Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives Contents Prev 161-174 Next Glossary

DENKARD (Acts of Religion), Book 3

This digital edition copyright © 1995 by Joseph H. Peterson. All rights reserved.

Edited by Peshotun Dastoor Behramjee Sanjana, 1881.

(Exposition in the good religion) regarding the superior knowledge of the Mazdayasnian religion to be obtained in the three parts (of the Avesta). (161).

Be it known that, the superior knowledge of the Mazdayasnian religion given, through the three parts (of the Avesta), in the good religion, by the first head of the religion (Zartosht), is for the purpose (of pointing-out) that the deeds pertaining to Hat Mathra [scientific] and Gatha [religious] (are done) by the help of Dat [legal]; and that the deeds pertaining to Dat and Gatha are (done) by the help of Hat Mathra; and similarly, that the deeds pertaining to Hat Mathra and Dat are (done) by the help of Gatha. The (easily) understood explanation of this matter is this that in Dat is imparted superior knowledge as to how the people of this world ought to conduct themselves in this world. And Hat Mathra and Gathas are its (of Dat) means (instruments).

In the Gathas is imparted superior knowledge regarding the invisible world and the work of its inhabitants. And Hat Mathra and Dat are its means. In Hat Mathra is contained superior knowledge regarding the means for maintaining mutual relations between the people of Mino (the invisible world) and of Geti (this perishable world). And Gatha and Dat are its means. And in this manner (upon this plan) has each of the prayers in the Avesta been composed.

[That part of the Avesta which is called Dat explains how man ought, in this world, to live a life of virtue and holiness. The Gathas contain information regarding the work relating to the invisible world and its inhabitants. Hence it is as incumbent upon men to know what they should do and what they should refrain from doing in this world, as to know the nature of the invisible world and how happiness or misery can be secured there: for, without a knowledge of both these descriptions it is impossible for man to regulate his conduct in this world or to render himself worthy of the happiness of the next.

But this is not enough. Without the assistance of the invisible Yazads man is unable to act uniformly in obedience to the precepts of the religion or to improve in his moral nature; for he is drawn contrary ways by the good and evil influence of the two invisible powers, Spenta Mainyu and Anghra Mainyu: and, that he may not be drawn towards the evil power, but may remain on the side of the good power, it is necessary that he should by prayers and praises secure the assistance, the friendship, and the influence of the invisible Yazads and Ameshaspands. And the Mathra Avesta are a means to the end: a recitation of them obtains for man the love of the Yazads and Ameshaspands, whose assistance keeps him aloof from the tendencies of Anghra Mainyu.]

Exposition in the good religion that the Dadar [Creator] will ward off the harm (stroke, blow) of Anghra Mainyu which is for (the purpose of) overcoming the creation of Spenta Mainyu, and will continue it (the creation). (162).

Be it known that, Anghra Mainyu has created (made) each of (his) dangers (harms) for the purpose of attacking the creation of Spenta Mainyu. These dangers Spenta Mainyu always lessens (diminishes) from his creation. And in these (following) five ways Spenta Mainyu makes it (the creation) to prevail (literally, to walk) over the dangers: -- The first of these ways is to remove from a thing a particular kind of attack made upon it by the harm (proceeding) from Anghra Mainyu. For, as an enemy, it is the business of Anghra Mainyu to introduce cold into pure heat and dryness into pure water (moistness). And his object is, by putting an end to heat by cold and to moistness by dryness, to render lusterless the possessors of good life, to render the world useless and to prevent the people from continuing (in the world). Spenta Mainyu is an arrester of the cold which injures moistness (and) which reaches, through hostility, against pure heat. And (he) is an arrester of the dryness which harms heat (and) which reaches against pure moistness. Where cold meets (unites) with moistness, and heat meets (unites) with dryness, there is a stoppage (of respiration). (For) cold, which is an enemy of heat, going (prevailing) over heat, no heat remains within (the body); hence cold with a due (uniform) proportion of heat and moistness is a helper of the body.

