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DENKARD (Acts of Religion), Book 3

This digital edition copyright © 1995 by Joseph H. Peterson. All rights reserved.

Edited by Peshotun Dastoor Behramjee Sanjana, 1881.

Exposition in the good religion regarding, the things of this world; the creation of (those) things; the work relating to them; and the befriending, the origin, the bestowal, the ways, (and) the bodily envelope, of their existence; and the vigor of their existence, and the means that cause them injury; and how there is harm to life; and how the destroyers reach into things; and whether there is reimprovement for them; and, if they will be reimproved, whether the improved forms will be similar to their present forms, or whether the soul as it exists in this world will (then) have a different body; the cause of (man's) becoming in this world worthy of the invisible world, and of his being on the side of the invisible world, more than of this world, and of his being possessed of the strength of invisible Yazads, and having secret promptings towards the power in the heart (Vakhsh, i.e. conscience); and how he obtains, each from the other, satisfaction through invisible relations; and how long the two invisibles, Yazads and Devs, who are over him, remain so, and why (they) are separated from each other; and the reason why the creatures of this world have been created, (some) before and (some) after; and that through which there is permanency and improvement of the creatures of this world; and why the man who amends the blemishes of the people is the best (man); (and) the quarter from which the purification of the world, which is to happen through its purifier from blemishes, will come; and what are the powers that approve of the final improvement and the final destruction of the world. (123)

2. Be it known that this world is perceived by the bodily eye, and the (invisible) creation within it does the work of inciting to contest. And the inciter is (a power) that opposes the creation and keeps it under ; and the formation of (this) relation is for perpetual good conduct; and its work is that of its Creator. The explanation of this is that there is no deed done by the people of this world which does not suppress the incitement (to evil). The people inclined towards this world do every thing after looking into it. And the people of this world see everything with the bodily eyes and do (everything) with the bodily hands. This world has been created by the Creator, Dadar. The power, whose work (course) it is to promote the growth of the creation, has given to it, in the religion, the appellation of life. The root of all the various remedies of the people of this world is known to be digestion. And the Dadar first created His creation. And (the things) that are the doers of proportioned (regulated) acts relating to it, do them because of life. In the religion, they are called the continuators of life. And they are the four elements of life, -- air, fire, water and earth. And they are the source of the constitution and form of the people of this earth. Secondly, they are called continuators of life because of the work of continuing life which is connected with the prescience of the Dadar. And these four elements are considered to be the regulators of the mixture of the living body. Thirdly, in order to perform the higher work of the Dadar, the farohar and the soul are, along with the regulating elements, the associates of this world. As all men, cattle, and other good, living creatures owe their bodies to them, so will they (the creatures), through them, have (their) final bodies bestowed upon them. If, in the bodies of living creatures, they (the elements) are possessed of the strength of the One, they are connected with him; but, if there is in them the influence of the Other, they become of a disposition the reverse of uniform. Particularly, for living beings to have thoughts of harm, is owing to their Harm-doer (Anghra Mainyu). For, of the two (invisible powers), one brings evil and originates disease, the other gives liberation from them. And owing to the connection of the Harm-doer (Anghra Mainyu) with life, and through all his injurious progeny, the bloom of the frame and body of people is destroyed. Whatever (thing) deteriorates, does so owing to its separation from its original. The regulated (and) true forces of the elements are the doers of the work of the principle that keeps different things towards their Oreator; and, that whatever thing becomes deteriorated through the Dev-creation might not be destroyed, (they), through the power of the Dadar, so re-form it again a second time that it becomes like unto what it was at first. Those things which are reformed, become so through the success vouchsafed to them from the pure Original. And those which are aloof from the Original (Source), have obtained success through the Blemish-giver.

Those things that are connected with the mixed Source (Anghra Mainyu) are separated again, through the perfect prescience and perfect power of the Dadar, from the evil relation of that Source, by those true forces (of the elements). And these true forces regulate things through the obedient elements. In this world, the thing that is of the way of the mainyus (invisible powers) is the soul that dwells in the body. And the invisible power that is in the soul, to help it and make it behave properly in this world, is the conscience that gives warnings to walk in the good path. The soul, as it keeps the body alive and gives it the power to perceive, in this world, so it makes the body walk towards the mainyus and keeps it on the side of the mainyus. The soul, as it keeps the body alive in this world, so it keeps its eye on those bodies that do not act according to law, and instructs them in the matter, through the invisible powers that make them act according to law. Of the regulated things in the body, whichever becomes ill-regulated is perceived by the eye of the soul. The power that is invisible perceives through the eye of the soul. The invisible, improving powers are as a great strength to the soul. And these powers of the soul are imagination, intelligence and understanding. And they dwell with the soul.

