusti lest men be mysteriously injured by the demons. And the man who does not put on Sudre and kusti is really in a way an injurer and annoyer of men in the world. [1] Again the man without the girdle of the kusti is like a man of alien religion and is not considered to belong to the true faith. [2]

[1 In our religion it is called a sinful act to keep the body unclothed with the Sudre and to have the Sudre without the girdle of the Kusti: In his Patet-Pashemani (or litany of repentance) based on the holy Avesta, Dasturan Dastur (or supreme Dastur) Adarbad has called the sin of remaining without Sudre and Kusti, "Barhane-dwarashni;" and the sin of having the Sudre without the band of the Kusti, he has called "Vashade-dobarashni."]

[2 In the sacred book of the Vendidad, 18th fargard, that Zoroastrian has been called by God, Ashmogh the impostor of the evil faith, who should remain for three years without having the Sudre and Kusti on, or should during that period never once read the prayer of the Gathas, or after purifying his body with ablutions of water should not pray to God his Creator. He is said to undermine our religion. And when ours was the state religion he was to be punished with death. (Vide Vendidad ed. Westergaard p. 458 §§ 8-10.]

Exposition in the good religion about the usage of the good faith and the usage of the evil faith. (341)

Be it known that the usage of the good faith is to do good and virtuous deeds about the next or spiritual world. The follower of that faith holds Ohrmazd as the lord of his conscience and does good work pleasing to the Yazads. He makes himself resplendent by the virtuous happiness of this world. He benefits the world and makes it prosperous by doing good public acts, by loving the innumerable peoples of the world and by being charitable to all alike.

The usage of the evil faith is to work for men's unhappiness and misery in the next world. And thus to tarnish the splendor of the spiritual world, to destroy willfully the happiness of virtue in the world, and to seduce people into liking falsehood. By his secretly injuring people and by robbing them of their happiness, the follower of the evil faith does not know happiness and pleasure and a pure conscience. And thus his nature appears unrighteous.

Exposition in the good religion about the things that are useful for spreading the faith in the world. (342)

Be it known that there are these four things useful for spreading the faith in the world. A good understanding, knowledge of religion, the faculty of imparting that knowledge to people, and the ability of making people accept the faith. As the head of the community guides its members aright, and they listen to his advice; so the shepherd is the head of the herd of gospands [livestock], and by taking them about skillfully for pasture he is like their leader. As the head of the faith must have knowledge of that faith for his flock of men, so the shepherd has knowledge of the faith for his flock. As the head of the community teaches his men the rules of right conduct in this world, so the shepherd trains his flock to move about properly and to seek pasture ; and by his skill in this he deserves to be held as the leader of his herd of gospands. It is injurious to appoint him the shepherd of gospands who does not possess the proper religious knowledge of training the flock. If the religious head of a community of men is ignorant of the faith, the community cannot be held together and is ruined and dispersed; as he is not obeyed.

If the sheep have no shepherd they have no control, move listlessly about, and have no help for pasture.

If men have no Dastur learned in the faith they obtain no power of divine knowledge and become godless.

On the other hand if the Dastur learned in the faith have no community under him he remains isolated, and has no one to whom to impart religious knowledge; and there is no one to accept his religion.

If there be no flock of gospands, the shepherd becomes poor and loses his dignity of guide. And pasture become useless. If the guide of the faith does not possess divine knowledge, he is useless without the power of religious knowledge and without followers of the faith. For if the head of the faith himself is not fit to teach the faith, the people remain in an unprofitable state without getting any reward of virtue.

If the shepherd is not able to guide his flock of gospands, they live lawlessly without control like prisoners and have no aid for their pasture.

If there be no head of the faith to make people believe in it, divine wisdom becomes useless, there is a dire want of religious knowledge of which the people remain in ignorance. The venerable dignity of such a head and his advice become useless. And the community derive no benefit from them.

If cattle have no pasture they are annoyed without food, become unhappy and prisoners as it were; and their movements are to no purpose.