Similarly, heat, which is an enemy of cold, going (prevailing) over cold, no cold remains within (the body); hence, dryness with a due (uniform) proportion of moistness and heat is a helper of the body. And their connection is (calculated) for the bettering (improvement) of the body. Owing to the union within the body of heat and moisture the body is improved, and thereby life acquires great strength and vigor. And hence Anghra Mainyu is disappointed in his intention of fabricating things (calculated) to arrest the creation of Ohrmazd. The second way is to assist the creation with good wishes against the practice obtaining in the creation of doing deeds that have in them an admixture of Druj s, and to make it profitable.

Thus Spenta Mainyu is a helper of the creation, which has united within it any of the cold and dryness of Anghra Mainyu, with the beneficial help of the union of brightness-giving heat and of moisture. Again it is apparent from this that as the heat of Spenta Mainyu is driven out from within life-possessing beings by an increase, through the Blemish-Giver, of cold, so moisture which is the companion of heat is driven out by (an increase of) dryness (brought about by the Blemish-Giver). But through just deeds men acquire again the benefits pertaining to them. And (he, Spenta Mainyu) causes great benefit to man, through wisdom, in opposition to (as against) the vicious, blemish-possessing and ruinous (harmful) deeds of the Drujs.

The third way is (that which relates) to the continuance of man and of his progeny (in this world) notwithstanding the great risk of his being brought into a sinful state. These (dangers) fall upon the people of the. world at once, in one place and at one time: thus, it is obvious that Anghra Mainyu throws evil temptations and other vices pertaining to his tyranny, through (the instrumentality) of the One (i.e. of perverse intelligence), upon all speakers of the truth, at all times, in all places and in all cities, (and that Spenta Mainyu) puts these away from the people, and, keeping them within the law, renders them of good aspect.

The fourth way (mode of procedure) (of Spenta Mainyu) is to turn back upon the Drujs the dangers (harm) caused by them for injuring the people. As the heads of enemies are broken with their (own) battle axes, so are the Devs to be smitten with their (instruments the) Drujs: In like manner as Afrasiyab, the doer of deeds in accordance with the wishes of the Devs, was tormented by the Drujs. And similarly are the Khrafstras harmed by the fall of snow. In the same way, it is declared (in the religion) that at the time when the Dadar will perform Frashegird (resurrection), Anghra Mainyu will turn back from the ambition to which he yielded and his office-bearers (work-doers) will be swallowed up, harmed, and saddened.

The fifth and best way is that which has been mentioned in the good religion regarding the guidance by the Dadar (of his creation) with consummate knowledge, and, the rendering lusterless, with adequate strength, in the time of the Frashegird, of all the sinful strength of the Darwand (i.e. the wicked one), and, the becoming existence-less and ruined of the Source of sinful powers (Anghra Mainyu), and, his non-restoration (non-improvement) a second time.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the duty (necessity) of men to respect the high pontiff and to accept his dicta. (163).

Be it known that, it is incumbent upon men to obey (believe in) the high pontiff, the expounder of the good religion, and to consider him as the highest ruler rendering the assistance of the religion, as well as the highest emblem of the religion. Whoever among men is a servant of the Mazdayasnian religion ought to consider him as the high priest of his house, (his) street, (his) village, and (his) city.

And those among the servants of the Mazdayasnian religion who are Athornans (priests) of the good religion ought to consider him as their ornament and luster. Those who tire Arthestars (warriors) ought to consider him as their warrior's armor. Those who are Vastariosh (husbandmen) ought to deem him as the sufficing happiness of their agriculture (husbandry). And those who are (of the) Hutokhsh (merchant and and artisan class) ought to look upon him as the dress they wear. Those among Athornans who receive and impart (religious) instruction are like unto the skin of the bodies of Athornans. Those who are Mobeds (priests) and Dasturs (high priests) are like unto the bones and intellect of the Athornans. Those among Athornans who are of most excellent goodness are like unto the heart of Athornans. And he among them who is superior in rank to the people-protecting king is like unto the marrow and joints of Athornans.

Accordingly they (the Mazdayasnians) should treat the Athornans of different ranks as superior in station. And (they) must understand that every good and evil that happens to them comes through them (the Athornans).