The soul and conscience (Vakhsh, i.e. the power that guides man in the right path), in all their doings, perceive and gain success through the instrumentality of the above three invisible powers. The soul and farohar are because of conscience (Vakhsh); and it is also owing to conscience that the soul and farohar perceive; and conscience is the eye (of souls and farohars). And the soul and farohar perceive each other through the eye of conscience. And the soul performs the work relating to (its) wishes, and the farohar prevails in the vigor of its own work, through conscience. When the soul is itself possessed of conscience, then, owing to that power, the spirit perceives through the soul, and when conscience keeps perceiving through the soul, then both (conscience and the soul) perform works fit to be approved. It is owing to its having within it the power, conscience, that a farohar is possessed of help-giving and victorious energy. Whatever perception the soul has of the work to be done in relation to its wishes is owing to the predominating farohar. Generally conscience is intended to improve the soul. And the improving powers, farohar and conscience, reside the one with the other, owing to the soul.

When each of the three (soul, farohar and conscience) is in harmony with the other, it is full of vigor. Man improves because of the air of life. And the farohar keeps the air of life [breath] bright through the instrumentality of the predominating fire, It is owing to the brightness (vigor) of the air of life that the body enjoys life. The soul (lodged) in the semblance of the body, keeps the body espying and moving, by means of the conscience-possessing intelligence. And (as long as the soul) is in harmony with conscience, so long it improves itself for the invisible state. And its (the soul's) other companions are all intended for the improvement of man through the connection with farohar and conscience, and they reside with the pure soul after it has passed from the body. When the soul becomes sinful, bôd, (intelligence) and farohar (these two powers) separate from it, and they immediately become invisible to the sinful (soul).

Again, the knowledge of the existence of Yazads and Devs is owing to religion. The existence (residence), in (man), of Yazads is owing to the power that incites to virtue, and to intelligence; and the existence (residence) of Devs is owing to the power that incites to evil, and to perverse intelligence. As the evidence that these two kinds of invisible powers (Yazads and Devs) preside in man's body (nature) is known (to us), so it is also known to us that, owing to (man's) belonging to the opposite side by reason of the connection with related things, those invisible powers separate from him. He who is on the side of the Yazads, is possessed of the wisdom of the invisible world pertaining to immortal life; and he who is on the aide of the Devs is possessed of the wicked intelligence of the invisible world pertaining to the wicked perishable life. And the soul of man thereby becomes righteous or sinful. It is owing to the influence of the connection with the Yazads that the soul (of man) becomes righteous, and he who passes his life in such (connection) is possessed of the wisdom (requisite) for the holiness of Yazads, and of an immortal soul. And it is owing to the influence of the connection with Devs that the soul (of man) becomes sinful, for, he who passes his life in such (connection) is possessed of the evil intelligence (requisite) for the sinfulness of Devs, and of immortal soul.

Of those who hold relations with these two existences, those who bear higher witness (i.e. are righteous) possess reason and wisdom like that of the Yazads; and those, who are possessed of evil intelligence like that of the Devs and Drujs, are Dev-like men. Among men who exist for these two invisibles, those who have wisdom are of the source of the Yazads: and those who have evil intelligence are of the source of the Devs. And from this we obtain knowledge about the supervisors (Yazads and Devs) of men.

The heavens, water, the earth, trees, cattle and men are considered as creations belonging to this world. Of these, water was created after the creation of the heavens, and upon that (water), as the power that keeps its formation in a uniform condition, blows continually the invisible wind of heavenly nature.

