Shayest Na-Shayest ('Proper and Improper')
Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East,
volume 5, Oxford University Press, 1880.
PART 3. -- Appendix (continued).
- In one place it is declared that it is said by revelation
(dino) that a man is to go as much as possible (chand vesh-ast)
to the abode of fires, and the salutation (niyayesh) of fire is
to be performed with reverence; because three times every day
the archangels form an assembly in the abode of fires, and shed
good works and righteousness there; and then the good works and
righteousness, which are shed there, become more lodged in the
body of him who goes much thither, and performs many salutations
of fire with reverence.
- This, too, that the nature of wisdom is just like fire; for,
in this world, there is nothing which shall become so complete
as that thing which is made with wisdom; and every fire, too,
that they kindle and one sees from far, makes manifest what is
safe and uninjured (airakht); whatever is safe in fire is safe
for ever, and whatever is uninjured in fire is uninjured for ever.
- This, too, that a disposition in which is no wisdom is such-like
as a clear, unsullied (anahuk) fountain which is choked (basto)
and never goes into use; and the disposition with which there
is wisdom is such-like as a clear, unsullied fountain, over which
an industrious man stands and takes it into use; cultivation restrains
it, and it gives crops (bar) to the world.
- This, too, that these three things are to be done by men,
to force the demon of corruption (nasa) far away from the body,
to be steadfast in the religion, and to perform good works. 5.
To force the demon of corruption far away from the body is this,
that before the sun has come up one is to wash the hands a and
face with bull's urine and water; to be steadfast in the religion
is this, that one is to reverence the sun; and to perform good
works is this, that one is to destroy several noxious creatures.
- This, too, that the three greatest concerns of men are these,
to make him who is an enemy a friend, to make him who is wicked
righteous, and to make him who is ignorant learned. 7. To make
an enemy a friend is this, that out of the worldly wealth one
has before him he keeps a friend in mind; to make a wicked one
righteous is this, that from the sin, whereby he becomes wicked,
one turns him away; and to make an ignorant one learned is this,
that one is to manage himself so that he who is ignorant may learn
- This, too, that the walks of men are to be directed chiefly
to these three places, to the abode of the well-informed, to the
abode of the good, and to the abode of fires. 9. To the abode
of the well-informed, that so one may become wiser, and religion
be more lodged in one's person; to the abode of the good for this
reason, that so, among good and evil, he may thereby renounce
the evil and. carry home the good; and to the abode of fires for
this reason, that so the spiritual fiend may turn away from him.
- This, too, that he whose actions are for the soul, the world
is then his own, and the spiritual existence more his own; and
he whose actions are for the body, the spiritual existence has
him at pleasure, and they snatch the world from him compulsorily.
- This, too, that Bakht-afrid said, that every Gatha (gasan)
of Ohrmazd has been an opposition of the one adversary, and the
renunciation of sin (patitik) for the opposition of every fiend.
- This, too, that, regarding the world, anxiety is not to be
suffered, it is not to be considered as anything whatever, and
is not to be let slip from the hand. 13. Anxiety is not to be
suffered for this reason, because that which is ordained will
happen; it is not to be considered as anything whatever for this
reason, because should it be expedient it is necessary to abandon
it; and it is not to be let slip from the hand for this reason,
because it is proper, in the world, to provide a spiritual existence
- This, too, that the best thing is truth, and the worst thing
is deceit; and there is he who speaks true and thereby becomes
wicked, and there is he who speaks false and thereby becomes righteous.
- This, too, that fire is not to be extinguished, for this is
a sin; and there is he who extinguishes it, and is good.
- This, too, is declared, that nothing is to be given to the
vile; and there is he by whom the best and most pleasant ragout
(khurtik) is to be given to the vile.
- On these, too, is the attention of men to be fixed, because
there is a remedy for everything but death, a hope for everything
but wickedness, everything will lapse except righteousness, it
is possible to manage everything but temper (gohar), and it is
possible for everything to change but divine providence (bako-bakhto).
- This, too, is declared, that Faridoon wished to slay Azi Zohak,
but Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Do not slay him now, for the earth will
become full of noxious creatures.'
- I write the indication of the midday shadow; may it be fortunate!
- Should the sun come into Cancer the shadow is one foot of
the man, at the fifteenth degree of Cancer it is one foot; when
the sun is at Leo it is one foot and a half, at the fifteenth
of Leo it is two feet; when the sun is at Virgo it is two feet
and a half, at the fifteenth of Virgo it is three feet and a half;
at Libra it is four feet and a half, at the fifteenth of Libra
it is five feet and a half; at Scorpio it is six feet and a half,
at the fifteenth of Scorpio is seven feet and a half; at Sagittarius
it is eight feet and a half, at the fifteenth of Sagittarius it
is nine feet and a half; at Capricorn it is ten feet, at the fifteenth
of Capricorn it is nine feet and a half; at Aquarius it is eight
feet and a half, at the fifteenth of Aquarius it is seven feet
and a half; at Pisces it is six feet and a half, at the fifteenth
of Pisces it is five feet and a half; at Aries it is four feet
and a half, at the fifteenth of Aries it is three feet and a half;
at Taurus it is two feet and a half, at the fifteenth of Taurus
it is two feet; at Gemini it is one foot and a half, at the fifteenth
of Gemini it is one foot.