Exposition in the good religion regarding the duty of men to accept (obey) the just commands of kings and to make themselves act (in accordance with them). (164).

Be it known that, the ruler over a man's soul is his own pure conscience (heart). And the ruler over his conscience is his intellect which distinguishes good from evil. And (associated) with both these is the religion of Ohrmazd which keeps (men) completely prosperous. Supreme over each of these three superior (things) are the commands of the people-protecting king. Therefore, (Mazdayasnians) ought to keep their souls, bodies, and every (description) of this world's wealth in his service and under his control (order). And (they) must be careful to walk in (the paths of) virtue. And all men ought to keep themselves imprisoned (i.e. within bounds) because of every sin; and do all strength-giving, noble, deeds of righteousness.

Exposition in the good religion that the three descriptions of Avesta of the Mazdayasnian religion make known co-related matters. (165).

Be it known that, the (proper) understanding of the utterances in the Gathas is dependent upon Hat Mathra and Dat. And the (proper) understanding of Hat Mathra and Dat depends on the utterances in the Gathas. And the reason for it is this that there are made known in Hat Mathra and Dat many directions and many suitable punishments for those who entertain evil thoughts regarding the holy Self-Existent and who break the Lord's commandments; and the reason thereof is thus given in the Avesta composed in the form of the Gathas: The Lord of Goodness is the bestower of superior rewards on those masters of the world who remain in obedience to His commands and who keep all men like unto Him, as also on those who are the servants and subjects of such masters, for their desires (wishes) of this kind. And those who are disobedient to and who entertain evil thoughts regarding those rulers (owners) who, remaining in obedience to the holy Self-Existent, keep the persons of the people of the world and their riches in comformity with the commands of the holy Self-Existent, they, owing to their deeds, will not obtain justice or gift of any kind in (both) the worlds, but, as a reward (for their deeds) will have to endure hardships at the hands of the people of (both) the worlds.

The promulgation of Hat Mathra and of Dat was for the sake of the Gathas. And in the proportioned (metrical ?) Avesta of the Gathas it is made known to this effect that whoever walks truthfully (rightly), to him no evil will reach in the time to come. The reason for the origin of Hat Mathra is thus mentioned (in the religion) that, just as an army in thousands helps its truthful master (owner) in proportion to his truthfulness, and preserves him from harm, and thereby no harm reaches his person, so does Hat Mathra help a person of the true religion. And just as (man) becomes freed from (without) danger, (arising) from sins having the blemishes of Him of Evil Thoughts, owing to the punishment pertaining to them, and thus no harm happens to him, so is there a turning back of the punishment of sinners by the Mathra*. Again, the Gathas, owing to their containing a knowledge of the invisible (world) are of superior rank to the Mathra which concern the interspace (that between this world and the invisible world) and the Dat which have reference to (which possess) the wisdom of Geti (this world). Hence, it is apparent that the recitation of the Gathas in (with) Dat and Hat Mathra and of Hat Mathra and Dat in (with) the Gathas is for the reason that (man) may be without hardship.

[*According to the precepts of our religion sins of various kinds are wiped out by the penitential recitation of certain appointed prayers.]

Exposition in the good religion regarding the best and the worst times of the world and the four products (outcomes) of each. (166)

Be known that, the consideration in the world of times as best, depends upon the dispositions of all men being rendered most good through the wisdom of the servants of the religion. And the fruit of the times, improved and reformed by means of that wisdom, consists in every virtue, goodness, prosperity and righteousness. And all these ways have reference to the goodness and happiness of this world as also of the invisible world. And the consideration of times as the worst is owing to the punishment-deserving sinful dispositions of all men derived from the Yahudi [Jewish] religion. And the fruit of it has reference to the time of destruction and of the utmost wickedness. And owing to the evil intelligence and other vices (blemishes) (of that religion) each (income or acquisition) of the men of this world has reference to evil conduct, wickedness, misery, and sin, And thereby there is pain and hardship in the invisible world.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the declaration (in the religion) for the diminution of evil in all places where it may be prevalent. (167).