After water the earth, after (it) the trees, after (them) cattle, and at last man was created. The habitation of these five things is between the heavens. And all these things are known to be always (in a) proper (state) by keeping on the side of their source. The extension and diffusion of water in all things is owing to the wind that is (or blows) below the Satar paya [that part of the heavens where the stars are located]. Around the earth, above and below, is all the creation. The growth of vegetation on the earth, its improvement and construction-is owing to water. Because of vegetation, there are cattle, and because of the assistance of cattle, there are men. Of the creatures of this world, the best is man ; and among men, the monarch, whose rule is good, is the cause of the bestowal upon the men of this world of the immeasurably shining (abode of heaven, which is) nearest the Creator. And that monarch, owing to the shining forth of the light (of true religion), is the destroyer of the connection of unholy things. And so long as he (the monarch) possesses the potency of the light of pure improvement (i.e. is a firm believer in the true religion), so long he is wealthy. And owing to that wealth, he gains access to the presence of the Dadar and contrives remedies for the living creation of this world.

The four elements, air, fire, water and earth, are the chief sources of the continuance of life, of the permanence of life, and of uniform action. It is owing to these law-observing elements that (our) bodies keep (their) paths. And it is owing to them alone that (our) bodies are enabled to effect their passage at the End. That is, those men of this world who live in accordance with thoughts of the End, do so owing to the law-observing elements The people of this world do not render it deformed through their unblemished worldly disposition and through the unblemished works of the creator, Ohrmazd, but they become deformers of it through the blemishes of the Blemish-giver. And one becomes a purifier of the world from blemishes (vices) by driving out of it Ahriman, the deformer of it.

They who give purity to the world are known as benefactors of life and as possessed of the power of immortality required for the day of judgment. It is through religious teachers who accept these doctrines that the world is enabled to exist without blemishes, and that strength, which improves the world, resides with man. Again, it is owing to the wish to see (their) Creator, and the performance of works relating to immortality, that those possessed of similar dispositions are enabled to associate with each other. And thereby the tutelary shining Farohars obtain pleasure, and the co-related shining things acquire superior powers, and men acquire the highest thoughts relating to the Creator. And owing to these high thoughts the Blemish-giver is driven away, and means are taken to aid creation. And thereby this world attains to the fullness of the providence of Dadar, causes injury to the destroying blemish-giver, and makes the people of the world behave well in (their) deeds.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the battle of the world, the place of the battle, those who join in the battle, the commander or lord of the battle, the doer of the battle, the suppresser of the battle, the liberator from the battle, the (person) injured by the battle, the continuer of the battle, and the end of the battle. (124)

Be it known that, the battle of the world is the doing of the Estranged One. The place of battle is the place of meeting of the rivals in the battle. And its bounds reach the Satar paya. Those who join in the battle are the people of this world. The commander (lord) of the battle is, among men, the bid of men, a good ruler or king, and the dastur of the religion possessed of good wisdom. The originator (doer) of the battle is the Mainyu of evil understanding (Anghra Mainyu). And the suppresser of the battle is the Mainyu of the good wisdom (Spenta Mainyu). The liberator from the battle is the holy religious teacher. The person injured in the battle is the sinful man. The continuator of the battle is the Creator Ohrmazd. And the end of the battle is (secured) by man's conducting himself in accordance with the wishes of Providence, through the givers (Yazads) of heavenly strength to the creation. When injury is caused to the Blemish-giver, the diminishers of the good creation become broken of array and impaired of strength. And thereby the reward of everlasting immortality is obtained.

Exposition in the good religion regarding how this worldly abode may be cleared (improved) of those belonging to the evil religion and of the danger connected with the evil religion by means of the ascendency of the good religion, and how the servants of the evil religion and the continuators of it may be reformed (125)

Be it known that, the Creator Ohrmazd has, to protect the creatures of this world from Devs that cause harm to the creation, and to improve the existence of and maintain the heavens, the earth, the blowing winds, the flowing waters, the growing trees, the cattle and men and other things, created several Yazads. They constantly make known thoughts calculated for the higher strength of the good religion, and the good (forms of) worship pertaining to it, and the ways of improving the people, to the servants of that religion. And these Yazads do perpetual battle with the Devs, because of their opposing the world, and causing injury and harm thereto, and crushing the creation and making it perishable. And in this they (the Yazads) are successful by means of keeping current the good religion among the servants of the good religion, and of the great prevalence of the recitations and the good worship of that religion. Owing to the recitations of the good religion, the ascendancy of the Yazads is increased. But if in this world the people prefer the deeds of the evil religion, the Devs thereby acquire greater strength. For, through those believers in the evil religion, the purity of water is destroyed, and, also, through those believers in the evil religion unholiness and death are increased. Therefore, it is declared that those belonging to the evil religion should in this world be made to accept the good religion, and should be reformed by means of the right understanding of the servants of that (religion). For, owing to the evil religion, they are harmers of the power that raises to a superior state, and keep themselves under the control of the power of the antagonist who wounds.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the manifestation of evil and of the religion of Devs being particularly due to the perverse Source. (126)