Exposition in the good religion about men or supreme dignity; and about very wicked men. (343)

Be it known that according to the good religion the persons of supreme dignity are the illustrious rulers and monarchs of men and the Dasturs of the age possessing divine wisdom. Very wicked persons are the evil rulers and ancient priests of false religion.

Among great and good monarchs king Jamshed was the greatest and best. This king gave the people of this world knowledge about their bodies and soul (i.e. about this world as well as the next).

Among the great Dasturs the greatest Dastur was Spitaman Zartosht, who gave men the best knowledge about the soul (or the spiritual world).

Among wicked monarchs the most wicked was Zohak who killed Jamshed.

Among wicked priests the most wicked was Tur-e-Baratrut of evil nature and desirous of destroying Zartosht's faith.

Among the great and good rulers and Dasturs to come in future, doing good works for Frashegird (or final renovation), the greatest will be Soshyant. And among his friendly colleagues in the work of final renovation will be Kay Khoshraw.

Among the most wicked men to come at the time of the final renovation there will be Gadaros of the family of the wicked Tur-e-Baratrut. And among the most wicked priests will be Zohak. It is said in the good religion that Soshyant will be their vanquisher and destroyer.

Exposition in the good religion about those who accept the faith and who dissuade men from sin. (344)

Be it known that it is advised in the faith that men should have zeal for good deeds. And those that are advanced in virtue should dissuade men from loving sin and wickedness.

Exposition in the good religion about the three calamities that will befall the Mazdayasnian faith, during the millennial period of Zartosht, through three rulers of the false faith and three priests of the same. (345)

Be it known that during the millennial period of Zartosht (i.e. in the interval between the time of Zartosht and that of Ushedar) the Mazdayasnian faith shall be severely shaken by rulers of the false faith. The Turki prince Arjasp and his followers is to give the first blow. The second calamity will come from the ill-famed prince Alexander Rumi and his followers. And the third from the bare headed Saad the Arab leader and his companions. Likewise shall the faith suffer during this period of Zartosht from three priests of the false faith of whom the first is of the white race [1], the second is Mazdak who aids evil in the world, and the third is Mohammed.

[1. The priest of the white race in probably Mani.]

(Exposition in the good religion) about the connection between it and divine wisdom. (346)

Be it known that the words of the excellent wisdom of God were communicated to the good learned men of all countries before and after the preaching of the Mazdayasnian faith in this world. And these learned men of various continents were connected with the truth of this faith in this manner that they became acquainted with the precepts and writings of the good religion like the followers of the Mazdayasnian faith themselves.

Exposition in the good religion about very good times and about very evil times. (347)

Be it known that when the peoples of all the kingdoms of the earth are reformed rightly by the true faith, and when the good religion is powerful, by faith in it, owing to its connection with the state, then virtue prevails among men, the earth prospers, all living beings enjoy lasting happiness, lead fearless and healthy lives, become advanced in wisdom, and shine by good manners, then also the virtues of charity, veracity, fidelity, as well as other excellent qualities are to be found in men.

When the peoples of evil kingdoms are deformed by the training in the false religion and guide themselves by the light of this false faith, then they spread immorality. And the earth becomes desolate, its inhabitants lead wicked lives, suffer pain, lose dignity through evil intentions, become destitute, and owing to wickedness appear of evil mien. And by the spread of sin, miserliness, ungratefulness and wicked intentions among men they become very defiled and vicious.

Exposition in the good religion about the fear which the righteous have about sin; and the tendency of the evil to commit sin. (348)

Be it known that a righteous man has to guard himself against (moral) sin. And the evil men are inclined to commit sin. Therefore the former should, bearing this in mind, think of the soul for the safety of the body, should obey God, and should utter mysterious thoughts about the most essential parts of the body. Those that are evil have no hope of saving their souls in the other world from God. Thus without any thought of spiritual faith they become strong for evil through the power of the latent animal passions. Man obtains salvation (from sin) by the thought of spiritual virtue and control of the soul. whilst by the wisdom of the demons man becomes endowed with the strength of all the wicked and sufficiently harmful through this strength. Man recognizes what is wise and obtains power through the aid of the Yazads. He is also emboldened to speak out unhesitatingly for the good of the people; and for this boldness the demons feel sorrow and evil men feel hurt. By the wisdom of the Yazads man becomes illustrious, honorable through virtue, and is blessed by the good wishes of God.