Be it known that, evil has been introduced by the Druj (Anghra Mainyu) into the creation of Ohrmazd to cause it harm. Hence, from the beginning of the creation to (its) end Dadar Ohrmazd will render his creation victorious over the Druj that causes it harm: and will improve (regenerate) all from evil. For, the Lord is himself aware through his foreknowledge that at the time of the End the power of the Druj will be destroyed by the creation possessed of the good strength. But the Druj will be unaware, in the beginning and the intermediate time, of his destruction at the End. But near the time of the End, when a great many of his evil powers will be destroyed, he will understand that his time will be completed (brought to an end). And at that time he will be seen striving, through despair, with all his hard-set strength. (But) when (their) time is over all the strivings of enemies are in vain. For, that will be the time for believing, virtuous persons to be (endowed), through connection with fiery strength, with more highly shining strength. After the time for the diminution of the highly wicked strength of the Druj (i.e. after such time shall have elapsed), his evil strength will not be again running and all his powers growing oppressive as they did in the beginning, nor will he be as highly powerful as he was in the intermediate time.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the thorough non-remaining (disappearance) in man of the good disposition (habit) to make good invocations (of Yazads) owing to a cessation in him of the faculty of thought on which the practice (path), in man, of constant good remembrance (invocation, of Yazads) depends. (168)

Be it known that, there abide in man always thoughts of pure virtue (goodness). When thoughts of (leading to) harm make their residence there, then the thoughts of good remembrances (invocations) which are always in him do not stay in him at all. And thereby the man remains always without goodness (and liable to be) harmed.

Perverse thoughts having made an abode in him, good remembrances do not stay in him at all. The man who is without the harm pertaining to him (to which he is liable) and has with him all goodness is one possessed of (destined for) the dwelling-place of high (noble) paradise. And the man who, without goodness, is possessed of all harm, is possessed of (destined for) the worst hell.

Between these two abodes is Geti (this world). The man in it (this world) who has thoughts of darkness will have to descend (put-up) into the abode of servitude (hell). If a guest (stranger) is desirous, in accordance with the nature of his original ideas, to take birth in that abode which is without happiness and most harm-causing, he goes there. And the guest whose thoughts have reference to the profitable deeds that take birth in accordance with the nature of the ideas of his conscience and to similar other matters, goes to a place which is not luster-less or most harm-causing, -- to the shining mansion of paradise; which mansion, free from harm, is mostly (intended) for the constant remembrance of God. And it is not a luster-less and most harmful abode, but, on the contrary, is the place where he originally was born. The man in whose thoughts there is the path of the wisdom of the religion and who has (in him) Ohrmazd's thoughts, will secure the shining and harmless abode. Again, the man who has thoughts the reverse of betaking himself to his birth-place, such a person, being defective in regard to his birth-place, will have his abode in the place which is without happiness and full of much harm.

Exposition in the good religion regarding actions which are fit to be approved, of good ceremonial (and) religious ; and opposite actions which are of evil ceremonial, and pertaining to wickedness and sorcery: and (regarding) the means for averting (the consequences of) them (the latter). (169).

Be it known that, religious deeds (works) are fit to be approved and of good ceremonial: and the reverse of them are deeds of evil ceremonial, wickedness and sorcery: and the averting (of the consequences) thereof (i.e. of the latter) is in this wise. Whoever, remaining firm on the commandments of Dadar Ohrmazd and the king, performs deeds enjoined by the religion, his dwelling-place, body, and vestments are, in accordance with the precepts of the religion, free from uncleanliness of every kind, and redolent with the victorious fragrance that covers up (destroys) evil smells and smites down (breaks down) the Drujs. And into that dwelling-place, good people performing Yasna (an offering with prayers) to God, carry many shining (light-bearing), pure and fragrant things, in order to perform their good deeds, full of renown, relating to the good religion, to Athornanship (priesthood), to thinking with a mind filled with excellence, and to speaking the truth. Religious and holy persons should always remain aloof from evil. And they should not praise harm-causing Ahriman with sorcery of evil rites, pertaining to the ways of the Devs, and with wicked deeds. And should keep away from their dwelling-places, bodies, and apparel, uncleanliness that reaches up imperceptibly and bad odor. For, the Yazads become sad and the Devs rejoice at men who prefer nasu (things pertaining to dead bodies) and Aher (fluid and dry matter pertaining to dead bodies). Because of the evil religion for the worship of Devs and the perverse-minded thoughts for speaking untruth and the doing of perverse deeds men put faith in Dev-worship and remember the Devs, name by name, in (during) their actions. And thereby they acquire evil renown.