2. Be it known that, the manifestation of evil is owing to the control of the evil Source. In the same manner, it is owing to the existence of an evil Source that the religion of Devs is promulgated. Therefore, to obtain a knowledge of the Lord of religion (Ohrmazd,), are (given two eyes): of these one eye is to discern religious natures, and the other eye is to discern the soul independently of form, and these eyes are innate (original). The eye which is intended to see the semblance of the soul, is intended to see through reflection; and the other eye which is intended to acquire knowledge from religious natures, is intended to obtain knowledge without discussion (i.e. by observation and not through reflection). Of these, one eye is for discerning things by good similitudes, and the other possesses similitudes for discernment. Again, through eyes of (these) two kinds, men become believers in (holders of) the religion of either one who is of evil similitude (Anghra Mainyu), or of one who is without the religion of Devs (Spenta Mainyu). Religious men are of ten kinds, and detailed explanation regarding them is given in the chapter relating to them*. The eyeing (or discernment of the Lord of religion) through religious natures (persons), is by observation of those men who, keep people, in any degree, connected with religion. And the (man) possessed of religious illustrations is the wise, virtuous ruler or the holy priest. And they, being of superior rank, and informing (men) of the greatness to be obtained in the coming world, are (considered) in this world as of the nature of the holy Ohrmazd. The eye of the soul that sees independently of form, that innate (original) eye, owes its existence to the connection with the good-thinking power that shines in the conscience (heart) of want. The soul, before it enters into its bodily state, has the inborn power of seeing the invisible world unobstructed; hence as man, in. the bodily state, obtains the power of speech by means of reflection, so it (the soul) always perceives the design of the dark cloud of this world. To perceive the soul in the bodily form, there is the eye of reflection. And it is owing to the power of speech (derived) through the eye of reflection that man is possessed of the means of wisdom. (And as) the Creator of the world is such because of having created the world, (so) man becomes possessed of unobjectionable understanding, by means of a knowledge of the immortality-giving religion. And man becomes a believer in the religion, through good illustrations (comparisons) relating to religion and persons possessing such illustrations, (and) the testimony of conscience.

3. Among the sources according to which (men) are declared to be of evil comparison, or unpossessed of the religion of Devs, the source of evil intelligence and of sin, is not (capable) of a good comparison (being instituted respecting it). And the source that is unpossessed of the religion of Devs is allied to wisdom and righteousness. And of them to one source is due the greater manifestation of the relations with the excellencies of Ohrmazd. And to the other pain-causing source is due the manifestation of the devilish religion and the harm of the perverted source (Anghra Mainyu). And (man) is known to be an invoker of the religion of evil comparisons, or of (the religion) without Devs, according to the evil or good comparisons of (which) that religion (is capable). For the man on the side of the good religion to appear in the religion of Devs, is due to (his) not securing good strength and good times, owing to the prevalence of him of the perverted source and the insignificant (Anghra Mainyu). For men belonging to the Original Source, not to remain within the bounds of 1aw, is owing to such a perverted and pain-causing source, possessed of the religion of Devs. If that was not so, religion-holding man could not be called irreligious (infidel).

Exposition in the good religion regarding the Lord from whom everything hopes but who himself wants not from anything ; who is in every (thing) but in whom there is no thing; the Lord who guides all but who is not to be guided by any. (127)

Be it known that, all things come into existence from nothing for their(own proper) work. And every thing at its proper time has a reason for its existence. There is nothing made at the wrong time. The things that have come into existence in this manner are unable to acquire existence (of themselves). And time is for no one except these things. The Self-existent is in want of nothing. Though the Lord is himself in every thiug, yet He is not visible anywhere. He himself guides every thing, but without the wisdom of Ohrmazd no one can guide anything.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the improvement of man's, life. (128)