Exposition in the good religion about the man connected with the Mazdayasnian faith making the rule of virtue to prevail and the faith in the false religion to disappear. (349)

Be it known that owing to this (i.e. by being connected with the Mazdayasnian faith and by keeping aloof from the false faith) man obtains courage, blessings and earthly happiness, intelligence, and splendor. He, who is connected with the Mazdayasnian faith, obtains the good strength of that faith, viz. virtue, prosperity, improvement, reputation, intelligence and pomp, which all tend to happiness. The Dastur in this world like the ruler makes men religious, civilized, glorious, intelligent, blessed and, finally, happy; and encourages the rule of conscience in man. The Mazdayasnian faith is the strength of the kingdom of such subjects. The kingdom that has the strength of this faith enjoys a high rank among kingdoms, and improves by its permanent strength.

The followers of the false faith use their strength to deceive people and wreak their vengeance upon them. This being the case the state should reform its subjects and rule them liberally; it should reform its unworthy and contemptible subjects into civilized, clever, well-meaning, and praiseworthy and happy beings, and should keep thereby their miserable and nude body from harm.

If the world is to be saved from the injury of terrible wild beasts, the state should always be anxious to reform it on every occasion.

Man's happiness and well-being in this world depends on removing the difficulties which harass him. The subjects of the monarch of the evil faith labor under difficulties and are weakened through restraint; and thus this rule proves fatal in a certain way. It is improved by severing its connection with the evil faith and by avoiding conformity with it. For it is through religious impostors and malefactors that the subjects prevail over the state and disobey authority, as well as the empire is shaken at times to its foundations. The evil faith must be abandoned by men as it leads to misery in the world, and misery kills even wild beasts. The evil faith exists owing to miserable men. Its rule is useless to men and its authority is diminished.

Exposition in the good religion about the abode of freedom for mortals. (350)

Be it known that the abode of freedom for mortals is reached by the soul when it becoming pure through virtue and obtaining salvation from hell, goes to 'Hamistagan.'

A higher abode is attained when by the aid of the spiritual Yazads it goes from 'Hamistagan' to Heaven.

The third and highest abode is obtained by entering 'Garothman' through the aid of the Amahraspands. [1]

[1. From this text it is clear that the soul can he saved from hell by good deeds done for him here after death and can attain 'Hamistagan.' If more good deeds are done for him, the soul can go from Hamistagan to Heaven. And finally by still more good deeds done the soul reaches the highest Heaven or 'Garothman.']

Exposition in the good religion about the connection between the rulers and the ruled being kept up by the virtuous power and favor of the Almighty. (351)

Be it known that the good ruler remains in communion with God owing to his virtuous power and favor.

And his subjects should be connected faithfully with him in order to be in communion with God. It is owing to his virtuous power that the subjects' bodies and property are looked after by the just rulers. Likewise the ruler is kind owing to his connection with God. The ruler who is just has the protection and favor of God; and he is the lord of his subjects' bodies and wealth. The people of the world derive great benefit by following his faith and obeying his rule.