- The midday shadow is written, may its end be good!
- I write the indication of the Uzerin (afternoon) period of
the day; may it be well and fortunate by the help of God (yazdan)!
- When the day is at a maximum (pavan afzuno), and the sun comes
unto the head of Cancer, and one's shadow becomes six feet and
two parts, he makes it the Uzerin period (gas). 6. Every thirty
days it always increases one foot and one-third, therefore about
every ten days the reckoning is always half a foot, and when the
sun is at the head of Leo the shadow is seven feet and a half.
7. In this series every zodiacal constellation is treated alike,
and the months alike, until the sun comes unto the head of Capricorn,
and the shadow becomes fourteen feet and two parts. 8. In Capricorn
it diminishes again a foot and one-third; and from there where
it turns back, because of the decrease of the night and increase
of the day, it always diminishes one foot and one-third every
one of the months, and about every ten days the reckoning is always
half a foot, until it comes back to six feet and two parts; every
zodiacal constellation being treated alike, and the months alike.
- May Ohrmazd give thee the august rank and throne of a champion!
- May Vohuman give thee wisdom! may the benefit of knowing Vohuman
be good thought, and mayest thou be acting well, that is, saving
- May Ardwahisht, the beautiful, give thee understanding and
- May Shahrewar grant thee wealth from every generous one!
- May Spandarmad grant thee praise through the seed of thy body!
may she give thee as wife a woman from the race of the great!
- May Hordad grant thee plenty and prosperity!
- May Amurdad grant thee herds of four-footed beasts!
- May Den [i.e. Day-pa-Adar] always secure thee the support
of the creator Ohrmazd!
- May the light of the sublime Adar hold thy throne in heaven!
- May Aban grant thee wealth from every generous one!
- May Khwar [Khwarshed] hold thee without mystery and doubt
among the great and thy compeers (hambutikan)!
- May Mah give thee an assistant, who is the assistant of champions!
- May Tishtar hold thee a traveler in the countries of the seven
- Goshorun the archangel is the protection of four-footed beasts.
- May Den [i.e. Day-pa-Mihr] always remain for thee as the support
of the creator Ohrmazd!
- May Mihr be thy judge, who shall wish thy existence to be
- May Srosh the righteous, the smiter of demons, keep greed,
wrath, and want far from thee! may he destroy them, and may he
not seize thee as unjust!
- May Rashn be thy conductor to the resplendent heaven!
- May Frawardin give thee offspring, which may bear the name
of thy race!
- Warharan the victorious is the stimulator of the warlike.
- May Ram, applauding the life of a praiser of the persistent
lord, keep-thee perfect (aspar), that is, living three hundred
years a, undying and undecaying unto the end of thy days!
- May Wad bring thee peace from the resplendent heaven!
- May Den [i.e. Day-pa-Den] always secure thee the support of
the creator Ohrmazd!
- May Den become thy guest in thy home and dwelling!
- Ashishwangh [Ard] the beautiful, is the resplendent glory
of the Kayanians.
- May Ashtad be thy helper, who is the assistant of champions!
- May Asman bless thee with all skill and wealth!
- May Zamyad [Zam] destroy for thee the demon and fiend out
of thy dwelling!
- May Mahraspand hold thee a throne in the resplendent heaven!
- May Anagran the immortal, with every kind of all wealth, become
thy desire! the horses of God (yazdan) who shall come that he
may go, and thou mayest obtain a victory.
- May destiny give thee a helper he is the guardian of the celestial
sphere for all these archangels whose names I have brought forward,
may he be thy helper at all times, in every good work and duty!
- Homage to Srit the teacher! may he live long! may he be prosperous
in the land! may his be every pleasure and joy, and every glory
of the Kayanians, through the will of the persistent Ohrmazd!
- In the name of God and the good creation be health!
- Ohrmazd is more creative, Vohuman is more embellished, Ardwahisht
is more brilliant, Shahrewar is more exalted, Spandarmad is more
fruitful, Hordad is moister, Amurdad is fatter. 2. Den-pa-Adar
is just like Ohrmazd, Adar is hotter, Aban is more golden, Khwar
[Khwarshed] is more observant, Mah is more protective, Tir [Tishtar]
is more liberal, Gosh is swifter. 3. Den-pa-Mihr is just like
Ohrmazd, Mihr is more judicial, Srosh is more vigorous, Rashn
is more just, Frawardin is more powerful, Warharan is more victorious,
Ram is more pleasing, Wad is more fragrant. 4. Day-pa-Den is just
like Ohrmazd, Den is more valuable, Ard is more beautiful, Ashtad
is purer, Asman is more lofty, Zamyad [Zam] is more conclusive,
Mahraspand is more conveying the religion, Anagran is the extreme
of exertion and listening.
- May it be completed in peace and pleasure!
Go to [Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives
| Shayest Na-Shayest: Contents