The man who prefers nasu and all other things pertaining to Devs for the purposes of sorcery is the chief of sorcerers. The recognition of each of these (two descriptions of men) is (effected) by means of the intellect. And it is done in this way: -- Of the two, he who belongs to the religion is unlike what is said of those who are workers in hot (burning) fire, those who walk in molten brass. (For), there is no burning of his tongue with that fiery thing, and of his feet with that fiery pyre. But, feeling not the flames of the fire, the fiery pyre is to him like unto a luster-giving thing. Again if it (the fiery pyre) is capable of punishing and inflicting pain on the body of that person, then that serves as his liberation from (the consequences of) speaking untruth. And those persons who, through their tongue and movements, are possessed of purity, for them, there is no imprisonment of any kind Again those persons who knowingly worship (invoke) Drujs and Devs have marks of their infidelity visible on their breasts, tongues and feet. And owing to this arrangement (for passing through molten metal) people belonging to both the religions (the holy and the unholy) will become, through the working of divine power, like unto stars in appearance. Of these (two descriptions of people) one will be punished by the fiery religious ceremony [ordeal], their original sin will be dismissed (cast off) by the burning pain. The others, who are persons who speak the truth, will be picked (winnowed) out of the speakers of falsehood and doers of false deeds, and high rank will be bestowed upon them. And thereby will they be known as separated from those who are to suffer pain.

Again, he whose life has been in accordance with the law and who has passed his life in sufficient abstinence, -- his body (person) will be exempted from burning in fire and becoming useless. But he whose life has not been passed in abstinence, his body (person) will be rendered useless by means of fire. And thereby he will learn that Ahriman had made him a great deceiver.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the duty of a father to love his child from its infancy up to adolescence. (170)

Be it known that, it is a commandment of the good religion that parents should love their children very from the time they are born up to the time when they become seven years of age or more. And within these limits the child should for two or three years be reared on a milk diet. And it should not he punished for any sins it may commit from childhood up to seven years of age, for, sin does not (at that age) touch it. But all subsequent sins should, while bearing affection to the child, be checked (diminished) according to its age. In order to make his child of superior rank the father should give him due instruction to live (remain) in obedience And the father should as far as he is able instruct the child in superior (and) perfect knowledge and raise him to a high station. For, it is the duty of a father to raise the child while young from an inferior to a superior station. And it is the duty of the child to be obedient and respectful to its father and to secure his love and keep him pleased. When the invisible power of thinking takes its birth in the child the base Devs give it base advice to become evil. Therefore, to check evil thoughts in the man and to enable him always to do long-lived deeds, and to keep his person holy, adequate knowledge of the Mazdayasnian religion should, as early as possible, be imparted to him in order to drive away the Drujs from within him; and he should be made a religious person.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the rewards and punishments of the pious and the punishments and rewards of the sinners. (171).

Be it known that, according to the precepts of the good religion the income of righteousness is its reward. And the pains of sin must be considered its punishment. In the invisible world no man has any inducement at all for righteousness or sin. But there reward is obtained for righteousness and punishment is endured for sin. The rewards to be obtained by Darwands (sinful men), will be (so obtained) because of the remission of the punishment for their sins which (punishment) consists in the endurance (of the pains) of hell till the time of the Frashegird. And the changing (remission) of the punishment of sin beforehand depends upon the doing of righteous deeds in this world as a remedy for it. The punishment for sin that there is for holy men has reference to the non-adoption of remedial measures by them in respect of the sins attaching to them in this world And alteration in (remission of) that punishment beforehand issues out of the rewards for their righteousness.