Be it known that, the existence of man is owing to there being a soul in him. And the soul resides in the body because of the help of the victorious (Yazads). And it is victorious because of the hope of liberation. It is owing to the warnings obtained from warning-giving conscience, and the improving power obtained for attaining to the final improvement, that (man) renders the Blemish-giver lusterless. Thereby man's life becomes possessed of the strength that succeeds in the hope of liberating (him) from the hardships he might encounter at the time of the final improvement. The strength pertaining to improvement is the strength which improves man before his undergoing, for (his) final improvement, the everlasting torments inflicted in hell owing to sinful religious teachers, and whereby the creation of the Blemish-giver becomes hopeless and is destroyed by the overpowering soul Men die when the soul passes away from the body, and the body of man that had life becomes destroyed. Other people (than those belonging to the good religion) who are declared liable to punishment are so declared owing to the impostures of their religious teachers, and the particulars regarding the matter are given in the chapter connected with it.

Exposition in the good religion regarding that monarchy which puts great difficulties in the way of the efforts of Anghra Mainyu. (129)

2. Be it known that, the existence of a monarchy that causes great harm to the efforts (doings) of Anghra Mainyu is mostly due to there being in a man, in equal proportions, the strength of both grandeur of rule and majesty (khoreh) of religion. And thereby the connection of Anghra Mainyu is diminished. For, by the union of rule and religion, ad rule becomes glorious by the greater strength (of religion), so religion becomes glorious by the greater strength (of rule). 3. If Zartosht, with the superior power of religious majesty (khoreh) that was in him, had possessed the more potent glory (pertaining to rule) that was in Jamshed (the prevalence of) Anghra Mainyu would have decreased in the world, and it would have been soon freed from the Blemish-giver: and all the people in the world would, along with the good religion, have possessed pre-eminent dominion. (For), if there is a union of good religion and good rule the world becomes impotent in vice, more virtuous, a decreaser of danger, very helpful, very holy, without sin, an averter of peril, a strengthener of good men, and an imperiller and weakener of evil men. And (such a ruler) improves and adorns the world by prosperity (and) the people by natural joys and everlasting goodness. When both these (religious and kingly) khorehs (majesties) are obtained in perfection by the same person, the Blemish-giver will be fully destroyed, the people will obtain purity, and will he freed (from the Blemish-giver), and thereby will final improvement be effected. Soshyant will obtain the ownership of both these khorehs (majesties) together, for the purpose of propagating the good religion, And he will perform all beneficial things relating to the matter. Again, the immense efforts which will be kept up by him will he (directed) to the work of giving prosperity to the generous, power to the wise and justice to the just.

Exposition in the good religion regarding Him who is in every thing and over every thing; and who obeys not through anything or for anything ; that is, He is above every thing that makes the world to go on, and all things go on because of Him. (130)

Be it known that, the lord who is in all things and over every (thing), and who obeys no one and for no one, is the omniscient omnipotent, and all-owning Creator Ohrmazd himself; -- the Lord who obeys no one, but is the master of all; who is uncreated, but the Creator of all; who holds no kinship, but is the highest (of all); who subserves not., but is the lord; who is not a disciple, but is the teacher; who is not destitute, but able; who is not (meant) for protection, but is the protector; who is not mansion-less, but is a possessor of mansions; who is (exists) not to know, but is the originator of knowledge himself; who is not improveable, but is the improver; who is not a receiver of gifts, but the maker of gifts; who is not to obtain happiness, but is the giver of happiness; who works not with associates but works alone; who is not to be judged or weighed, but is the judge and weigher; who is not to be moved, but is the mover of others. Among things one is superior to another, and over all those things the Creator, Ohrmazd, is superior. Every inferior thing is (to be found) among things inferior to Him, thus: -- the superior over a servant is a master; the superior over a child is a father; the superior over a kinsman is an ancestor; the superior over a dependent is a lord the superior over a disciple is a teacher; the superior over one not wealthy is one who is wealthy; the superior over one requiring protection is a protector; the superior over one who has no abode is a possessor of an abode; the superior over one requiring wisdom is a giver of wisdom; the superior over a thing susceptible of improvement is its improver; the superior over a student is his teacher; the superior over one who receives gifts is a maker of gifts; the superior over one intended for happiness is a giver of happiness; the superior over one working with another is one who works alone; the superior over one liable to be judged or weighed is one who weighs; and, the superior over a thing requiring to be moved is its mover but the Creator, Ohrmazd is superior over all things. Again, the Creator, Ohrmazd; by means of his all-comprehending, intelligent nature, makes all things, that cannot be managed through any one or by any one proceed according to law. Those who have not in them the regulated intelligence of the Lord, and His knowledge of every thought, are unable, without perfect knowledge, to guide any thing relating to themselves.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the things fitted for the acquisition of complete knowledge. (131)