Exposition in the good religion about the virtuous and wise among men obtaining through the Yazads spiritual wealth; and about the wicked not obtaining it. (352)

Be it known that the wise among men sometimes get from the Yazads wealth which is useful to his existence. When they do not get it from the Yazads, high and virtuous thoughts, and the work done through this wealth are prevented. Man does not get the idea of obtaining food for strengthening the soul, himself without the agency of the Yazads. The strength which comes of this spiritual wealth and the desire for it being wanting, he thinks of degrading thoughts. But spiritual strength and wealth which is from the Yazads, being not in his possession, he does not enjoy contentment and peace of mind. The wicked among men sometimes get wealth through the worldly Yazads (or the heavenly spirits.) But thereby they do not get the good and timely thoughts of the spiritual Yazads. Therefore the obtaining of spiritual wealth from these Yazads is always attended with pain and misery; and their not obtaining it renders their souls discontented and displeased.

From these above mentioned causes then it is clear that all wise men are zealous and worthy of obtaining good recompense from the Yazads. And the wicked have neither the zeal nor the merit of obtaining such good rewards.

Exposition in the good religion about the wishes of a dishonest and wicked man. (353)

Be it known that a man's honest wish is about doing worthy and solid dignified acts about his mind; and all these dignified acts are through virtue; and by these we should try to obtain spiritual satisfaction and salvation for the soul.

The chief wish of a dishonest man is to lead himself blindly to vain things and to give vain and empty dignity to his kind. Everything sinful tends to spiritual dissatisfaction and perdition.

The chief wish of the wicked man is not to dignify his mind in a solid way, but to undermine the desire for dignified virtuous deeds. And this wish is of evil injurious origin and connected with the resources of vice.

Exposition in the good religion about the advice given by Jamshed to men. (354)

Be it known that King Jamshed has thus advised men. First to repent of having showed contempt to the Creator. Secondly, that the deeds which can aid them in obtaining happiness in the next world are virtues. Thirdly, that if they set their heart in obtaining material wealth, they cannot obtain reverence and honor. Fourthly, that if they are wise and veracious, their glory will increase and be lasting. Fifthly, not to tell lies at all, lest their honor and glory be tarnished. Sixthly, that all men have to reach heaven by the aid of the Yazads, -- if these do not aid men the latter cannot obtain heaven. Man sees the way to heaven by the virtuous aid of the Yazads, and he does not lose the path of righteousness and become miserable. For Jamshed lost his virtuous and solid happiness when he was deceived by the Devs and preferred that happiness which ruined his rule. He used his truth-speaking tongue by which he had obtained glory for telling lies which injured his honor. When he behaved presumptuously towards God, Who had created him, and given him splendor of protection, he was deprived of the intercourse with the good Yazads.

Exposition in the good religion about what preserves splendor and what destroys it. (355)

Be it known that every servant of God preserves his soul (from harm) by thinking of Him, Who bestows splendor. Thus it is meet that mortals should thank Him and remain zealous in their work.

Man is deprived of splendor (of faith) by contemning the Creator, by being ungrateful to Him and by becoming lazy in work.

Exposition in the good religion about the man's soul being the master of his own person and its adviser. (356)

Be it known that God has created the Creation for its appointed work; and every part of creation is rendered visible by its work. And this work is continued in the world by the soul of each such part. The soul advises man about his appointed work. A man guides and improves himself in this world by one of the kinds of spiritual wisdom. This kind pertains to the One (Ohrmazd), and thereby many are wise. Just as a man from owning one house comes to own many houses, from owning one street has many, from one village and city owns many villages and cities, from one continent or region several regions. As this universe and its land is molded by the reformed and wise created beings moving upon it, so the wise people of this whole universe are created by God for reforming by the splendor of virtue His creation. This good work is hindered by an evil kind of chief of men (or the evil priest or king). As the earth supports the whole system of buildings upon it, so by a bad chief people are encouraged in false ideas.

Exposition in the good religion about the power of rule benefiting as well as injuring men. (357)

Be it known that Ahriman possesses the soul of wicked men connected with him; and thus the man attracted to the evil one for the perdition of his soul. The savior of the soul from this desire is the divine instinct in man. The desire is strong enough to obtain as much of worldly goods as the sinner wants; and hence the sinner has wealth and power. When this desire is very strong in a man, he needs proportionately strong divine instinct for saving his soul from it.