In the investigation as to how much more righteousness than sin has the soul of the good man done, (if after deducting the sin), he remain pure, the good man will go to the good (excellent) place. And good men like these will obtain everlasting paradise as a reward for righteousness. It is declared in the Mazdayasnian religion that the people of the world are the source of every germ (root) of righteousness that is rewarded and of sin that is punished. hence, this world is a place for acquiring the gifts (blessings) of the invisible world. It is owing to their public acknowledgment in this world of their offenses and remembrance of those things which procure them the reward of righteousness in the invisible world and their remaining contented while not receiving several blessings in this world that the punishment for the sins of good men is altered (turned away). That sinners are (obliged) to bear, although unwillingly, the punishment for (their) sins is because, notwithstanding they have the power for the removal of sinful deeds, to do deeds of righteousness, and to make such deeds grow, they do not do so, and do not bear in mind, the reward of goodness and the thankfulness for it. Damage to the invisible abode is due to man's own desires.

Exposition in the good religion as to whether harm will reach the Dadar [Creator] from any place or from any thing. (172).

Be it known that, the Dadar [Creator] desires every man to have faith in the good religion and gives commands regarding it. For; if men, in this world, put faith in the good religion they will be able to diminish the Blemish-Giver. And if they be not connected with the good religion they will not be able to live (in this world), without (being exposed to) danger, in purity and with every happiness. Superior to those who make inquiries regarding religion with pleasure are those persons who, having a knowledge of the good religion, live with sincere faith in it. Men go against the commands of the Dadar and against His wishes through the sinful man who causes pain and harm among men owing to much sin connected with the Blemish-Giver. And that is the very cause of harm reaching to the Creator.

The religion of those religious teachers who are doers of any harm to the things belonging to the Dadar is connected with death and drowns the wishes and the commands of the Dadar. The sinful (man) who commits no sinful deed in this world deserves neither the reward of righteousness nor the punishment of sin. But if he should have no desire to annul the. commands of the Dadar, (and) on the contrary does deeds connected with the wishes and the commands (of the Dadar), he will obtain the reward for righteousness notwithstanding that he is (of a) sinful (religion). And he is not deserving of the punishment of sin. If a (man of a) sinful (religion) do not annul (set aside) the commands of the Dadar by his own wishes -- it is said of him in the religion that that man in his desires is a co-helper in the commands of the Dadar. For, the religion which is said to be (to proceed) from deceitful man is considered to be no religion.

Exposition in the good religion that roots are (proceed) from fruits, and fruits from roots. (173).

Be it known that, the manifestation of the existence of roots is owing to fruits. And according as the root is, so are its proper fruits possessed of honesty. And they are, in their kind, good looking or ill looking, good smelling or evil smelling, in eating of good taste or bad taste, in vigor healthful or feeble of aspect according as are their roots.

They whose lives pertain to Darkness (Anghra Mainyu) have a nature like its (nature). And by the fruit that pertains to it harm is caused to the life of every thing. The nature of the fruit resembles that of its root. And those who belong to the Dark Root, -- these, in this world, owing to the union of his evil intelligence, are of evil understanding; and owing to the connection with (his) sinful state, are known as sinners. And those who belong to the root, Ohrmazd, these owing to the connection of His wisdom, are wise, and owing to the connection of his righteousness, are righteous. Hence, those who belong to the Yahudi [Jewish] religion cannot become possessed of relations with the one proper Root (Source). For, wisdom and evil-understanding are not one in body (person, nature). Hence, should one by nature wise, appear possessed of evil-understanding, that is owing to the Root of evil-understanding. For, He of the evil understanding is the cause of the sin pertaining to him. Hence, the nature (personality) that is a doer of sinful deeds does not at all belong to the pure Spenta Mainyu, but it surely must belong to Anghra Mainyu.