Be it known that, there are ten superior things fitted for the acquisition of complete knowledge:

Upon these things depends improvement. A joyous life is (consists in) health without fear. Wealth and increase of gains depend upon. the degree of natural intelligence. Stability of happiness depends upon prayers to the Self-existent and retirement. Shining rule is due to innate wisdom. The acquisition of the love of dependents depends upon keeping them pleased. Renown depends upon a name being heard in distant places. Fulfillment of desires depends upon good intentions. A life of complete me depends upon being contented with what (we) get. A good friend is a good, far-seeing friend who preserves secrets and points out blemishes The advice of a man of improved disposition is worthy to be believed. A helper who renders good help is one who speaks with sense, and gives such help as improves men. All these things are obtained by being firm in the religion of the holy Self-existent with true-hearted love. The man who has obtained these ten superior things, is far-seeing with adequate wisdom and of (high) rank.

Exposition in. the good religion regarding the obtaining of life by the 1 creation, and the alteration of life by the creation. (132)

Be it known that leaders of religion have declared, from expositions in the good religion, that the creator of all is the holy Ohrmazd. And religion is the wisdom of the Lord. His abode in this world is in the man possessing the strength of goodness. And the pure creation of all the Yazads constitutes His assembly (court). The existence of the creator, Ohrmazd. is (manifested) by the formation of the creation. The wisdom pertaining to His religion is intended to give a knowledge of his wishes and works. And His place of meeting is in the building devoted, in accordance with the religion, by the people (to him). The alteration of life by the creation is (effected) in this way, that when the Lord has no existence (abiding-place) in a man, that man, becoming false to the original Source from which he has derived life, becomes of the side of the perverted Source. And the invisible Yazads belonging to the Original source do not reside in that man, so that, not seeing anything, he becomes of perverted life.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the great benefits accruing (to the world) from the virtuous among rulers. (133)

Be it known that there is increase of righteousness through good qualities (virtue). And it is owing to holding dominion that a virtuous man is a great increaser of righteousness, and a great benefactor of the world. As a stream of water on the top of a mountain causes delightful verdure to grow in the woods, and fire lighted on the heights of a mountain sheds light far away, so from a virtuous sovereign splendor is generated (in the world). And that sovereign alone, through his rule, always communicates virtue and glory to other sovereigns, and himself by his government improves the world and augments the fame of the governors connected with his kingdom. And owing to his good disposition he is of one accord (with other rulers). Again, owing to the power of virtuous kings, innumerable persons imitate virtuous behavior.

The first (virtuous quality) is that connected with the good religion, for, it is owing to kings being of the good religion that innumerable people belong to the good religion.

The second (good quality) is that connected with good sense, for, it is owing to kings possessing good sense that they are able to conduct themselves and their dependants well.

The third (good quality) is that connected with a good conscience, for, it is owing to good conscience that kings acquire very high courage, and it is owing to the courage of kings that (their) enemies suffer harm, and thereby the world is protected.

The fourth (good quality) is the power of forbearance, for, it is owing to forbearance by rulers that their servants love them; and it is owing to their willingness to do the work in accordance with the commands of the ruler that the government of the people continues with safety and the people are benefited.

The fifth (good quality) is to bear good love to subjects, for, owing to want of kindness on the part of rulers, the people become their enemies, and thereby the hopes of securing kindness between rulers and subjects are cut off (and) then danger is apprehended, by the world, of a certain degree of violence from rulers, and from the people to the rulers.

The sixth (good quality) is that connected with thoughts of providing comfort for the subject people, for, kings, entertaining thoughts of procuring comfort for (their) subjects, perform very great and beneficial works for (their) present and future subjects.

The seventh (good quality) is cheerfulness of heart,. for, if kings have in. them (any) degree of cheerfulness, the troubles of (their) subjects are thereby averted in the best manner.

The eighth (good quality) is the constant remembrance that dominion is liable to pass away, for, remembering that dominion is liable to pass away, the king lives without pomp, and a wise king, by means of the income of transient dominion obtains the in-transient dominion connected with the soul. And that king, by providing case for (his) subjects, and keeping them prosperous, receives many blessings from the people.