When a man is devoid of the desire for power and wealth, he is conscientious. And thereby he always possesses the divine instinct for preserving his soul. And this desire being thus absent, that man obtains beneficial power and wealth.

The man who possesses proper virtuous courage, keeps the divine instinct till the end, and thereby is very strong and resplendent. As long as a man possesses requisite divine instinct, he can preserve the soul by the assistance of the Yazads. But when he becomes immoral through wicked power and wealth, his soul is injured and he becomes inglorious; and his power and wealth are destroyed.

Exposition in the good religion about one's doing works for the benefit of his soul himself; and about not doing anything which is injurious to the soul. (358)

Be it known that a man must do himself personally good deeds for his soul's benefit. If a man does not do a deed required for his spiritual welfare, no other man can do that for him. The explicit explanation of it is that the chief of hell does not allow man's soul to keep away from sin and to throw off the noose from his neck for doing virtuous deeds (i.e. he does not allow the noose which is round man's neck for the above purpose, to fall away from the neck by doing virtuous deeds.) And the Demon of Death hurries him away from this world by killing him. That is the chief of hell carries away his soul to hell by seizing hold of this noose. [1] And then he has to suffer punishment and misery till the day of judgment. And this sinful soul can relieve itself from hell and obtain higher bliss and pleasure through lasting faith like the holy men. He is kept apart from his relatives and kindred in the lowest apartment. He keeps his soul there solitary and uncontrolled. Just as a man loses in this world power, wealth and happiness, and is alone and desolate. The men who are under the good Yazads, are so much aided by them owing to their faith in them, that they become virtuous and are highly benefited.

[1. In Vendidad (Farg. 19, para 29) it has been revealed that the sinner who dies without repentance and salvation, has a noose round his neck, holding which the Dev Vijaresh carries him off to hell.]

Exposition in the good religion about man's glory disappearing by tarnishing the glory of the resplendent God. (359)

Be it known that God has created the world for work; and thus by the aid of the Yazads the whole Creation does good works relating to God. Man continues to work owing to diligence of soul. Diligence consists in thinking the soul subordinate to God. By diligence the work of the Creator is continued. And the Creator's work is to be done according to his wish. (That is, wish is to be done after knowing what would be pleasing to Him and give him a return from Him.) Those who are wrongly diligent and disobey the Creator, lose their glory; and their desire of obtaining recompense from Him by doing His work, dwindles away.

Exposition in the good religion about the protection and care of the world. (360)

Be it known that towards God, the Creator of the soul and its Protector, the soul shows its true love by praise and gratitude. But if men forget the praise and gratitude due to the Creator of their souls, these souls are given up by Him and no longer cared for. And when they are not cared for by God, the Druj injures them; and they are rendered miserable through this injury of the Druj.

Exposition in the good religion about the superior or inferior value of men. (361)

Be it known that a man is valued according to his spiritual wisdom. And this spiritual wisdom is obtained through diligence. This wisdom which shows diligence is given him by his best superior Yazads. And by this he is himself valued; as a man is valued by his deeds above and below water, land, the animal and vegetable kingdoms.

His medium actions are on a par with land, water, the animal, and vegetable kingdoms. And a deed greater by a third than these four, is to remove the injury done to the earth by the opposite revolution of the sky and the earth. And a deed greater by two-thirds is to bring up animate beings without disease. And the best and most valuable deed is the care taken of the people of the world by the holy man and righteous ruler as ordained in the good religion.

Man's low state is owing to the evil desires of his soul and its evil diligence. He who shows evil diligence to man and injures his spiritual happiness, is the evil leader Ahriman. As long as the wisdom about the eternal happiness and the soul is wanted by the soul of a man, he is held in low estimation.

The bodies of those men who injure the strength of the world by wicked deeds, are lifeless owing to their destructive deeds, and their dead bodies being rotten are infernal.

(End of volume 7)

Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives Contents Prev 275-361 Next Glossary