Exposition in the good religion as to who is possessed of the desire to obtain liberation; and what his name is (as given) in the Avesta; and who it is who makes (men) possessed of a desire for liberation; and what is the reason for making (men) possessed of a desire for liberation; and why is (a man) possessed of a desire for liberation not inclined to have a liking for the ways of his enemy; and from whom and why are benefit and harm (to come) to him; and what great benefit is to be derived by the people thereby. (174).

Be it known that, that which is possessed of a desire to obtain liberation (from hell) is man in this world. And in the Avesta he is styled Ahue ast humanand, which means "the owner (master) of the body, the lord of thought."

It is in the power (within the rule) of man, possessed of a desire for liberation, to guide himself towards the wishes of the soul and to do the superior work relating thereto. No other (portion of the) creation in this world (except man), thus rules as it pleases. When one among the Yazads is the lord (owner) of man, why should not man, walk in the direction of that lord? It is the duty of man to make himself walk in the direction of the Self-Existent because it is through the Lord that he has taken birth in this world It is by having within himself the invisible Yazads that man is enabled, owing to the invisible Yazads, to keep himself possessed of the body of (for) this world.

He who makes (man) possessed of the desire for liberation is the creator Ohrmazd. Rule, for man, depends upon having a desire for liberation. Men become possessed of superior desires by approving righteousness and disapproving sin. The aim of the Dadar has reference to the desire for liberation. The eye of conscience keeps man seeing. And it is by means of its rule (authority) that man makes himself worthy. And it is by its rule that strength from the Dadar is obtained. Further, it is because of this power (conscience) that man is a holder of the highest strength for driving out the whole army of Drujs. It is also a darkener of every Druj that reaches to cause harm to the creation of Ohrmazd. And as its helper, is divine understanding, which instructs in the morality of the good religion. As the enemies of Asne Khrad (divine understanding), are perverse understanding and the teachings of evil intelligence, which are (things) that come athwart the intellect and help the evil religion of the Drujs.

It is through the Spenamino that righteousness is approved, thought, spoken, and done ; and sin is disapproved, not thought, not spoken, and not done. It is in opposition to Him that man, through Anghra Mainyu, approves sinful deeds, thinks about them, speaks about them, and acts for them; and disapproves beneficial deeds of righteousness, thinks not, speaks not, and acts not for them. It is by disapproving, not thinking, not speaking, and not doing deeds of sin ; and approving, thinking, speaking and doing deeds of sin that man becomes possessed himself of rule (power) for liberating himself (from hell).

In the same way he through the power of Yazdan (God), is a deliverer of other people of this world from the harm done by Drujs. And it is by approving, thinking, speaking, and committing sin ; and disapproving, not thinking, not speaking, and not doing righteousness that man through his own rule (power) makes himself a prisoner (in hell): And in the same manner he renders others, through the powers of the Drujs pertaining to them, prisoners (in hell).

The accruing of great benefit to the people of the world depends upon their desire to obtain liberation. And it is owing to having no liking for the wishes of the Drujs and for the evil religion that all men become possessed of rule (power) for themselves. Man improves himself by having a high liking for the desires pertaining to the religion of the Dadar. And it is by disapproving, not thinking, not speaking, and not doing deeds of sin ; and, approving; thinking, speaking, and doing deeds (of righteousness that (man) keeps (his) soul in the proper manner in accordance with the wishes of the Dadar. And thereby there is a diminution of Anghra Mainyu who has risen up as the enemy of the world; and the people of the world remain aloof from its enemy, Anghra Mainyu, for (the sake of) immortality, purity, and everlasting happiness. Those religious teachers who are excessively desirous of liberating man by approving, thinking, speaking, and doing deeds of sin; and by disapproving, not thinking, not speaking, and not doing deeds of righteousness, will in the end be of hell forever. And they will on no account be liberated from hell.

Their religion is (alleged to be) for the liberation of man through religious desires, but not only is it not for the benefit of man, but it is calculated to cause much pain to the holy Yazads and to do final evil and harm to all the people of this world. And not only will it not give deliverance (from hell) but will ruin the people of that religion. It ought to be called not a moral but a sinful religion.

[End of vol 4]

Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives Contents Prev 161-174 Next Glossary