The ninth (good quality) is raising the rank of persons possessing good qualities, for, owing to the king's bestowing (high) rank upon men skilled in the arts, those arts which are known to the people shine forth, and those which have not become known acquire the strength for becoming known, whereby the world is improved and embellished.

The tenth (good quality) is causing hardship to those possessing evil qualities, for, owing to the hardship inflicted by the king upon those possessed of evil qualities, those evil qualities which are being generated disappear (set), and the strength of those which have not taken birth is broken, and they cease. And the world is purified from blemishes.

The eleventh (good quality) is living united in thought with the people, for, by being united in thought with (his) subjects a king is liked by every city, and a king who is liked by (his) subjects has stability. Again, such a king peoples new cities by levying heavy taxes, and does work calculated for the prosperity of the people of the world, the benefit of the country, the acquirement of help by the people and lasting final improvement. And that his greatness might become known to kings of other countries, (he) considers it is his duty to .embellish every country with great wealth and to make gifts to the people.

The twelfth (good quality) is giving meritorious commands, for it is from meritorious commands of kings that justice takes its birth, and the improvement of the world depends upon justice.

The thirteenth (good quality) is observing the practice of sitting in open court in every country, for, by kings observing the practice of sitting in open court in every country, the sweetness of sin is prevented from (approaching) sinful rulers, and their oppression is stopped, and pious rulers have hopes of wealth and the destitute of obtaining proper relief. And such kings are as a token (mark) for the doers of the work connected with immortality behaving well with reference to such work; for mendicants (dervishes) being cared for, (and) for great benefit being derived by the kingdom.

The fourteenth (good quality) is generosity, for, as water makes vegetation to bloom, so do ease-giving kings keep the creation of this world blooming by generosity. The fifteenth (good quality) is restraining of covetousness, for, he who is a restrainer of covetousness, in him the Yazads descend, and he thereby is enabled to prevent the innumerable covetous wolves of the world from openly ruining it.

The sixteenth (good quality) is the removal (prevention) by him (the king,) of mutual fear from among the people of the world, that thereby much fear might not enter into the people.

The seventeenth (good quality) is that of rewarding good men and of making them courtiers and nobles (men of rank), for, owing to good men getting rank and leadership from the king, every vice retires and disappears (sets), and every virtue (goodness) blossoms and advances.

The eighteenth (good quality) is the great carefulness required in appointing administrators of the kingdom (to see) whether they are good or bad (low, men), for, it is owing to kings making full inquiries as to which officers are good and. which bad (low) that the connection with the people continues, and thereby the people obtain the benefits, -- goodness, prosperity, and proper gifts, -- (obtainable) from kings.

The nineteenth (good: quality) is keeping himself, through wisdom, in obedience to the holy Self-existent, for, by (his) keeping himself, through wisdom, in obedience to the holy Self-existent, the king's subjects. remain heartily in obedience to him, and thereby the authority of kings. over the people of the world attains a higher grade, their justice and commands continue and the. people are greatly benefited.

Exposition in the good religion that the manifestation in kings of the power of improving (their) kingdom, and of the knowledge of improvement in the people, is due to their possessing the attributes of Shahrewar Ameshaspand (134).

Be it- known that, the words denoting the attributes of Shahrewar Ameshaspand are of this kind:

Khshathrehe vairyehe, ayokhshutahe rmajdkai, thrayo, dragve.

And they mean, "the lord of religion, of implements (arms), and of mercy, the possessor of the assistance of wealth, and the lord of armies (hosts). Hence, the just king, in whom there appear, for the improvement of (his) kingdom, the above powers that are as means to improvement, is, like unto the above (mentioned) attribute-possessing high being (Shahrewar Ameshaspand), the lord of religion, arms, mercy, wealth, and hosts. Again, it is well known that the king who has not one of these attributes, that is, is not possessed of the united strength of all these powers, is not fit to rule, but is the servant of every ruler. Again, a ruler without (the essentials of) rule acquires no renown, (and) so is in capable of maintaining the religion, is possessed of useless arms, is without mercy, is incapable of acquiring riches, is without (the power of) protecting (his) subjects, and is possessed of a broken (disorganized) army. Now, a ruler who has no religion is not one who gives such commands as procure deliverance (in the coming world). His arms do harmful deeds, his mercy is that of Rumis (Romans) [rivals of the Sasanian kings] who are worthy of being harrassed, his wealth is calculated for Farehbut and Aibebut, and. his army is not worthy of being entertained (bought) because of disobedience. The ruler without arms and power is afraid of the turbulent (disobedient), distressed by deceivers (impostors), kind to his unreformed sinful troopers, possessed of pain-augmenting riches, and without an army. The ruler who has no mercy increases (his) enemies, is worthy of being despised in accordance with the religion, his arms give good strength to the enemy, (his) wealth is liable to harm in unseen ways, and his army is desirous of separation from (deserting) him. The ruler who is without riches, is without provisions, in want, of broken arms (warlike instruments) and power, obliged to forbear with powerful wrong-doers, and possessed of a miserable and weak army. The ruler who has no army is without servants and religious men, and possessed of improper arms, and merciful to (the) passion (ate) and possessed of unprofitable wealth. A ruler becomes honorable by effecting improvements in (his) rule through the manifest, reciprocal strength of these things.

Exposition in the good religion regarding the people of the highest and lowest ways among the creation that approves of Khoreh, and (regarding) their conduct. (135)

Be it known that; the persons whose conduct is calculated for the acquisition of, and whose nature is conformable to khoreh (heavenly blessings) are of these sixteen descriptions:

of these, the first is one who is desirous of a good occupation, and acknowledges the obligations (of God) for blessings received, and is contented and satisfied when they are not received. A person of this character is, among those engaged in beneficial occupation (industry) (and) receiving heavenly (natures) blessings, excellent of conduct. The second is one who is desirous of being well employed, and acknowledges (his) obligations (to God) for the resulting blessings, and is contented, but displeased when they are not received. The third is one who is desirous of engaging in a good occupation; but does not acknowledge (his) obligations (to God) for the b1essings received, and, if they are not received, is contented and without grief. The fourth is one whose wishes are for beneficial occupation, and (but) receiving the resulting blessings does not thank (God), and when they are not received is contented but sorry. (Persons) of these three ways (of life) have the same opinions as to obtaining Gods blessings by (engaging in) beneficial occupations. One (person) is he whose wishes are for evil employment (industry) and who is not thankful for the resulting blessings, and when they are not received is patient but repining. Such a man has the worst of ways, (fitted) ,for obtaining the rewards of evil industry. Another (person) is he whose wishes are for perverse industry, and who is not thankful for obtaining them (wishes), and when he does not obtain them is patient and without grief. A third (person) is he whose wishes are for perverse industry, and who is thankful on obtaining them (his wishes), and when he does not obtain them is patient, but repining. A fourth is he whose wishes are for perverse industry, and who is thankful when he obtains them (his wishes), and when he does not obtain them is patient and without repining (grief). (Persons) of these three ways (of life) have the same views regarding deriving gifts (benefits) by perverse industry. Again, of persons with other ways (of life), one is he whose desires are for (obtaining) good renown through khoreh (Gods blessings), and who is thankful for obtaining them (his desires), and when not obtained is cheerful and without repinement. Such a person is of the highest way (of life) among those who obtain renown in the good path through khoreh. Another is (he) whose wishes are for renown of the good kind through khoreh, and who is thankful for obtaining them, and when not obtained is contented, but grieved. A third is he whose wishes are for renown of the good kind through khoreh, and who is not thankful for obtaining them, and when not obtained is as contented as unrepining. A fourth is he whose wishes are for renown of the good kind through khoreh, and who is not thankful for obtaining them, and when not obtained is contented but grieved. Persons of these three descriptions have the same ways among those who approve of fame of the good kind through khoreh. Again, there is one who approves of fame of the kind opposed to khoreh, and who is not thankful for obtaining it, and when not obtained is contented, but of pained heart. Such a man is of the most wicked ways among persons who obtain renown of the kind opposed to khoreh. Another is he who approves of renown of the kind opposed to khoreh, and who is not thankful for obtaining it, and when not obtained is contented and without grief. A third is he who approves of renown opposed to khoreh, and who is thankful for obtaining it, and when it is not obtained is contented grieved. A fourth is he who approves of renown of the kind opposed to khoreh, and who is thankful when obtaining it, and when not obtaining it is contented and ungrieved. Persons of these three ways are of one mind in obtaining renown of the kind opposed to khoreh.

(end of volume 4).

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